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PRACTICING HYDROLOGY AN OVERVIEW

A.K. Lohani Scientist F National Institute of Hydrology Roorkee aklnih@gmail.com

HYDROLOGY
The break-up of the word hydrology is : "hydro" and
"logy". "Hydro" means water and "logy" means science.

Definition

Hydrology is the science that treats the waters of the


Earth, their occurrence, circulation and distribution, their chemical and biological properties and their reaction with their environment, including their relation to living things. The domain of hydrology embraces the full life history of water on the Earth.

Hydrological Cycle The cycle may be divided into three principal phases. (a) precipitation (b) evaporation and (c) runoff-surface and ground water.

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Hydrology is the science that treats the water of the Earth, their occurrence, circulation, movement and distribution, their chemical and biological properties and their reaction with their environment, including their relation to living things.The domain of hydrology embraces the full life history of water on the earth.

HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
* PRECIPITATION PHASE - RAIN - SNOW

* RUNOFF PHASE - OVERLAND FLOW - CHANNEL FLOW - INTER FLOW - BASE FLOW

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HYDROLOGY ROORKEE

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE [Contd.]


* EVAPORATION PHASE
FROM INTERCEPTION STORAGE FROM WATER BODIES FROM UNSATURATED ZONE FROM SATURATED ZONE TRANSPIRATION THROUGH PLANTS

HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES AND THEIR INTERACTION


>INTERCEPTION >INFILTRATION

>OVERLAND FLOW
>FLOW FROM DEPRESSION STORAGES >CHANNEL FLOW >FLOW THROUGH UZ AND SOIL MOISTURE >FLOW THROUGH SZ AND WATER TABLE >INTERACTION OF OVERLAND FLOW AND UZ >INTERACTION OF CHANNEL FLOW AND SZ

>INTERACTION OF UZ AND SZ

Global scale

Catchment Scale

Human Influence on Hydrologic Cycle


(a) Effects of agricultural changes (b) Effects of urbanisation (c) Effects of forest activities (d) Effects of highway development (e) Effects of mining (f) Effects of structural changes

Human Influence on Hydrologic Cycle

Space-Time Scales in Hydrology


Water Resources Assessment Various phases must be considered with the
catchment.

These have been classified as the phases of : (i) Land surfaces; (ii) River channel networks; (iii) Reservoirs; and (iv) Sub-surface

SPACE-TIME SCALES IN HYDROLOGY


TIME SCALES * HOURLY * DAILY * WEEKLY * TEN DAILY * MONTHLY * SEASONAL * ANNUAL

HYDROLOGIC BUDGET
INFLOW SYSTEM OUTFLOW

DRAINAGE BASIN AS A BLACK BOX SYSTEM

HYDROLOGIC BUDGET
I(t)
S (t ) I (t ) Q(t ) t

S(t)
S
S(t)

Q(t)

DRAINAGE BASIN AS A RESERVOIR

WATER BALANCE Hydrological Water Balance The equation is based on the concept of continuity as follows: Input to the system - Outflow from the system = Change in storage in the system The various components of the above continuity equation can be represented in equation form as: P + Input = Q + ET + Export + Sm + Sg + Sd + L P + (Ic + Ig) = Q +ET +(Oc + Og) + Sm + Sg + Sd + L where, P = precipitation Ic = surface supplies through rivers, canals and drainage from outside the basin Ig = inflow to the groundwater from other basins Q = runoff ET = evaporation and evapotranspiration Oc = surface supplies going out to other basins Og = ground water outflow from the basin to other basins Sm = change in soil moisture Sg = change in ground water storage Sd = change in depression storage L = loss through deep percolation

Ground Water Balance

Considering the various sources of recharge and charge to the ground water reservoir and change in storage in the ground water, the basic equation of ground water balance based on the concept of continuity can be written as: Rr + Rc + RI + Ig + Is = Tp + Og + ET + Es + Sg + L where, Rr = natural recharge from precipitation Rc = recharge due to seepage from rivers, canals, water courses, ponds, reservoirs, etc. RI = recharge from irrigation and other activities Is = influent seepage Tp = withdrawal from groundwater storage ET = evaporation and evapotranspiration from ground water Es = effluent seepage

Water Use Balance

Water use for the growth of crops and other vegetation comes from their root zone. Considering the various sources of supply to and losses from the root zone of crops and vegetation and the change in the soil moisture of the root zone, the water use balance equation can be written for irrigated areas, unirrigated areas and for water bodies as follows:
For irrigated crops:

E' = Cc + T'p + IT + PE + Mg - Lc - LI where, E' = evaporation from irrigated crops Cc = canal supplies T'p = supply from groundwater storage for irrigation IT = irrigation supplies from drains and tanks Mg = contribution from groundwater irrigated fields Lc = losses from canals and water courses LI = losses from irrigation fields

For unirrigated crops


E" = P'E + M'g + E'T where E" = evapotranspiration from vegetation, unirrigated crops and natural land P'E = effective precipitation for vegetation and unirrigated fields Mg = contribution from ground water for forests, trees and unirrigated fields

For water bodies


E = Er + Ec + Ew where, E = evaporation from water surface Er = evaporation from surfaces in rivers, drains, etc. Ec = evaporation from canals, water courses, etc. Ew = evaporation from other water bodies It may be noted that ET = E' + E" + E

HYDROLOGIC MODELLING
* IDENTIFICATION OF THE HYDROLOGICAL PROBLEMS * DATA AVAILABLIITY * DATA COLLECTION * DATA PROCESSING - PRELIMINARY PROCESSING - SECONDARY PROCESSING * INVENTORY FOR THE STUDY AREA * IDENTIFICATION OF MODEL STRUCTURE * USE OF AN EXISTING MODEL (OR DEVELOP A NEW MODEL) * MODEL CALIBRATION * MODEL VALIDATION * MODEL APPLICATION

DATA REQUIREMENT
PHYSICAL DATA * SOIL AND LAND USE MAPS * FLOOD MAPS * SNOW MAPS * EROSION MAPS * PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS & SOIL DEPTHS * PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CROPS & PLANTS * GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS * RIVER CROSS SECTIONS AND L-SECTIONS * AQUIFER CHARACTERISTICS

DATA REQUIREMENT (CONTD)


* HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL TIME SERIES - RAINFALL DATA - PAN-EVAPORATION DATA - OTHER CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA
* HYDROLOGICAL TIME SERIES DATA - WATER LEVEL AND STREAM FLOW DATA - GROUND WATER LEVEL DATA - PUMPING DATA - SOIL MOISTURE DATA

* UTILISATION DATA - RESERVOIR OPERATION DATA

HYDROLOGICAL MODEL CALIBRATION

* TRIAL AND ERROR METHOD

* AUTOMATIC OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUE


* COMBINATION OF TRIAL & ERROR & AUTOMATIC

OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUE

HYDROLOGICAL MODEL VALIDATION

* VISUAL OBSERVATION OF OBSERVED OUTPUT AND MODEL OUTPUT PLOTS * EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

UNCERTAINTIES IN HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING

* UNCERTAINTIES IN INPUT * UNCERTAINTIES IN MODEL STRUCTURE * UNCERTAINTIES IN MODEL PARAMETERS * UNCERTAINTIES IN OUTPUT

HYDROLOGICAL MODELS
* DETERMINISTIC MODELS - BLACK BOX MODEL - CONCEPTUAL MODEL # LUMPED # DISTRIBUTED

- PHYSICALLY BASED DISTRIBUTED MODELS


* STOCHASTIC AND STATISTICAL MODELS * OPTIMISATION MODEL (LP, DP, Etc.)

REGIONAL HYDROLOGY
* IDENTIFICATION OF REGION
* TESTING OF REGIONAL HOMOGENEITY * EVALUATION OF HYDROLOGICAL VARIABLES FOR THE GAUGED CATCHMENTS OF THE REGION * EVALUATION OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC AND GEOMORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GAUGED CATCHMENTS * DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL RELATIONSHIP * EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENT * EVALUATION OF HYDROLOGICAL VARIABLES USING REGIONAL RELATIONSHIP FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS

HYDROLOGICAL PROBLEMS
Some of the important problems of applied hydrology, hydrologists come across are: (i) Data management - Hydrologic instrumentation & measurements - Data collection network - Data storage and retrieval - Data processing - Data generation (ii) Hydrologic Design (iii) Hydrologic System Operation (iv) Flood and its management (v) Drought and its management (vi) Waterlogging and drainage (vii) Urban drainage (viii) Water quality and environment

(ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii)

Conjunctive uses of surface and ground water Salinity Salt water intrusion Coastal drainage Over exploitation of ground water (Ground water management) (xiv) Soil Erosion (xv) Reservoir Sedimentation (xvi) Global Warming and Climate Change (xvii) Glacier, snow and ice melt (xviii) Crop water requirements & Irrigation Scheduling (xix) Impacts of watershed developments & land use changes (xx) Hydrological problems of Lakes and Tanks (xxi) Water Resources Assessment

APPLICATIONS OF HYDROLOGY

Flood Control Drought Mitigation Water Supply Pollution Control Urban Development Industrial Development Design of Hydraulic works Agricultural Production

Energy Resources Development Land Conservation Environmental-Impact Assessment Land use Change Forest and Wildlife Management Military Operations Rural Development Navigation Recreation Fisheries

CONCLUDING REMARKS
* COMPUTERISATION OF THE TIME SERIES DATA * REGULAR PROCESSING OF THE TIME SERIES DATA * DATA STORAGE & RETRIEVAL FOR THE PROCESSED DATA * APPLICATION OF GIS AND REMOTE SENSING FOR PROVIDING HYDROLOGICAL MAPS IN DIGITAL FORM * INTERFACING OF SPATIAL DATA BASE WITH TIME SERIES DATA BASE * INTERFACING OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DATA BASES WITH HYDROLOGICAL MODELS

Thank You !!