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Seperating Mixtures

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PHYSICAL METHODS
Mixtures can be separated into their constituents by using physical methods (i.e. no chemical reaction involved . !eparation techni"ues are physical methods. #hich techni"ue to use depends on the different properties of the constituents$ %hat is& different states&solubility& boiling and melting points. 'elo( lists some of the most common separation techni"ues) *xample) +. *vaporaton ,!alt !olution

EVAPORATION
%his method is suitable to separate a soluble solid from a li"uid. -f thesolution is heated& the li"uid evaporates leaving the solid behind called the resedue.
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DECANTATION
is a process for the separation of mi t!res" #$ remo%in& a top 'a$er of 'i(!i) from *hich a precipitate has sett'e)+ ,s!a''$ a sma'' amo!nt of so'!tion m!st #e 'eft in the container" an) care m!st #e ta-en to pre%ent a sma'' amo!nt of precipitate from f'o*in& *ith the so'!tion o!t of the container+ It is fre(!ent'$ !se) to p!rif$ a 'i(!i) #$ separatin& it from a s!spension of inso'!#'e partic'es .e+&+ in re) *ine" *here the *ine is )ecante) from the potassi!m #itartrate cr$sta's/+ 0or e amp'e" to o#tain a samp'e of c'ear *ater from m!))$ *ater" m!))$ *ater is 'eft in a container !nti' the m!) sett'es" an) then the c'ear *ater is po!re) into another container+

MAN,AL SEPERATION
App'ica#'e if $o! can pic- o!t the mi t!re+ E amp'e" Yo! can seperate the each component of 1nips2+

0LOTATION AND SCOOPIN3


Metho) in *hich some so'i)s of s!spension mi t!re are a''o*e) to sett'e an) 'ess )ense materia' are scoope) off

0ILTRATION
%o separate an insoluble solid from a li"uid. %he solid remains in thefilter paper and the li"uid goes through the paper into the beaker

MA3NETIC SEPARATION
Ma&netic separation .MS/ is a tra)itiona' techno'o&$ for #eneficiation" tramp iron remo%a' an) non4ferro!s meta' reco%er$+ Minera's in)!str$" rec$c'in&" en%ironmenta' en&ineerin&" foo) in)!str$" #iome)ica' an) chemica' in)!stries are on'$ some samp'es from h!&e 'ist of MS app'ications+ MS is the most simp'e" con%enient an) effecti%e *a$ of han)'in& ferroma&netic an) e'ectrica''$ con)!cti%e materia's of an$ t$pe an) si5e+ In the past $ears ne* hi&h ener&$ permanent ma&nets" hi&h temperat!re s!percon)!cti%e s$stems" ne* ma&netic materia's .s!ch as for e amp'e ma&netic 'i(!i)s/ an) ne* ma&netic circ!its )esi&n metho)s 'ea) to si&nificant impro%ements of MS efficienc$ an) possi#i'ities+

Mechanica' Seperation
Mixtures can be separated into their constituents by using Mechanical Seperation (i.e. #ith the help of technology . !eparation techni"ues are Machanical !eperation. #hich techni"ue to use depends on the different properties of the constituents$ 'elo( lists some of the most common separation techni"ues) *xample) +. .istillation / #ater and !alt

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DISTILLATION
Distillation , to separate and collect a li"uid from a solution of a soluble solid. %he solution is heated in a flask until the li"uid boils. %he vapor produced passes into the condenser (here it is cooled and condenses to a li"uid. %he pure li"uid (distillate is collected in a beaker.

0RACTIONAL DISTILLATION
%his is a special type of distillation used to separate amixture of li"uids. .ifferent li"uids boil at different temperatures. #hen heated&they boil off and condense at different times. %he apparatus features afractionating column& (hich ensures that only the li"uid boils at its boiling point (illpass into the condenser.

CHROMATO3ROPHY
-s the most complicated method. %o separate different coloured dyes. %he dyes travel up the chromatography paper at different distances before they cannot remain in solution.%he more soluble dyes move further up than the less soluble ones& hence separating from each other

S,6LIMATION
Sublimation is the transition of a s!#stance )irect'$ from the so'i) to the &as phase *itho!t passin& thro!&h an interme)iate 'i(!i) phase+ S!#'imation is an en)othermic phase transition that occ!rs at temperat!res an) press!res #e'o* a s!#stance7s trip'e point in its phase )ia&ram+ The re%erse process of s!#'imation is )es!#'imation" or )eposition+