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# Buoyant force

Vg
B
F
The volume of gas (liquid) is
at rest with respect to its
surrounding gas (liquid): the
force of gravity is balanced
by the buoyant force
A P P F
top bottom B
) ( =
bottom
P
top
P
P
h
bottom
P
top
P
Note that the buoyant force does not care whats
inside this volume (a brick, a gas, or vacuum): it
depends only on the volume and the density of the
outside gas (liquid).
Lecture 3. Transport Phenomena (Ch.1)
Lecture 2 various processes in macro systems near the state of
equilibrium can be described by a handful of macro parameters. Quasi-
static processes sufficiently slow processes, at any moment the system
is almost in equilibrium.

It is important to know how much time it takes for a system to approach an
equilibrium state. A system is not in equilibrium when the macroscopic
parameters (T, P, etc.) are not constant throughout the system. To
approach equilibrium, these non-uniformities have to be ironed out through
the transport of energy, momentum, and mass from one part of the
system to another. The mechanism of transport is molecular collisions. Our
goal - to estimate the characteristic rates of approaching equilibrium, and,
thus, to impose limitations on the rates of quasi-static processes.
1. Transfers of Q (Heat Conduction)
2. Transfers of Mass (Diffusion)
One-dimensional (1D) case:
x
n(x,t)
T(x,t)
The Mean Free Path of Molecules
Transports energy, momentum, mass due to random
thermal motion of molecules in gases and liquids.
An estimate: one molecule is moving with a constant
speed v, the other molecules are fixed. Model of hard
spheres, the radius of molecule r ~ 110
-10
m.
The av. distance traversed by a molecule until the 1st collision is the
distance in which the av. # of molecules in this cylinder is 1.
( ) 1 2
2
=
V
N
l r t
n N
V
r
l
o t
1
4
1
2
= =

n
l
o 2
1
=
Maxwell:
The mean free path l - the average distance traveled
by a molecule btw two successive collisions.
The average time interval between successive collisions - the collision time:
v
l
= t
- the most probable speed of a molecule v
n = N/V
the density of molecules o = 4tr
2
the cross section
Some Numbers:
3 26
5
23
m 10 4
Pa 10
K 300 J/K 10 38 . 1 1

~

= = =
P
T k
N
V
n
B
air at norm. conditions:
P = 10
5
Pa: l ~ 10
-7
m - 30 times greater than d

P = 10
-2
Pa (10
-4
mbar): l ~ 1

m (size of a typical vacuum chamber)

- at this P, there are still ~2.5 10
12
molecule/cm
3
(!)
m 10 3 ~
9
3

=
N
V
d
3 / 2 3 / 2
P n
d
l
The collision time at norm. conditions: t ~ 10
-7
m / 500m/s = 210
-10
s
For H
2
gas in interstellar space, where the density is ~ 1 molecule/ cm
3
,

l ~ 10
13
m - ~ 100 times greater than the Sun-Earth distance (1.5 10
11
m)
for an ideal gas: T nk P T Nk PV
B B
= =
P
T
n
l
1
n
l
o
1

the intermol. distance
Transport in Gases (Liquids)
Box 1
Box 2
l
Simplified approach: consider the ballistic
molecule exchange between two boxes within the
gas (thickness of each box should be comparable to
the mean free path of molecules, l). During the
average time between molecular collisions, t,
roughly half the molecules in Box 1 will move to the
right in Box 2, while roughly half the molecules in
Box 2 will move to the left in Box 1.
Each molecule carries some quantity (mass, kin. energy, etc.), within
each box - u = N

= A l n . E.g., the flux of the number of molecules
across the border per unit area of the border, J
x
:
( ) ( ) | |
x
n
D
x
n
l v
x
n
l v l x n l x n v
t A
N
J
n
c
c
=
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
= = = =
A
A

3
1
2
6
1
6
1
x=-l
in a 3D case, on average 1/6 of the
molecules have a velocity along +x or x
- - if cn/cx is negative, the flux is in the positive x direction
(the current flows from high density to low density)
x=0 x=l
x
n(x,t)
J
x

In a 3D case,
T K J n D J
th U n
V = V =

the diffusion constant
Diffusion
Diffusion the flow of randomly moving particles
caused by variations of the concentration of
particles. Example: a mixture of two gases, the total
concentration n = n
1
+n
2
=const over the volume (P
= const).
J
J
Ficks Law:
n
1
n
2

x
n
D
x
n
v l J
x
c
c
=
c
c
=
3
1
v l D
3
1
=
- the diffusion coefficient
(numerical pre-factor depends on the dimensionality: 3D 1/3; 2D 1/2)
v l D
3
1
= its dimensions [L]
2
[t]
-1
, its units m
2
s
-1

Typically, at normal conditions, l ~10
-7
m, v ~300 m/s D ~ 10
-5
m
2
s
-1

(in liquids, D is much smaller, ~10
-10
m
2
s
-1
)
For electrons in well-ordered semiconductor heterostructures at low T:
l ~10
-5
m, v ~10
5
m/s D ~ 1

m
2
s
-1

Diffusion Coefficient of an Ideal Gas ( Pr. 1.70 )
for an ideal gas:
P
T k
n
l
B

1
from the equipartition theorem:
2 / 1
T v
P
T
P
T
T D
2 / 3
2 / 1
=
therefore, at a const. temperature:
P
D
1

## and at a const. pressure:

2 / 3
T D
The Diffusion Equation
n(x,t)
( ) t A x J
x
A
flow in
( ) t A x x J
x
A A +
flow out
x x+Ax
x
J
t
n
x
c
c
=
c
c
change of n inside:
x
n
D J
x
c
c
=
combining with
well get the equation that describes one-dimensional diffusion:
2
2
x
n
D
t
n
c
c
=
c
c
the solution which corresponds to an initial condition
that all particles are at x =0 at t =0:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Dt
x
Dt
C
t x n
4
exp ,
2
C is a normalization factor
the rms displacement of particles: Dt x ~
2
the diffusion equation
t
1
=0
x =0
t
2
=t
Brownian Motion (self-diffusion)
The experiment by the botanist R. Brown concerning the
drifting of tiny (~ 1m) specks in liquids and gases, had been
known since 1827.
Brownian motion was in focus of the struggle for and against
the atomic structure of matter, which went on during the
second half of the 19
th
century and involved many prominent
physicists.
Ernst Mach: If the belief in the existence of atoms is so crucial in your eyes, I
hereby withdraw from the physicists way of thought...

Albert Einstein explained the phenomenon on the basis of the kinetic theory
(1905), connected in a quantitative manner the Brownian motion and such
macroscopic quantities as the coefficients of mobility and viscosity and
brought the debate to a conclusion in a short time.

Observing the Brownian motion under a microscope, Jean Perrin measured
the Boltzman constant and Avogadro number in 1908 (Nobel 1926).
Historical background:
Brownian
Motion
(cont.)
t D x
t
A =
A
2
a 1D random walk
of a drunk
t
x
Gaussian
distribution
For air at normal conditions , it takes ) /s m 10 7 . 1 m/s 500 m 10 (
2 5 7
~ ~ ~ D v l
for a molecule to diffuse over 1m: odor spreads by convection s 10 ~
5
2
D
L
t = A
the rms displacement
For electrons in metals at 300K , it takes ) /s m 10 3 m/s 10 m 10 (
2 2 6 7
~ ~ ~ D v l
to diffuse over 1m. For the electron gas in metals, convection can be ignored:
the electron velocities are randomized by impurity/phonon scattering.
s 30 ~
2
D
L
t = A
A body that participates in a random walk, or a subject of random collisions with the
gas molecules. Its average displacement is zero. However, the average square
distance grows linearly with time:
after N steps, the position is
n l R R
N N

+ =
+ + 1 1 1 + N
R

- a randomly
oriented unit
vector
0
1
=
+ N
R

( )
N N N N
R n l l R n l R R

+ + = + =
+
2
2 2
2
2
1
after averaging ( ):
2 2 2
1
l R R
N N
+ =
+

t l N R
N
=
2 2

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Dt
x
Dt
C
t x n
4
exp ,
2
Static Energy Flow by Heat Conduction
T
1
T
2

Ax
area A
Heat conduction ( static heat flow, AT = const)
x
T
K J
x
T
C
K
x
J
C t
T
th U
th U
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
2
2
1
In general, the energy transport due
to molecular motion is described by
the equation of heat conduction:
Thus, in principle, if you know the initial conditions, e.g. T(x,t=t
0
), you can
describe the process by solving the equation. Often, you are asked to consider a
different situation: a static flow of energy from a hot object to a cold one. (At
what rate the internal energy is transferred between two systems with T
1
= T
2
or
between parts of a non-equilibrium system (if one can introduce T
i
) ?) The
temperature distribution in this formulation is time-independent, and we need to
calculate the flux of thermal energy J
U
due to the heat conduction
(diffusion/intermixing of particles with different energies, interactions between the
particles that vibrate but do not move translationally).
T(x)
T
1

T
2

x
J
U

Fourier Heat Conduction Law
T
1
T
2

( )
x
A
K G T G J
th U
A
= A = , power
G the thermal conductivity [W/K]
R =1/G the thermal resistivity
Electricity Thermal Physics
Charge Q Th. Energy, oQ
Currant dQ/dt Power oQ/dt
What flows
Flux
Driving force
El.-stat. pot.
difference
Temperature
difference
Resistance El. resistance R Th. resistance R
Connection in series (Pr. 1.57):
R
tot
=R
1
+R
2

Connection in parallel:
R
tot
-1
=R
1
-1
+R
2
-1

T
1
T
2
T
1
T
2
G

A
A A
A
x
t T
Q o
K
th
[W/Km] the thermal conductivity (material-specific)
x
T
A K
t
Q
J
th U
A
A
=
A

o
For a window glass (K
th
=0.8W/mK, 3 mm thick, A=1m
2
) and AT = 20K:
W
m
K
m K W/m 5300
003 . 0
20
) 1 )( 8 . 0 (
2
~ =
At
Q o
- - if T increases from left to
right, energy flows from right to left
~ 10 times greater than in reality, a thin
layer of still air
must contribute to thermal insulation.
Pr. 1.56
Relaxation Time due to Thermal Conductivity
(a rough estimate)
U =CT
1

G
environment
T
2

| |
G
C
T T T
T G
T C
dt Q
U
~ ~ ~
A
=
1 2 1
/
~
o
t
Problem 1.60: A frying pan is quickly heated on the stovetop to 200
0
C. It has
an iron handle that is 20 cm long. Estimate how much time should pass before
the end of the handle is too hot to grab (the density of iron = 7.9 g/cm
3
, its
specific heat c = 0.45 J/gK, the thermal conductivity K
th
=80 W/mK).
x
A
K G
th
A
=
( )
s
K m s J
m K kg J m kg
K
L c
L
A
K
L A c
G
C
th
th
400 ~
80
1 . 0 450 7900
1 1 1
2
1 1 3 2

= = = ~

t
the thermal
conductivity
the thermal conductivity
the heat capacity (specific heat)
Thermal Conductivity of an Ideal Gas
Box 1
Box 2
VT
( ) ( )
dx
dT
v C
dx
dT l C T T C U U Q
V
V V
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1
= =

=
t t t t
o
l
x
T
A K
Q
th
A
A
=
t
o
v l
V
C
l A
v l C
A
v C
K
V V V
th
2
1
2
1
2
1
= = =
B
B
V
V
k n
f
V
Nk
f
V
C
c
2
2
= =
v l k n
f
K
B th
4
=
Energy flow, At ~ t :
K m
W
0.02 500m/s m J/K m

~ = =
7 23 3 25
10 10 38 . 1 10 4 . 2
4
5
4
v l k n
f
K
B th
the specific
heat capacity
(exp. value 0.026 W/mK)
The thermal conductivity of air at norm. conditions:
T
1

T
2

the time between two
consecutive collisions
v
l
= t
Thermal Conductivity of Gases (cont.)
2. Thermal conductivity of an ideal gas
is independent of the gas density!
This conclusion holds only if L >> l .
For L < l , K
th
n
Dewar
( )
m
T
K
m
T
v n l v l k n
f
K
th B ht
= =

,
4
1
o
1. m K
th
/ 1
- an argon-filled window helps to reduce Q
(at higher densities, more
molecules participate in the
energy transfer, but they
carry the energy over a
shorter distance)
Sate-of-the-art Bolometers
Ti
Nb
0.1 1
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
9
HEDDs
meanders
G
,

W
/
K
m
3

T, K
G
e-ph
= C
e
/t
e-ph
G = C
ph
/t
es
electrons
phonons
heat sink
e
T
e

T
T
ph

ph e
ph e
G G

<<
t t ~

t =VT
c
G
e ph
1
10
100
1000
10 100 1000
BT85-4
BT87-1
BT100-1
BT121-1
BT121-4
T
i
m
e

c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t

(

s
)
Temperature (mK)
( ) ( ) ( )( )
ph e ph e ph e
T T T G T T G RI
dt
Q
= A = =

2
power
o
specific heat of electrons
Momentum Transfer, Viscosity
u
x

Az
Drag transfer of the momentum in the
direction perpendicular to velocity.
Laminar flow of a gas (fluid) between two
surfaces moving with respect to each other.
( )
z
bottom , top ,
A

A
A
x x
x
x
u u A
F
t
p
z
u d
A
F
x x
A
=q
F
x
the viscous drag force, q - the coefficient of viscosity
F
x
/A shear stress
Viscosity of an ideal gas ( Pr. 1.66 ):
Box 2
Box 1
Az ~ l
u
x
(z
2
)
u
x
(z
1
)
x x x z
u Nm z Nmu z Nmu p A = ~ A
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2 1
z d
du
l v
A
F
l A
v u Nm p
A A
F
x x x z x
|
.
|

\
|
~
A
=
A
~
t 2
1
2
1
l v q
2
1
= T
1/2

Effusion of an Ideal Gas
- the process of a gas escaping through a small hole (a << l)
into a vacuum (Pr. 1.22) the collisionless regime.

The opposite limit of a very large hole ( a >> l ) the hydrodynamic regime.
The number of molecules that escape through
a hole of area A in 1 sec, N
h
, in terms of P(t ), T
(how is T changing in the process?)
A t
v m
N
A t
p
N P
x
h h
1
2
1
A
=
A
A
=
x
h
v m
t A P
N
2
A
=
m
T k
v v T k v m v
B
x x B x x
= ~ =
2 2
,
2
1
2
1
N
h
=- AN, where N is the total # of molecules in a system
m
T k
V
t AN
T k
m
m
t A
V
T Nk
T k
m
m
t A P
N
B
B
B
B
2 2 2
A
=
A
=
A
= A
N N
m
T k
V
A
t
N
B
t
1
2
= =
A
A
T k
m
A
V t
N t N
B
2
, exp ) 0 ( ) ( =
|
.
|

\
|
= t
t
Depressurizing of a space ship,
V - 50m
3
, A of a hole in a wall 10
-4
m
2

(clearly, a << l does not apply)
s 3000 s 3 . 0 10 10
K 30 J/K 10 38 . 1
kg 10 7 . 1 30
m 10
m 50 2
2 6
23
27
2 4
3
= ~

=