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Transport Phenomena

Fourier heat conduction law. Q = - kt A dT t dx

Transport Phenomena
Fourier heat conduction law. Q = - kt A dT t dx kt = thermal conductivity.

Transport Phenomena
Fourier heat conduction law. Q = - kt A dT t dx kt = thermal conductivity. Heat Equation T = K 2T t x2

Transport Phenomena
Fourier heat conduction law. Q = - kt A dT t dx kt = thermal conductivity. Heat Equation T = K 2T t x2 K = kt /c

Transport Phenomena
Fourier heat conduction law. Q = - kt A dT t dx kt = thermal conductivity. Heat Equation T = K 2T t x2 K = kt /c = density, c =specific heat

Conductivity of an ideal gas


Mean Free Path = l 1/4r2 V/N

Conductivity of an ideal gas


Mean Free Path = l 1/4r2 V/N in FGT = 1/(2 n)

Conductivity of an ideal gas


Mean Free Path = l 1/4r2 V/N in FGT = 1/(2 n) where = 4r2 and n =N/V

Conductivity of an ideal gas


Mean Free Path = l 1/4r2 V/N in FGT = 1/(2 n) where = 4r2 and n =N/V Thermal conductivity of an ideal gas is kt = CV l vave V

Conductivity of an ideal gas


Mean Free Path = l 1/4r2 V/N in FGT = 1/(2 n) where = 4r2 and n =N/V Thermal conductivity of an ideal gas is kt = CV l vave vave ~ T V

Conductivity of an ideal gas


Mean Free Path = l 1/4r2 V/N in FGT = 1/(2 n) where = 4r2 and n =N/V Thermal conductivity of an ideal gas is kt = CV l vave vave ~ T V where CV = f Nk = f P V 2V 2T

Viscosity
Viscosity transfers momentum in a fluid.

Viscosity
Viscosity transfers momentum in a fluid. Motion of one layer sliding on another, if slow and the motion is laminar the resistance to shearing is viscosity

Viscosity
Viscosity transfers momentum in a fluid. Motion of one layer sliding on another, if slow and the motion is laminar the resistance to shearing is viscosity The equation for the coefficient is similar to a modulus = stress = strain

Viscosity
Viscosity transfers momentum in a fluid. Motion of one layer sliding on another, if slow and the motion is laminar the resistance to shearing is viscosity The equation for the coefficient is similar to a modulus = stress = Fx / dux strain A dz

Viscosity
Viscosity transfers momentum in a fluid. Motion of one layer sliding on another, if slow and the motion is laminar the resistance to shearing is viscosity The equation for the coefficient is similar to a modulus = stress = Fx / dux strain A dz ~ T and independent of P

Diffusion
Movement of particles is diffusion

Diffusion
Movement of particles is diffusion Jx = - D dn/dx (Ficks Law)

Diffusion
Movement of particles is diffusion Jx = - D dn/dx (Ficks Law) D is the diffusion coefficient n = N/V

Diffusion
Movement of particles is diffusion Jx = - D dn/dx (Ficks Law) D is the diffusion coefficient n = N/V D ranges from 10-5 for CO to 10-11 for large molecules SI unit is m2 /s.

Diffusion
Movement of particles is diffusion Jx = - D dn/dx (Ficks Law) D is the diffusion coefficient n = N/V D ranges from 10-5 for CO to 10-11 for large molecules SI unit is m2 /s. Summary: Q/T ~ dT/dx heat l~n number ~ dux/dz velocity Jx ~ dn/dx number