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IT-5301-3

Data Communications and Computer Networks


University of Education, Pakistan.

Layered Architecture

By: Abid Shahzad Aslam

LectureRoadmap
Need of a Layered Architecture OSI Model
7 Layers of OSI Model
Functional Details of OSI Layers Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer

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Layered Architecture
Design Philosophy of Layered Architecture
The complex task of communication is broken into simpler sub-tasks or modules Each layer performs a subset of the required communication functions Each layer relies on the next lower layer to perform more primitive functions Each layer provides services to the next higher layer Changes in one layer should not require changes in other layers Helps in troubleshooting and identifying the problem

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An example Sending a letter

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OSI Model
To standardize the design of communication system, the ISO created the OSI model. Open Systems Interconnection Developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Contains Seven layers It describes the functions to be performed at each layer

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OSI Model
ISO Established in 1947 ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communications is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. First introduced in the late 1970s. A layer model Each layer performs a subset of the required communication functions Each layer relies on the next lower layer to perform more primitive functions Each layer provides services to the next higher layer Changes in one layer should not require changes in other layers
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Note
ISO is the organization. OSI is the model.

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OSI Model

Application
Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link

Physical
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Peer-to-Peer Process

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An exchange using the OSI model

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OSI Model Physical Layer


Physical Physical interface between devices handles the transmission of bits over a communications channel Choice of Wired / wireless medium Data is converted into signals Includes voltage levels, connectors, media choice modulation techniques EIA/TIA-232, RJ45, NRZ.
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Physical Layer

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Note
The physical layer is responsible for movements of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.

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OSI Model Data Link Layer


Data Link Transforms data into a frame Means of activating, maintaining and deactivating a reliable link Error detection and control Flow Control Higher layers may assume error free transmission
Examples :- Ethernet, Frame Relay, FDDI.
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Data Link Layer

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Note
The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the next.

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OSI Model Network Layer


Network Transport of information
Higher layers do not need to know about underlying technology Responsible for creating, maintaining and ending network connections Transfers a data packet from node to node within the network. Routing Not needed on direct links
Examples :- IP, IPX, AppleTalk.
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Network Layer

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Note
The network layer is responsible for the delivery of individual packets from the source host to the destination host.

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Transport Layer
Transport Exchange of data between end systems (end to end flow control) Error free In sequence Quality of service Layer 4 protocols include TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).
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Transport Layer

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Note
The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from one process to another.

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OSI Model Session Layer


Session Control of dialogues between applications Half Duplex Full Duplex Synchronization Points (backup points) Grouping
Examples :- SQL, ASP(AppleTalk Session Protocol).
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Note
The session layer is responsible for dialog control and synchronization.

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OSI Model Presentation Layer


Presentation Data formats and coding Data compression Encryption
Examples :- JPEG, MPEG, ASCII, EBCDIC, HTML.

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Note
The presentation layer is responsible for translation, compression, and encryption.

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OSI Model Application Layer


Application Layer where the application using the network resides. Common network applications include remote login file transfer e-mail web page browsing etc. Means for applications to access OSI environment
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Note
The application layer is responsible for providing services to the user.

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Summary of layers

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OSI Layers

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OSI Layers

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The OSI Environment

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The OSI Environment

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