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Pest analysis of developed countries

BY Sagar gaud Mahesh khebade Nishikant kadam Bhushan Telam


The American Revolution and the war for independence from Britain began with a small fight between British troops and colonists on April 19,1775. The British troops left Boston, Massachusetts, planning to take weapons and ammunition from revolutionary colonists. At Lexington, they met armed colonists who were called Minutemen because they could be ready to fight in a minute. The Minutemenplanned to protest silently and not shoot unless the British shot first .The British ordered the Minutemen to leave. The colonists obeyed, but as they left, someone fired a shot. The British troops attacked the Minutemen with guns and bayonets. The Declaration of Independence told the world of a new nation and its beliefs about human freedom. It argued that political rights are basic human rights and are universal. The Second Continental Congress accepted this document on July 4, 1776. The Fourth of July became Independence Day in the United States

On January 1, 1776, the Continental Army was reorganized in accordance with a Congressional resolution which placed American forces under George Washington's control. On that New Year's Day the Continental Army was laying siege to Boston which had been taken over by the British Army. Washington ordered the Grand Union flag hoisted above his base at Prospect Hill. It had 13 alternate red and white stripes and the British Union Jack in the upper left-hand corner (the canton). Today the flag consists of thirteen horizontal stripes, seven red alternating with 6 white. The stripes represent the original 13 colonies, the stars represent the 50 states of the Union. The colours of the flag are symbolic as well: Red symbolizes Hardiness and Valour, White symbolizes Purity and Innocence and Blue represents Vigilance, Perseverance and Justice

1. The United States is a federal constitutional republic, in which the President of the United States is the head of state and head of the government, Congress and judiciary share powers reserved to the national government, and the federal government shares sovereignty with the state government.

2. There are major differences between the political system of the United States and that of most other developed democracies. These include greater power in the upper house of the legislature, a wider scope of power held by the Supreme Court ,the separation of powers between the legislature and the executive, and the dominance of only two main parties. Third parties have less political influence in the United States than in other developed country democracies

1 .Democratic Party 2. Republican Party 3. Constitution Party 4. Green Party 5. Libertarian Party 6.Independent party 7.Socialist party

Fund raising plays a large role in getting a candidate elected to public office. Without large sums money, a candidate has no chance of achieving his goal. Democrats depended on donations from organized labour while the Republicans relied on business donations

GDP (purchasing power parity): $15.04 trillion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 2 $14.82 trillion (2010 est.) $14.38 trillion (2009 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 171 3% (2010 est.) -3.5% (2009 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $48,100 (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 11 $47,800 (2010 est.) $46,800 (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector : agriculture: 1.2% industry: 22.1% services: 76.7% (2011 est.) Labour force :
153.4 million country comparison to the world: 4 note: includes unemployed (2011 est. Labour force - by occupation: farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7% manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3% managerial, professional, and technical: 37.3% sales and office: 24.2% other services: 17.6%

Unemployment rate: 9.1% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 104 9.6% (2010 est.)
current account balance : -$599.9 billion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 198 $470.9 billion (2010 est.) Exports: $1.511 trillion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 4 $1.289 trillion (2010 est.)

Exports partners: Canada 19.4%, Mexico 12.8%, China 7.2%, Japan 4.7% (2010) Imports:
$2.314 trillion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 1 $1.935 trillion (2010 est.)

Imports - partners
China 19.5%, Canada 14.2%, Mexico 11.8%, Japan 6.3%, Germany 4.3% (2010)

Debt external : $14.71 trillion (30 June 2011) country comparison to the world: 2 $13.98 trillion (30 June 2010)


The retail industry is the second largest industry in the U.S. (responsible for approximately 12% of all US employment) with over $3.8 trillion in sales annually ($4.2 trillion if food sales are included). Although the vast majority of all retail stores in the U.S. (approximately 90%) are single-store businesses, however these single-store businesses account for substantially less than half of all retail sales. Thus the majority of the revenue in the retail industry is generated by companies that run retail "chains". The biggest retailer in the world is Wal-Mart which generated over $344 billion in revenue in its last fiscal year.

The New York Stock Exchange is more than three times larger than any other stock exchange in the world. As of October 2008, the combined capitalization of all domestic NYSE listed companies was US$10.1 trillion. New York City is the financial capital of the world alongside London. NASDAQ is another American stock exchange and the world's 3rd largest exchange after the New York Stock Exchange and Japan's Tokyo Stock Exchange. However NASDAQ's trade value is larger than Japan's TSE. NASDAQ is the largest electronic screen-based equity securities trading market in the USA. With approximately 3,800 companies corporations, it has more trading volume per hour than any other stock exchange

It's hard to know just how big the financial sector is because financial companies have created many trillions dollars worth of various securities and derivatives of securities.
Morgan Stanley Investment Bank for example has $77 trillion in derivatives. Which is more than five times the official US GDP And Morgan Stanley is just one investment bank. Other banks also have many trillions of dollars worth of derivatives. The financial sector cannot be more than 100% of the US economy. But apparently their losses can be many times more than the US GDP. They have created an almost unlimited amount of debt and financial obligations. Which must be honoured and repaid. Or else the whole financial sector will go bankrupt.

Demographics of the United States Includes

Race/Ethnicity (2011) White 72.4% Black/African American 12.6% Asian 4.8%

American Indian and Alaska Native 0.9%

Pacific Islander 0.2% Other 6.2% Two or more races2.9% Hispanic/Latino (of any race) 16.3%

English is the de facto national language. 80% of the population aged five years and older spoke only English at home.
Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language



The United States has dramatically changed from its beginnings as 13 little-known colonies. Its population of 300 million people represents almost every national and ethnic group in the world. Progress continues in economics, technology, culture, and society. Americans live in an interdependent, interconnected world. The United States still is connected to the values of its early days. Among these are a belief in individual,freedom and democratic government and the promise of economic opportunity and progress for all people. The work for the United States is to keep its values of freedom, democracy, and opportunity secure and vital in the 21st century.


Unitary parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy Population- 4.99million Extensive reserves- petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, hydropower Largest producer(per capita basis)- oil and natural gas Highest HDI GDP- $479 billion, Per capita- $53,738 Currency- Norwegian Krone Major Industries- Petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, refinery products, fertilizers, petrochemicals, textiles, transport equipment,

Norway is a Unitary Constitutional Monarchy.

King of Norway is the head of state and PM the head of Government. Role of Monarch has been representative and ceremonial.
Government is formed for a period of 4years and is stable.

Legislation is fosrmed by simple parliamentary majority.

GDP by activity
Oil and gas Government 24% 22% Mnftg, mining, building VAT Commodities 1% 4% 16% 7% 11% Comm and Transp Agriculture, forestry Services

EXPORTS -2010- -$178 billion U.K. 27%, Netherlands 12%, Germany 11%, Sweden 7% France 6%, U.S. 5%.

IMPORTS-2010--$122 billion Sweden 14%, Germany 12.3%, China 8.4%, Denmark 6.1%, U.K. 5.9%, U.S. 5.2%.


Oil and gas sector lead to investment in social welfare system and increased wages. Unemployment rate- 3.4% in April 2011, Inflation- 2.7% Voted twice against joining EU, other than agricultural and fisheries section, Monetary policy- aimed at maintaining a stable exchange rate for the krone against European currencies, of which the euro is a key operating parameter. Flexible exchange rates. Standard of living- 90% higher than USA Mixed economy and capitalist welfare state with free activity

Labor %


Nationality-Norwegian(s) Population-49,37,000(Jan 2011) Annual population growth rate-1.3%(2009) Ethnic group-Norwegian, Sami, Nordic Registered religions-Church of Norway (Lutheran) 78%, Roman Catholic 1.3%; Pentecostal Christian 0.8%, Other Christian 3.5%,Muslim 2.0%,other or unknown 14.4%, including a Jewish community of approximately 818 people.

Languages-Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnishspeaking minorities. English is widely spoken. Literacy-100% Workforce-3.6 millions Independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music. Early adopters of women rights, minority rights.

Norway had immense technological expertise in petroleum exploration and production. 3% of GNP spent on R&D Shell Technology Norway (STN) STN manages a portfolio of R&D projects within the Subsea & Deepwater, Cleaner Production, Well Technology and Arctic Technology themes

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean Capital: Canberra Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north Population: 19,913,144 Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%, other 12.6% Languages in Australia:English is the primary language used in Australia.

A Multi-Cultural Society : The initial population of Australia was made up of Aborigines and people of British and Irish descent. After World War II there was heavy migration from Europe, especially from Greece, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Yugoslavia, Lebanon, and Turkey. This was in response to the Australian policy of proactively trying to attract immigrants to boost the population and work force. In the last thirty years, Australia has liberalised its immigration policy and opened its borders to South East Asia. This has caused a real shift in self-perception as Aussies begin to re-define themselves as a multi-cultural and multi-faith society rather then the old homogenous, white, Anglo- Saxon, Protestant nation.

Australias liberal democracy is built around a constitutional monarchy and the British Westminster system, but with the American federal structure grafted onto it. Australia is a federal system, one in which the Constitution divides power between the national, or federal, government and the States. As a result, the political and financial relationship between the States and the Federal Government is an ongoing concern.

A political party is generally recognised as an organisation of like-minded people which aims to develop policies and endorse candidates to contest elections with a view to forming government. Australias party system is dominated by two major groups, the Australian Labor Party and the coalition parties, the Libera Party of australia and The Nationals. Since 1922, Australian Federal Governments have been formed either by Labor or the Coalition.

AGRICULTURAL ASPECT: Australian agricultural production helps provide food and clothing for a nation of over 20 million people. In addition, Australia exports around 65% of its agricultural production. Australian agriculture contributes around 3% to GDP and accounts for about 65% of water use and almost 60% of Australias land area. Industry structure and performance
Australias GDP in 200506 reached $922 billion, an increase of 2.8% on the previous year. The GDP per person was more than $44,000. A total of 10 million Australians are employed in industry. The greatest number worked in the retail industry (1.5 million), followed by property and business services (1.2 million) and manufacturing (1.1 million). Mining activity accounts for around 8% of Australia's gross domestic product and has contributed over $500b directly to Australia's wealth during the past 20 years. There are around 320,000 Australians employed in the industry, either directly or indirectly in support industries.

International visitors consumed $21 billion in goods and services produced by the Australian economy in 200506. This represents 11% of Australias exports of goods and services. The top destinations for Australians travelling overseas for short periods during 2006 were New Zealand, the United States of America, the UK, Thailand and China. Between 2005 and 2006, shortterm departures to Thailand increased 42%, while departures for Indonesia fell by 39%.

National accounts Australias net worth continues to grow strongly, up 9.2% to more than $5,330 billion at 30 June 2006. International accounts and trade Import wasmore goods than we export in 200607, producing a $12.6 billion deficit. However, the value of exports grew faster than that of imports, so the deficit was lower than in the previous year ($15 billion). (Page 718)
Imports of cars increased by 10% or $1.2 billion in 200607, and goods vehicles by 21% ($900 million).

Information and communication technology Household access to the Internet has grown from 1.1 million households in 1998 to 4.7 million in 200506.
There were 6.7 million active Internet subscribers in Australia in September 2006, with more than 1.1 million using connections with speeds of 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps) or greater. Research and innovation Expenditure on research and development (R&D) in Australia reached more than $15.7 billion in 200405, up more than 19% on the figure two years previously. Australian business accounted for the highest expenditure on R&D (54%), followed by higher education (27%).






Germany supports national science and technology at many levels. There are independent laboratories, comprised of both the national laboratories and private research. In addition, German industry supports many important types of research and development, and the German states, provide still more resources for scientific research. Germanys greatest strength is its automobile industry. German carmakers and their suppliers Example: BMW

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