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CONCEPTUAL MAPPINGS IN TOURISM ADVERTISING A SEMIOTIC APPROACH

What is semiotics / semiology?


the study of signs and symbols, esp. the relations

between written or spoken signs and their referents in the physical world or the world of ideas (The Free Dictionary).
''Semiotics is in principle the discipline studying

everything which can be used in order to lie (U. Eco, 1979)

DENOTATION - CONNOTATION - MYTH


Denotation = literal meaning (vocabulary meaning)

digital code (or-or) Connotation = indirect, culturally marked meaning analogue code (and-and)
Photography: denotation = what is photographed;

connotation = how it is photographed

Denotation and connotation = levels of meaning Denotation = first order of signification Connotation = second order of signification
1. 2.

SIGNIFIER

SIGNIFIED SIGN

SIGNIFIER

SIGNIFIED

SIGN
4

MYTH
Ideology (myth) = third order of

signification
- signifier: black child saluting French uniform

- signified: Africa army -French patriotism - meaning (myth): France is a big colonial empire and all her sons of all colours and ages faithfully serve under her flag.

Characteristics of myths:

Myths generate signs and codes which support them Myths transform history into a natural (and undisputable) reality Function of myth - to naturalize the cultural. Myths (when taken as natural) hide ideological functions of signs and codes Myths are extended metaphors

The role of semiotics is in unveiling the dominant

myths of a particular culture tourism culture included

slogan

brand name
market positioning

logo

Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind

SLOGANS
sluagh ghairm > a war cry used among Scottish clans e.g. Buaidh no Bs! (Victory or Death)
a short phrase that communicates either descriptive or

persuasive information about the brand (Keller, 2003).


brand = tourist destination (local, regional, national) based on slogans value proposition

VARIOUS CATEGORISATIONS OF SLOGANS


Pike (2004):
Functional destination attributes: Hurunui alpine Pacific

triangle. Affective qualities: West Virginia wild and wonderful. Travel motivation benefits: Ruapehu where adventure begins. Market segmentation: Hawkes Bay wine country. Symbols of self expression: Pack your six senses come to Peru. Countering risk: Cuba peaceful, safe and healthy tourism. Brand leadership: Zambia the real Africa, Focus: Auckland city of sails. Unfocus: Ecuador nature, culture, adventure and travel Combinations of the above: Michigan. Great Lakes. Great times.

Lee, Cai and OLeary (2006):


Buy us because we are good: Ohio -A Perfect

Getaway Common attribute-based: Arkansas - The natural state Unique attribute-focused:Arizona - Grand canyon state Exclusive appeal: Virginia is for lovers Average Joe: New Jersey and you, perfect together

CONCEPTUAL MAPPING APPROACH


The essence of metaphors is understanding and experiencing one kind of things in terms of another.
(Lakoff and Johnson, Metaphors We Live By, 1980)

Conceptual metaphor is a natural part of human

thought
Linguistic metaphor is a natural part of human

language

CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS
ANGER TIME GOOD IS HEAT MONEY CLEAN

target domain

MAPPING

source domain

LINGUISTIC METAPHORS
ANGER IS HEAT:

- All the time I was boiling with rage - We had a flaming argument about religion - He's hot tempered but he soon gets over his anger
TIME IS MONEY:

- I invested three years of my life in writing that book - She spent hours playing with her granddaughter - I wasted my time on this research project

CONCEPTUAL DIVERSIFICATION one target more source domains


GOOD IS CLEAN
He is one of the few clean

GOOD IS FIRST
I'm your number-one fan my family had to take second

politicians It was an immaculate performance she had a spotless reputation

place to my career this is a third rate dictionary

CORPUS ANALYSIS
semasiological classification of about 150 slogans of

national and regional tourist boards, mostly presented at 2012 WTM London
model : conceptual mapping based on the target

domain GOOD (IMPRESSIVE / REPUTABLE)

GOOD IS NATURAL / AUTHENTIC


Switzerland. Get natural Uruguay natural Cuba autentica Dominican Republic the nature Island Naturally Nepal once is not enough Costa Rica no artificial ingredients Croatia - The Mediterranean as it once was Malta Truly Mediterranean Malaysia Truly Asia Montenegro -Experience the Wild Beauty Trinidad & Tobago the true Caribbean Pure. Natural. Unspoiled. Iceland. The Way Life Should Be. 100% Pure New Zealand Pure Russia

GOOD IS UNDISCOVERED

Discover the unexpected Luxembourg Serbia - Discover Undiscovered Romania explore the Carpatian Garden Canada keep exploring Guyana experience, explore & enjoy Reveal your own Russia Peru empire of hidden treasures Ukraine yours to discover Sierra Leone the freedom to explore Zambia Lets explore Discover Mongolia Japan Endless Discovery Come to Bangladesh before the tourists

GOOD IS UNIQUE

Uniquely Singapore Australia. A different light Theres nothing like Australia There's no place like Hong Kong Sydney - There's no place like it. Andalucia. There's only one. Sicilia. Everything else is in the shade Ireland Awaken to a different world Bulgaria - Unique in its Diversity Czech Republic Stunningly Different The Seychelles Islands another world Georgia for the best moments of your life Nicaragua unica... original! Indonesia. Ultimate in Diversity. Puerto Rico does it better

GOOD IS DIVERSE

Amazing Thailand Experience Variety Amazing Thailand Dreams for all seasons Cyprus. The Island for All Seasons Cyprus. A whole world on a single island Spain. Everything Under the Sun Bulgaria - Unique in its Diversity Indonesia. Ultimate in Diversity. Dominican Republic has it all Karnataka one state many worlds Valencia Region gives you everything Antigua and Barbuda the beach is just the beginning

GOOD IS VIVID

Nigeria tourism is life Normandy Love the Land. Live the Life Live it up in Singapore! Ecuador love life

GOOD IS LIGHT

Sicilia. Everything else is in the shade Australia. A different light Spain. Everything Under the Sun Maldives the sunny side of life

GOOD IS BIG

Wales. Big country Slovakia Little Big Country Croatia a small country for a great holiday Bhutan land of gross national happiness

GOOD IS NEW

Vietnam. A Destination for the New Millenium Albania - A New Mediterranean to Love South Africa Inspiring new ways Estonia. Positively Transforming.

GOOD IS FIRST / OLDEST


Come to Bangladesh before the tourists Delaware the first state Egypt where it all begins Ethiopia the cradle of humankind

GOOD IS DREAM / IMAGINATION


Amazing Thailand Dreams for all seasons Qatar where dreams come to life Ireland Awaken to a different world Poland Move your imagination Korea - Be inspired

GOOD IS SUPERNATURAL / DIVINE


Kerala. God's own country. Cambodia Kingdom of Live your myth in Greece Iceland is my spiritland India. Eternally Yours North Cyprus Timeless

Beauty Vietnam timeless charm Magical Kenya Zimbabwe a world of wonders Refreshingly Sri Lanka wonder of Asia

wonder Kazakhstan the land of wonders Wonderful Indonesia Brasil Sensational! Thailand always amazes you Incredible India Rajasthan The Incredible State of India

GOOD IS FRIENDLY

Scotland welcomes the world Belarus Hospitality beyond borders Abu Dhabi travellers welcome You've Got a Friend in Pennsylvania."

GOOD IS DESIRE / IMPATIENCE


Australia - We can't wait to say G'day Austria. At last! Austria. You've arrived I Wish I was in Finland I need Spain Bolivia awaits you

GOOD IS MUSIC
Argentina beats to your rhythm Latvia. The Land that Sings.

GOOD IS MORE / EXCESSIVE


More than the usual Italy - Much More Australia - Beautiful one day, perfect the next It s more fun in the Philippines Tunisia theres more to celebrate Naturally Nepal once is not enough Bermuda so much more Abu Dhabi and you think youve done it all? Turkey Unlimited Belarus Hospitality beyond borders Japan Endless Discovery

GOOD IS PHYSICAL EXPERIENCE / SENSATION


I Feel Slovenia Lithuania See it, feel it, love it Paraguay you have to feel it Montenegro -Experience the Wild Beauty Guyana experience, explore & enjoy Swaziland a royal experience Hong Kong will take your breath away! Mauritius it's a pleasure Latvia Best enjoyed slowly Jump into Ireland Morocco the country that travels within you

GOOD EMOTION IS BODY PART (REACTION)


Bosnia - Your Heart-Shaped Land
Taiwan the heart of Asia Malawi the warm heart of Africa

Smile! You are in Spain!


My Indonesia Just a Smile Away Gambia the smiling coast of Africa

A (GOOD) PART FOR A WHOLE


Albania - A New Mediterranean to Love Portugal - Europe's West Coast The Mediterranean as it once was Cyprus. A whole world on a single island Malta Truly Mediterranean Malaysia Truly Asia Trinidad & Tobago the true Caribbean Romania explore the Carpatian Garden Refreshingly Sri Lanka wonder of Asia Gambia the smiling coast of Africa

UNCLASSIFIED
Holland add some

orange Colombia the only risk is wanting to stay California find yourself here Venezuela is your destination Germany the travel destination Go Goa a perfect holiday destination

Cameroon is back China Tourism / Beautiful

China

www. fijime.com
Definitely Dubai Beautiful Bangladesh

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Most dominant source domains:


SUPERNATURAL / DIVINE
UNIQUE NATURAL / AUTHENTIC

UNDISCOVERED
DIVERSE

Universal or relative concepts?

Universal concepts = phyisical metaphors (AFFECTION IS WARMTH) Relative concepts = cultural metaphors

Both concepts and metaphors can be novel (fresh) or conventional (worn-out)

... more and more novel and associated metaphors are required which link the changing nature of the tourist to an ever mutable environment (Dann, 2002).

Thank you!