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Chapter 14

Controlling for Quality

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Controlling
Controlling establishes mechanisms that ensure that objectives are achieved.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Governance
Many sport organizations are monitored and controlled by external bodies of governance. We have discussed many of these bodies: FIFA and its Executive Committee monitor all soccer activities; the International Olympic Committee (IOC) monitors all Olympic activities; the PGA is the regulating body for golf; each Jewish Community Center is monitored by the JCCA (Jewish Community Centers of America); likewise, each individual YMCA is governed by the rules YMCAs of the USA (YUSA); and college athletics are governed by the rules and policies set forth by the NCAA.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT14-3

Sport Governance
These governing bodies are dedicated to their particular sport. They establish rules and regulations that every member must follow. For example, the IOC approves the sports and events in the Olympics. The IOC picks locales for the Summer and Winter Games seven years in advance. Cities bid for the right to hold games and must prove they have the necessary facilities to play the games, house the athletes and spectators, and provide officiating.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT14-4

Controlling From Inside


Concurrent controls are actions taken during transformation to ensure that standards are met. Rework controls are actions taken to fix output. Rework is necessary when preliminary and concurrent controls fail. Most organizations inspect output before it is sold or sent as input to other departments in the organization. Damage controls are actions taken to minimize negative impacts on customers due to faulty output.
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Standards
Standards minimize negative impacts on customers due to faulty output by controlling quantity, quality, time, cost, and behavior. Incomplete standards often lead to negative results.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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CSFs
Critical success factors (CSFs) are pivotal areas in which satisfactory results will ensure successful achievement of the objective/standard.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Controls
Constant controls are in continuous use and include self-control, clan control, and standing plans Periodic controls are used on a regular, fixed basis, such as hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, or annually. Periodic controls include regularly scheduled reports, budgets, and audits.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT14-8

More Controls
Occasional controls are used on an as-needed basis. They include observation, the exception principle, special reports, and project controls.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Financial Controls
Budgets are plans for allocating resources to specific activities. Notice that our definition does not use terms of money. That is because organizations budget all types of resourceshuman resources, machines, time, space, and, yes, funds.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Financial Statements: Income


The three financial statements are the income statement, the balance sheet, and the statement of cash flow. The income statement shows the companys revenues and expenses and its profit or loss for the stated period.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Balance Sheet
The balance sheet lists assets, liabilities, and owners equity. Assets are what the organization owns. Liabilities are what it owes to others. Subtract the organizations liabilities from its assets and you have the owners/stockholders equity (that share of the assets owned free and clear).
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Statement of Cash Flow


The statement of cash flow shows cash receipts and payments for the stated period.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Coaching
Coaching gives motivational feedback to maintain and improve performance. Employees who are given immediate, frequent, and direct feedback perform at higher levels.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Feedback
Feedback is the main entree of coaching, and it should be motivational.The idea is to give more positive feedback than negative feedback. A culture of positive feedback creates an abundance of enthusiasm and energy in an organization. So, cheer your people on with an immediate response to their excellent work. What happens when athletes make good plays? The coach and team cheer them on! The same technique motivates people in the workplacetry it.
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EAPs
Employee assistance programs (EAPs) help employees get professional assistance in solving their problems. More companies are offering EAPs, because they improve employee retention and productivity. Former Cleveland Indians pitcher Sam McDowell became a certified and licensed therapist in sport psychology and addiction after his retirement in 1975. For 14 years, he was the director of EAPs and sport psychology programs for the Texas Rangers and Toronto Blue Jays.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT14-16

Discipline
Discipline is corrective action to get employees to meet standards and to follow the rules. Discipline can be effective if it makes the person realize the seriousness of the situation. Many organizations use a series of escalating actions. Progressive discipline occurs in this order: (1) oral warning; (2) written warning; (3) suspension; and (4) dismissal.
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