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Lynn Gillespie

B.A. Art, Spalding


University
    Nursing Student
Introduction

The Effects of Natural Herbal remedies and


Homeopathic Formulas in
theTreatment and Prevention of Influenza

Cytokines are regulatory proteins of the immune system


(such as interleukins and lymphocytes). Cytokines act as intercellular
mediators in the generation of an immune response. the dependent
variable or the element or key, that opens the door used to determine
the effectiveness of all of the preparations or remedies examined
in these studies.
Problem statement:

The ability of Natural Herbal remedies and Homeopathic Formulas


to effect the modulation or regulation of immune responses in the
treatment and prevention of influenza is the focal point of this
investigation.
Purpose

To report verification of quantifiable, reliable, scientific data in the


determination of the ability of Natural Herbal remedies and
Homeopathic
Formulas to effect the modulation or regulation of immune responses
in the
treatment and prevention of influenza.
Literature Review

Holistic Health and Healing


Mary Anne Bright, RN, CS, Ed.D
Herbs Through the Ages, Holt, Gary A. ,PhD., Med,
RPh,(2002)pp.135-161
Homeopathic Medicine, Chapman, Edward H. M.. , DHt, (2002)
pp. 197-213
Mary Anne Bright, RN, CS, EdD, Chinese Medicine, Joanne
Ehret, Dipl.
Ac, CH, FNAAOM, (2002)pp.261-273

Homeopathy

“ Homeopathy relies on the capacity of an organism to heal itself. It


is a
therapy based on the observation that a medicine, when
administered in very
small doses, can cure the same symptoms in an ill person that it
produces
when given in pharmaceutical doses to a healthy person. This
phenomenon is
very much like the biological responses in immunology. In
Homeopathy a
Literature Review cont’d.
Holistic Health and Healing
Mary Anne Bright, RN, CS, Ed.D
Herbs Through the Ages, Holt, Gary A. ,PhD., Med, RPh,(2002)pp.135-
161
Homeopathic Medicine, Chapman, Edward H. M.. , DHt, (2002) pp.
197-213
Mary Anne Bright, RN, CS, EdD, Chinese Medicine, Joanne Ehret, Dipl.
Ac, CH, FNAAOM, (2002)pp.261-273

Chinese Medicine
The practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine involves a complex array
of
treating the being as a whole. Here is a brief description focusing on
the
preparation of Chinese Medicinal Formula. After the practitioner
determines the treatment principles, he/she chooses a treatment
method.
Medicinals are the primary modality of treatment consisting of plant,
animal and mineral substances used in their original natural forms
and
prepared in specific ways such as stir fried with honey, charred, or
soaked
with wine. A prescription is written with possibly 4 to 18 herbals and
given
Literature Review cont’d.

Ginseng and Salviae play a role as immune activators and modulate


immune responses during influenza virus infection
Ramachandran, C. Ph.D.et.al (2007)Vaccine,25:272-282

RCT to test potential of ginseng and salviae extracts in aiding the


immune response in treatment of influenza.

1. Mice were used as control groups and were used in comparisons


of herbal extracts.

2. Outcome: 2 to 2.5 fold increase in antibody level and 5-10


increase in IgG over mice that were not given ginseng and
salviae

 Immunoglobulin IgG: a class of circulating antibodies


predominant in serum, produced by plasma cells and memory cells
in response to pathogens and other foreign substances.
Literature Review cont’d.

Echinacea for preventing and treating the


common cold.
Linde, K. et. al, Cochrane Database of
Systematic Reviews (2006)(1)

1. RCTʼs searched, only Randomized


Controlled Trials on Echinacea
were used. Comparisons of
treatment and effect were used;
symptoms and durations were
outcomes showing a significant
effect in treatment and
prevention comparisons

2. Conclusions: There is some


evidence that on the aerial parts
of E.purpurea there might be
effective in early treatment of
influenza
Literature Review contʼd.

Chinese Medicinal Herbs for Influenza: A Systematic Review


Xiaoyan Chen, M.Sc. et al. , The Journal of Alternative and
Complementary Medicine (2006)

A Secondary Analysis was performed:

1. Poor quality studies no summary meta-analysis was performed

2. Larger numbers of participants needed

3. More quality studies needed

Conclusions: Chinese Medicinal Herbs may be


more beneficial than antiviral drugs alone
Literature Review contʼd.
Elderberry Syrup Shortens the Severity and Duration of Influenza in
Adults,
Zakay-Rones,Z.et.al, Brown, D.J., N.D.(2004) HerbalGram,63:16-17
American Botanical Council

1. Ranomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 60 male and


female
patients (18-54 years) randomized to receive placebo syrup w/o
elderberry or w/ elderberry

2. Self scoring twice a day for 5 days, and VAS visual analogue
scores for aches , pains and coughing ,quality of sleep, mucus
discharge in respiratory tract and nasal discharge were used for
evaluation on a 10 point rating scale Standardized.

3. Results : significant difference in VAS scores between the two


groups
most improvement in group that used elderberry within 3-4 days
(score of ten) group without elderberry( scored ten) after 7-8
days.
indicating Pronounced Improvement.
Mean VAS after day 5 w/e was 10 at day 5
Mean VAS after day 5 wo/e was 8
Literature Review contʼd.

Investigation of Cytokine Expression inHuman Leukocyte Cultures


Two immune Modulatory Homeopathic Preparations
Cheppail, Ramachandran, PhD., M.B.A., et.al (2007)
The Journal of Complementary Medicine (2007)

Study performed to obtain data on two Homeopathic Solutions, Phase


6 and
Flu Terminator and their effect on cytokines or proteins that stimulate
or elicit
and immune response in human cells.

1. In vitro testing
in human leukocyte cultures

2. results were reproducible and statistically significant

3. Conslusions: The impact on cytokine expression of Phase 6 and


Flu Terminator in this study supports the growing body of
evidence that dilutions of extracts and minerals do affect biologic
systems. The study also indicates that homeopathic agents may
affect specific molecular targets, this defining potential medical
applications for these agents.
Literature Review contʼd.
Investigation of Cytokine Expression inHuman Leukocyte Cultures
Two Immune Modulatory Homeopathic Preparations
Cheppail, Ramachandran, PhD., M.B.A., et.al (2007)
The Journal of Complementary Medicine (2007)

Study performed to obtain data on two Homeopathic Solutions, Phase 6 and


Flu Terminator and their effect on cytokines or proteins that stimulate or elicit
an immune response in human cells.

“Controversy over the efficacy of low concentrations of


homeopathic agents will, however, probably remain until
more adequate techniques become available to assess
molecular interactions at such concentrations; only then will more
reliable models for evaluating effects of homeopathic dilutions
be established and expand our knowledge of the physical and biological
basis of these interactions.”(Ramachandran,Ph.D,(2007)
Literature Review contʼd.
No Effect of a tradiditioal Chinese
medicine,
Hocu-ekki-to on antibody titer after
influenza
vaccination in man: A randomized,
placebo
controlled, double-blind trial. K. Hamazaki
et.al
(2007)
Phytomedicine 14:11-14

1. Examination of adjuvant effects of


TCM (traditional Chinese Medicine)
Hocu-ekki-to (HET) with influenza
vaccination in healthy male
volunteers.

2. Controlled randomization, limited


number of subjects and a different
composition of the medicine was
tested in the previous comparisons.

12. Chi-Square and ANOVA testing was


Framework

Conceptual Framework based on


the concept of immunology: natural
and
homeopathic formulas have an
adjuvant
effect on cytokines.
Design

Design of the studies reviewed were


secondary analyses based on the
positive
paradigm of quantitative analysis.
Methods of data analysis.
1. Gensing and Salviae:
Statistical data analysis using ANOVA and Npar 1-way
Kruskall-Wallis test of the Pc-SAS system a value of less
Than .05 was significant

2. Investigation of Cytokine Expression:


ELISA on the analysis of Cytokine synthesis
ANOVA for analysis of Cytokine concentrations

3. Literature Review of Chinese Herbs for Influenza


No studies were found using similar interventions
No meta-analysis was preformed. Data from each study
Was analyzed and expressed as relative risks. 95 % confidence
Intervals were used throughout.
Intention to treat analysis was used for the number of dropouts
Lost to follow up
Subgroup analysis in descriptive form was used.
Methods of data analysis contd.
4. BioAvailability of Alkamides in Echinacea Comparisons
Flow Cytometry for plasma samples mass spectrometry
for pharmacokinetic analysis
Dose/Exposure relationship

5. Echinacea for preventing and treating colds


Comparisons

6. Standardized Elderberry Syrup


VAS visual analogue
Self Evaluations
Nursing Implications
The implications of this research to nursing are many.
Nurses interviewed regarding these implications agreed that
the use of these remedies are less invasive, would be beneficial
to older adults and geriatric patients.

The herbal or homeopathic remedies would be less stressful


to the kidneys as they would not remain in the body for a longer
period of time as some of the prescription drugs.

They would benefit those patients who choose not to have an


influenza
vaccination, in mental health patients with psychosis or paranoia
towards taking prescription drugs is common. Lower costs would
make them more available to those who can not afford, or do not
have insurance coverage for prescription drugs.

"Nurses have the unique ability to provide services that


facilitate
wholeness. The teaching/learning process enables nurses to
help people
assume personal responsibility for wellness." Florence
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Dr. Wishnia, for the loan of her wonderful book,


and for teaching me how to do this.

Cynthia, for her moral support

Kristen for the use of her buckets

Brenda Milot for letting me use the HerbClip website


library without having to pay for membership

Mary Lou Omer, R.N. and Lee Ann Doer, RNC


for their input

Special thank you to B.J. for all


of the help with these squares
Study of TCM and Homeopathy in
influenza treatment and recovery and

re-occurance : A Systematic Review

My Study: Quantative Secondary Analysis


Literature ReviewThe clinical outcomes of
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and
Homeopathy on recovery and re-occurance
in patients with influenza from 1980
2000 Adults men and women any nationality
aged 35 – 75, Living in San Francisco,
CA Method of Data Analysys Use multple regression
for multiple variable affects
Method of Data Collection
Search all available Data bases
Search all Available TCM and Homeopathic Web sites
if available handsearch relevant Chinese journals
Use multple regression for multiple variable affects