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Teaching of Mathematics for Year 4 Primary School

TOPIC 3: DECIMALS

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DECIMALS
What is decimal? It means based on 10 Latin decima: a tenth part Decimal number Any number written in a base-ten system can be called a decimal number. 123- is a decimal ( since each digit worth ten times as much as the one next to it) 1.23- is a decimal (with a decimal point in it)

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DECIMALS
1. We must provide opportunities for our children to learn and understand decimals meaningfully. 2. We use physical materials and other representatives to help children understand the concept of decimals (a) Area models (fraction circles) (b) Linear models (fraction strips) (c) Discrete models (counters)
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DECIMALS
3. It would be useful to show students these representations to reaffirm their understanding about decimals 4. It is important for us to have an overview of the mathematical skills involved in changing fractions and mixed numbers to decimals and vice versa.

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Guidelines to read and write a decimal number:


1. 2. 3. 4. Mentally align the whole numbers in the place values chart and the decimal numbers in the decimal place chart. Read the whole number. Use the decimal point and read the decimal place value as you read the whole number. End by reading the last decimal place value where the numbers end.

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Example :
Read 35.678
Hundred Thousands Ten Thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

3
Tenths 1/10
6

Hundredths Thousandths Ten Hundred 1/100 1/1000 Thousandths Thousandths 1/100000 1/10000
7 8

Read as : Thirty five and six hundred seventy eight thousandths


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Reading Decimal numbers


Read the following Decimal numbers: 1.12 : one and twelve hundredths 14.345 : Fourteen and three hundred and forty five thousandths 1.3? 0.15?? 0.105???
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Converting Fraction to Decimal


18 Example : Write 1000 as a decimal.
Solution:
1. 2. 3. Write the numerator Count how many zeros are there at the denominator Move the decimal point three places from right to the left. Attach zeros on the left end of the decimal point 18

0.018

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Fraction to Decimal Follow the following steps: 1. Place the decimal point after the number of the numerator. 2. Attach the zeros as needed after the decimal point 3. Divide the numerator by denominator using long division

Converting Fraction to Decimal

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Fractions to Decimals Example 1: Convert 6 to decimal number. 8 Solution:

0.75 8 6.00 5 .6 40 40 0

Place a decimal after six. Attach zeros as needed. Divide as usual.

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Decimals to Fractions Follow the following steps: 1. Write the numerator as whole number. 2. Write the denominator as power of tens with number of zero depends on how many places after the decimal point. 3. Reduce the fraction.

Converting Decimal to Fraction

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Decimals to Fractions Example 1: Convert 0.5 to fraction. Solution:

5 1 0.5 10 2

The numerator should be the whole number, 5 The denominator 10 (one zero) Write the fraction Simplify the fraction
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Decimals to Fractions Example 2: Convert 0.085 to fractions. Solution:

85 17 0.085 1000 200

The numerator should be the whole number, 85 The denominator 1000 (three zeros) Write the fraction Reduce the fraction

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Converting Mixed Numbers to fractions Vice Versa


Mixed Numbers to Fractions Follow the following steps: 1. Write the mixed number as whole number and decimal number. 2. Convert decimal number to fraction. 3. Convert fraction to mixed number fractions.

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Mixed Numbers to Fractions Example : Convert 17.32 to mixed number fractions


1. 17.32 = 17 and 0.32 Write in whole numbers and decimal numbers Convert decimal numbers to fraction and reduce the fraction Write the fractions

2.

32 8 0.32 = 100 25

3.

8 17 25

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Mixed Numbers to decimals 3 Example : Convert 13 to decimal number 4 3 3 13 1. = 13 and Write in whole numbers 4 4 and fractions
2.

0.75 4 3.00 28 20 20 0
3.

Convert the fraction to decimal numbers by long division Write the decimal numbers

3 13 13.75 4 Murugiah Velayutham/TCG

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Addition & Subtraction of Decimals


Addition of Two Decimal Numbers Steps to follow for adding two decimals:
1. Arrange the decimal numbers so that the decimal points are in vertical line 2. Add the numbers of the same digit place from right to left. 3. Place the answers in the same place. Example: 7.93 + 12.75 12 23 . 7 5 + 7 .9 3 2 0 .6 8
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Subtraction of Two Decimal Numbers Steps to follow for subtracting two decimals:
1.

Arrange the decimal numbers so that the decimal points are in vertical line 2. Subtract each number from right to left. 3. Place the answers in the same place. Example: Subtract 12.75 from 17. 93. 1 7 . 98 313 -1 2 . 7 5 5 .1 8
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Addition & Subtraction of Three Decimal Numbers


Example 1: Add 65.00 + 42.56 + 55.12 76 5 . 0 0 4 2 .5 6 +5 5 . 1 2 1 6 2 . 6 8 Example 2 : Subtract 52.97 17.33 10.58 54 212 . 9 7 3 5 . 65 414 -1 7 . 3 3 -1 0. 5 8 3 5 . 6 4 2 5. 0 6
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Multiplication & Division of Decimals


Multiplication of Decimal Numbers Steps to follow for multiplication of decimals:
1.
2. 3. 4.

Place the decimal above the other so that they are lined up vertically. Disregard the decimal points and multiply the numbers. Count the total number of digits to the right of the decimal point for both decimal numbers. Place the decimal point in the product by moving the decimal point from right to left of the digits according to number of digits count in Step 3.
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Multiplication of Decimal Numbers Example 1: Multiply 1.639 x 0.57


3 4 1 4 2 6

1 . 6 x 0 . 1 1 4 +8 1 9 0. 9 3 4

3 5 7 5 2

9 7 3 0 3

3 decimal places 2 decimal places

5 decimal places

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Division of Decimal Numbers Steps to follow for division of decimals: 1. Write the division using a long-division (). 2. Insert the decimal point above the decimal in the dividend. 3. Proceed with the division of whole number

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Division of Decimal Numbers Example 1: Divide the following: 16.15 2.4 1. Move the decimal point in dividend and divisor so that the divisor is a whole number. 6 .7 2. Insert the decimal point above 24 161.5 144 the decimal in the dividend. 175 3. Proceed with the division
168
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. 2.4 16.15

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Multiplication of Decimals in Standard Written Method Example 1: 19.15 x 100 Move decimal point to two places 19.15 x 100 = 1915 Example 2: 195.17 x 1000 Move decimal point to three places 195.17 x 1000 = 195170
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Division of Decimals in Standard Written Method Example 1: 19.15 100 Move decimal point two places to the left 19.15 100 = 0.1915 Example 2: 195.17 1000 Move decimal point to three places 195.17 1000 = 0.19517
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