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NATIONAL AUDIT DEPARTMENT

WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA

AUDIT ON WATER

IR. MD. WAHID BIN MOHD NOR


DIRECTOR WATER AUDIT DIVISION

SEPTEMBER 2012

CONTENT
1. Introduction - Key National Statistics (Water) - Facts About Water - Water Regulatory Agency
2. Water Cycle 3. Objective, Scope & Methodology 4. Line Of Inquiry 5. Audit Finding & Issues 6. Lesson Learn, Impact To The Public 7. Way Forward

Climate Change

KEY NATIONAL STATISTICS (WATER) - 2010


Raw Water Source : Mainly Surface Water with minor groundwater Design Capacity : 16,771 MLD Production Capacity : 14,065 MLD Total No. of Treatment plant : 458 Total Length of Pipes : 131,286 KM Pipe Material : AC (31.9%), PE (16.8%), MS (24.7%), uPVC (15.5%), DI (7.4%), CI (1.2%), Others (2.5%) Total Connection :6,459,663 Connections : Domestic (86.7%), Non Domestic (13.3%) Per capita Consumption : 225 litre/cap/d NRW : 36% Population Served : Overall (94.2%) Urban (96.8%), Rural (89.7%)

FACTS ABOUT WATER


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Over 1.5 billion people do not have access to clean, safe water. Almost 4 million people die each year from water related diseases. 43% of water related deaths are due to diarrhea. 98% of water related deaths occur in the developing world. Unsafe water is the biggest killer of children under five; around 90% of all diarrheal deaths are in this age group. 6. Lack of access to clean water and sanitation has claimed more lives through disease than any war through guns.

WATER REGULATORY AGENCY


STATE FEDERAL

CATCHMENT AREA BALANCING RESERVOIR DAM RIVER WATER TREATMENT PLANT SERVICE RESERVOIR l CONSUMER

SOURCE

TREATMENT

DISTRIBUTION

After Federal Constitution Amendment

THE WATER CYCLE

Water Cycle - Nature Water Cycle - Built Water Cycle

Total Water Recycle

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
To determine whether the planning, implementation, and monitoring drinking water quality has been managed properly, efficiently and effectively in accordance with the standards to ensure that drinking water supplied is safe and acceptable to consumers.

THE SCOPE OF THE AUDIT


An audit covers 3 years from 2005 to 2007 to carry out analysis of data. Whereas in 2008, it will lead to an audit inspection on site. Involve the cooperation of:

1. State Water Operator - Covered the whole country 2. MOH (Ministry of Health Malaysia) 3. SPAN (National Water Services Commission) for the states in Peninsular only and Regulatory Bodies of Water (Sabah & Sarawak). Covers the whole course starting from the raw water source to the user. The study was carried out on networks / course for the 42 /453 of the treatment plant from the treatment plant in the country selected as a sample for an audit of drinking water quality management studies.

METHODOLOGY
Audit methodology is included: 1. Samples were collected by the MOH and the State Water Supply Agency. 2. Inspection of the sampling stations. 3. Carry out analysis of data. 4. Ensure procedures are in compliance with standard sampling. 5. Carry out comparison of the sampling schedule, the performance of water quality and water quality trends for each state. 6. Implement the questionnaire concerning the quality of water supplied to consumers. 7. Comparison of unit cost and quality of water supplied.

National Drinking Water Quality Standards


Parameters Fluoride Turbidity pH Colour Free Residuel Chlorine Aluminium Manganese Maximum Acceptable Value 0.4 0.6 mg/l < 5 NTU 6.5 - 9.0 < 15 TCU 0.2 5.0 mg/l < 0.2 mg/l < 0.1 mg/l

Source: Ministry of Health

National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (DOE)


Classification Class I Class IIA Class IIB Class III Class IV Class V Usage Conservation of natural environment. Water supply l Practically no treatment necessary. Fishery l Very sensitive aquatic species Water supply ll Conventional treatment required Fishery ll Sensitive aquatic species Recreational use with body contact Water supply lll Extensive treatment required Fishery lll Common of economic value and tolerant species; livestock drinking Irrigation None of the above

Source: DOE

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TEST PARAMETERS ON THE WATER (PHYSICAL / CHEMICAL / BIOLOGICAL)


The tests carried out: 1. pH
2. Turbidity 3. Colour 4. Free Residuel Chlorine 5. Iron 6. Manganese 7. Aluminium Chemical Test Physical Test

8. Ammonia
9. Fluoride 10. Total/Faecal Coliform Biological Test

LINE OF INQUIRY
1. Government Policy 2. Law, Guidelines and Regulations 3. Water Quality Program Water Quality Testing Drinking Water Quality Standards 4. Human Capital Organizational Structure Manpower Requirements 5. Water Quality Testing Equipment Water Quality Testing Equipment Requirements Water Quality Testing Equipment Maintenance 6. Financial Requirements 7. Maintenance of Records Record of Water Quality Testing Public complaints 8. Monitoring mechanism

AUDIT FINDINGS
There are number of weaknesses found in the drinking water quality management:
Most Catchment Area Not Gazetted. Lack Of Awareness Among The State Water Authorities. High Cost Involved Fragmentation Raw Water Quality -Deterioration In Water Quality Illegal Activities In The Catchment Area - Farming, - Agriculture - Livestock - Garbage Disposal - Deforestation Illegal Activities In The River Basin - Effluent Discharge - From STP - Leachate Discharge Solid Waste Disposal (Landfill) - Industrial Discharge Chemical & Biological - Sludge Discharge From WTP - Domestic Discharge Grey & Dark Water - Restaurant Discharge Oil & Grease - Sand Mining

Water Catchment Area, Border Basin, Dam And Reserve Forest in the Selangor state

Table : Area and Status of Water Catchment Forest Gazette


Status / Notes State Area (hectares) Was Gazette (hectares) Not yet Gazette (hectares) In Process (hectares)

Perlis Kedah 139,294.00

Gazetting of the dam on only 31,219.00 108,075.00

Penang
Perak Selangor N. Sembilan Melacca Johor Pahang Terengganu Kelantan Sabah Sarawak Total

6,288.29
310,042.00 47,683.99 47,150.42

6,288.29
159,866.00 35,054.57 47,150.42 Gazetting of the river only

150,176.00 12,629.42 -

85,597.97 285,862.00 49,107.10 35,898.00 3,804,500.00 11,537,995.00 16,349,418.77

85,597.97 250,952.00 49,107.10 35,898.00 4,079,535.00 4,780,668.35

34,910.00 3,804,500.00 7,458,460.00 11,297,870.00

270,880.42

Source: Department of Forestry / Regulatory Affairs / Water Supply Entities -2010

% water catchment forest gazetted = 29% More >70% still not gazetted In process of gazetted = 1.66%

AUDIT FINDINGS
Ageing Infrastructure 1. Treatment Plant - Using Conventional Treatment Vs Detoriate Raw Water Quality Not calibrated - Laboratory Equipment Unreliable Data
Old equipment

- 64% of Fluoride Dosing System not Functional 2. Distribution System - Main Pipeline & Reticulation System - Burst & Leaks Turbid Water, - Corroded Pipe Rusty Coloured Water - Sampling Stations - Site Testing In-situ Test equipment not well maintain - Weekly/ Monthly Testing Unreliable Data - cased by wrong sampling procedure
- sample not send on time

3. Plumbing System - G.I Communications Pipe - Corroded - Old Storage Tank Corroded (press steel tank) resulting in colored water

AUDIT FINDINGS
1. Reservoir - Unscheduled Cleaning Sediment Operation & Maintenance Built Up - Coloured & Odour Water
2. Pipe Network - Unscheduled Cleaning/Flushing & Scouring Sediment Built Up - Visual Appearance Coloured Water - Smell & Odour Water - Delayed Pipe Burst & Leak Repair Back Siphoned

Flushing Activities Before

After

3. Violation On Water Quality - Quality Assurance Program (QAP) Fluoride Chlorine Alumminium Sulphate

DRINKING WATER QUALITY PERFORMANCE BASED QAP


QAP violation Set By MOH
% VIOLATION 2006 States Res Cl (2.8) 0.55 1.65 2.33 0.51 3.4 2.22 3.36 5.41 2.24 0.6 5.63 7.54 E-coli & Res Cl (0.3) 0 0.31 0.03 0.06 0.0 0.34 0.03 0.03 1.09 0.0 0.44 1.24 Res Cl (2.8) 2.52 2.30 2.41 1.00 2.0 1.77 1.45 5.58 2.13 0.7 5.17 5.17 1.27 2007 E-coli & Res Cl (0.3) 2.70 0.21 0.12 0.03 0.0 0.09 0.03 0.05 0.62 0.0 0.25 1.23 0.00 Res Cl (2.8) 4.50 1.60 0.43 1.18 1.74 2.83 0.96 2.06 2.21 0.1 4.80 6.94 1.68 2008 E-coli & Res Cl (0.3) 4.23 0.16 0 0.03 0 0.11 0 0.02 0.54 0.0 0.67 2.80 0.01

E-coli (0.5)

NTU (3.2)

Al (10.2)

E-coli (0.4)

NTU (2.0)

Al (10.2)

E-coli (0.4)

NTU (2.0)

Al (10.2)

Perlis Kedah Penang Perak Selangor N. Sembilan Melaka Johor Pahang Terenggan u
Note:

0.73 0.26 0.18 0.22 0.1 0.38 0.21 0.29 1.73 0.1 0.15 0.34

0 2.93 0.21 0.82 0.4 2.72 1.11 0.56 3.74 0.9 7.22 8.46

37.72 11.85 4.67 9.75 9.6 20.72 8.96 26.26 21.27 9.1 17.89 22.14 22.81

2.70 0.43 0.18 0.06 0.0 0.45 0.03 0.73 0.94 0.1 0.42 0.68 0.28

0 5.71 0.45 1.98 0.2 2.11 0.45 0.98 2.34 1.6 10.63 5.83 0.15

48.18 10.35 7.36 12.23 5.2 18.77 3.81 28.31 23.49 9.4 18.98 19.0 24.42

4.60 0.30 0.06 0.29 0.01 0.25 0.12 0.30 1.30 0.0 0.85 4.53 0.66

0 4.98 0.32 2.77 0.28 3.33 0.31 0.89 4.54 0.8 17.81 12.27 0.43

2.48 2.93 0.98 2.64 1.52 4.20 1.28 4.66 4.79 1.0 5.60 27.83 22.14

% who violate QAP

Kelantan Sabah

Source: KKM

Mostly violate on parameters: Sarawak 0.26 0.00 0.29 Residual 1.18 chlorine Alumminium

Drinking Water Quality Performance Among State Based on the QAP

Violation average QAP in the States for the Period 2006 to 2008

IN-SITU WATER TEST & SAMPLING

DESCRIPTION OF WORKS AIR SCOURING

Water quality before the work of air-scouring

Water quality in the work of airscouring

Water quality after the work of air-scouring

RESERVOIR CLEANING

BEFORE CLEANING

AFTER CLEANING

Enforcement Integration -Of Water Related WAY FORWARD SUSTAINABLE EntityWATER SUPPLY

-Demand Management - Optimum Daily Consumption - NRW Management


- Recycle Water - Recycle Sewerage Water - Recycle Industry Water

- Green Technology

Thank You

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