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The Basics:

EV: electric vehicles

An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric

drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Electric vehicles first came into existence in the mid19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time.

The Components
What is out there that you need to have to build an EV

(besides batteries)?
Motor Controller Charger DC/DC Converter Heater Instrumentation Contactor(s) Safety Equipment

Motors Typically brushed DC series wound

Motors are available and inexpensive 100% torque at 0 RPM No inverter stage required Lower voltage system (72-156VDC) Bearings and brushes are potential maintenance items


Controllers In General, Volts = Speed, Amps = Torque


[to 144 VDC, 500 Amps]

Auburn Scientific

[ 192 VDC, 1200 Amps]


[to 336 VDC, 600/1200 Amps]


[to 336 VDC, 1200 Amps]


Onboard generators and hybrid electric vehicle.
renewable sources such as solar power: solar vehicle generated on-board using a diesel engine: diesel-

electric locomotive generated on-board using a fuel cell: fuel cell vehicle generated on-board using nuclear energy: nuclear submarines and aircraft carrier

Electric vehicles typically charge from conventional

power outlets or dedicated charging stations, a process that typically takes hours, but can be done overnight and often gives a charge that is sufficient for normal everyday usage.


Instrumentation can be as simple as an expanded scale

voltmeter, but can be sophisticated, and include:

Traction Pack Voltmeter Battery Current Ammeter Motor Current Ammeter Amp-hour/kWh meter .

Safety Inertia switch to deactivate contactor(s)

same as is used to shut off fuel pumps in ICE cars

AGM batteries - no spillage Service disconnects - BIG circuit breakers Fuses Traction pack is electrically isolated from frame Crash load rating recommended for battery boxes

BIG relays for switching traction pack

Acceleration and speed About the same as ICE Ranges from economy car to muscle car. DC motors great for drag racing

The EVs are eco-friendly and greatly help in

reducing the pollution caused by the vehicles. The study called BELFAST BUS SURVEY clearly explains it.

Fuel . Consumed (kWh/mile)

Diesel Pollutants (gms/mile) CO2 CO NOx+SO2 Hydrocarbons Particulates

Electric Savings 4.9 2.2 55%

Diesel Electric Savings 1331 1058 21% 7.64 0.18 98% 19.96 11.52 42% 2.74 0.18 93% 5.1 0.2 96%

Web Reference
Wikipedia Green