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6th Inter-Parliamentary Meeting on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Panel: Renewable Energy for Heating and Cooling Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, Oct. 6-8, 2005

Heating and Cooling with Geothermal Energy


Dr. Burkhard Sanner
European Geothermal Energy Council, Brussels Geothermische Vereinigung e.V., Geeste

Geothermal Energy can be spectacular!

Photos of US Geological Survey

Geysirs and volcanoes show the earth heat

Geothermal Energy can be out of sight and hard to find

Geothermal experts looking for traces of the system

Geothermal Energy can be out of sight and hard to find


Office building heated and cooled by geothermal heat pumps since 1991

Externally, no traces of the ground system are visible. Inside, only heat pumps and piping can be seen

Office building Technorama at Dsseldorf airport

Geothermal Energy
Definition:

Geothermal Energy is energy stored in the form of heat beneath the surface of the solid earth
(This definition is official in Germany, in guideline VDI 4640)

Graph from Geothermal Education Office, California

High-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy world-wide

Graph from Geothermal Education Office, California

High-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy in EU

Graph from Geothermal Education Office, California

The Economic Situation of Geothermal Energy in EU

The situation is very different in the various countries and geothermal technologies, according to natural resources and political issues. High enthalpy resources in Italy, Greece, etc., for power, heat and other applications

A short glimpse at geothermal power


First experiment to produce geothermal power, done in Italy in 1904 by prince Ginori Conti

Photo courtesy of ENEL/ERGA, Italy Photos: Lund

Modern geothermal power plants in Larderello, Italy

A short glimpse at geothermal power


Bad Blumau (Austria)
ORC-turbine 250 kW el. output air-cooled operational since end of 2000

(Photos: Prmat/Rogner)

A short glimpse at geothermal power

Drilling rig at the European R&D site Soultz-sousForts (F)

Principle of EGS system for geothermal power production

The Economic Situation of Geothermal Energy in EU

The situation is very different in the various countries and geothermal technologies, according to natural resources and political issues. High enthalpy resources in Italy, Greece, etc., for power, heat and other applications Deep geothermal energy mainly in basins (France, Germany, Poland, Italy, Hungary, etc.) for district heating, power, agriculture

The Potential of Geothermal Energy in EU

Potential after Shell-study

Deep Geothermal Energy

Geothermal heating plant Neustadt-Glewe photo O. Joswig

doublet system, used since the late 1970s in France and since 1984 in (Eastern) Germany

Deep Geothermal Energy

Cross-border geothermal district heating for the cities Simbach (D) and Braunau (A)
Geological cross-section

Graph: Geoteam

Deep Geothermal Energy

In most countries, geothermal district heating needs some investment support, reduced interest loans, etc. to become economic. Cascade uses (district heating, industry, agriculture, and other) improves economy, but usually are very difficult to achieve due to business obstacles, distances, etc. The main financial obstacle is the heat distribution network (example: Bruchsal, D) For heat distribution, Eastern European countries may have an advantage due to existing networks

Geothermal Greenhouses
Geothermal greenhouse in Nigrita, Greece

Cultivation of spirulina algae using geothermal heat

Geothermal application in the food industry

Geothermal tomato drying in Northern Greece

The finished product

Geothermal application in the food industry

Fish factory in Laugar, Iceland

Geothermal fish drying in Northern Iceland The finished product

The Economic Situation of Geothermal Energy in EU

The situation is very different in the various countries and geothermal technologies, according to natural resources and political issues. High enthalpy resources in Italy, Greece, etc., for power, heat and other applications Deep geothermal energy mainly in basins (France, Germany, Poland, Italy, Hungary, etc.) for district heating, power, agriculture Shallow geothermal energy geothermal heat pumps everywhere

Remarks from various countries


In France, heat from geothermal district heating carries the full VAT, natural gas only a reduced value In Poland, projects are affected by not adequate mining law, many taxes, fees and royalties. These expenses are too high compared to the annual heat sales, even in the biggest plant

Shallow Geothermal Energy

For shallow geothermal systems, in several countries a market-driven economy exists. This is further boosted by the current oil price development These countries comprise Sweden, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and to a lesser extend Norway, Netherlands, etc.

Shallow Geothermal Energy

refrigerators freezers

Cooling machines

Swimming pool

HX

primary circuit

Geothermal heating at the Polar Circle: Hotel Storforsen, lvsby, Sweden 33 BHE each 160 m deep

Heat pumps (2 x 113 kW)


HX HX

E-boiler secondary circ.


Floor heating

HX

warm tap water

Recharge Cooling (room air)

E-boiler
cold tap water HWSt. TD

33 Borehole heat exchangers each 160 m deep

HX: Heat Exchanger E-boiler: Electric heating (peak/back-up) TD: Towel Drying HW-St.: Hot Water Storage

DHW

Shallow Geothermal Energy

A transition is underway of GSHP technology into two new areas: Southern Europe and Mediterranean, with an emphasis on cooling and heating

Shallow Geothermal Energy

Heating and cooling of the guesthouse of the European Centre for public law Meduca in Legraina, Greece 2 groundwater heat pumps

GSHP for cooling (and heating) with groundwater wells, for a supermarket in Mersin, Turkey

Shallow Geothermal Energy

A transition is underway of GSHP technology into two new areas: Southern Europe and Mediterranean, with an emphasis on cooling and heating Eastern and Southeastern Europe, where slowly a demand for more comfort in houses is growing, and a group of people who can afford it. Countries are in particular Czech Republic and Poland, with others following

Some statistics for the shallow geothermal sector


10000

Number of units

Annual heat pump sales in Germany, according to heat sources


(after data from IZW, Hannover and BWP, Munich)

9249

9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1996
1792

Water Ground
6653 6799 7349

4744 3720 2889 3945

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Heat pumps used for hot tap water only are not included Data for 2004 preliminary

Some statistics for the shallow geothermal sector


Heat Pump installations in Sweden (from SVEP)

Development of GSHP installations in Switzerland, in MWth


(from Kohl et al., 2002)

Some statistics on geothermal energy use


Geothermal energy use in the EU 2002 (after data from BMU, 2004)
6000 2290

7000 6000 5000

GWh/a

4000 3000 2000 1000 0


NL E AT K IT (B M U) PT G R SE SF BE UK FR D D

1590

1483 570

510

140

130

100

60

30

20

10

LU

IR

SP

Some statistics on geothermal energy use


Geothermal energy use in the enlarged EU 2004 (18 of 25 member countries, new members are shown in black).
6000

36

21

16

0 IT FR SE HU SK AT DE SL

LT PT SF GR PL CZ BE DK NL UK

The values are mainly valid for 1999 and are taken from the country update reports of WGC 2000

5000

4000

GWh/a

3000

1360

2000

5451

1147

1135 589

447

436

1000

196

166

138

135

107

76

Geothermal Energy for the German Parliament

Heat- and Cold Storage, heat source waste heat from Combined Heatand Power-Generation (CHP) during summertime

Geothermal Energy for the German Parliament

Map of the Parliament Buildings

View from Chancellors office towards the Parliament building

Geothermal Energy for the German Parliament


Heating- and CoolingNetwork for the Parliament Buildings

Biofuel CHP: heat, el. power


ca. 60 m below ground

Paul-LbeBuilding

Marie-ElisabethLders-Bldg.

cold ATES

Reichstagbuilding
piping shown in fig. 6

Rupel clay (Aquitard) warm ATES


Jakob-KaiserBuilding

>300 m below ground

Heat storage Cold storage

www.egec.org www.geothermie.de

Thank you fr your attention!