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Chapter 12

Motivating to Win

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Motivation
Motivation is the willingness to achieve organizational objectives. Through the motivation process, people go from need to motive to behavior to consequence and finally to either satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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The Role of Expectations


Remember the Pygmalion effect? Your expectations and your treatment of people affect their motivation and hence their performance. If you have high expectations for your staff and treat your workers as high achievers, you will get their best.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Performance Equation
Performance = Ability x Motivation x Resources

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Pat Summitt
Pat Summitt constantly looks for ways to improve her teams performance equation. If her teams ability is not up to snuff, she lasers in on specifics, adjusts their training accordingly, and recruits to fix holes in the net.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Content-Based Motivation Theories


Focus is on identifying and understanding peoples needs. Hierarchy of needsPeople are motivated by five levels of needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and selfactualization (Maslow). ERGPeople are motivated by three needs: existence, relatedness, and growth (Alderfer). Two-factor theoryMotivator factors (higher-level needs) are more important than maintenance factors (lower-level needs) (Herzberg). Acquired needsPeople are motivated by their need for achievement, power, and affiliation (McClelland).
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT12-6

Process-Based Theories
Focus is on how people choose behaviors to fulfill their needs. EquityPeople are motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs (Adams). Goal-settingDifficult but achievable goals motivate people (Locke). ExpectancyPeople are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort (Vroom).

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Reinforcement Theory
Focus is on consequences for behavior (Skinner). Positive reinforcementattractive consequences (rewards) for desirable performance encourages continued behavior. Avoidancenegative consequences for poor performance encourages continued desirable behavior. Extinctionwithholding reinforcement for an undesirable behavior reduces or eliminates that behavior. Punishmentundesirable consequences (punishment) for undesirable behavior prevent the behavior.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT12-8

High Need Affiliations


Effective teams typically have a good number of high nAffs. Think about great sport teams. Very often the heart of these teams are nonstar players who are every bit as important as the stars. The nonstars are easy to get along with, take good care of fans, and are willing to play numerous positionsthey are the glue that makes the team a team. They are role players, and they emphasize their nAff, even though they obviously are pretty high nAchor else they wouldnt be pro athletes.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Equity Theory
One reason Tennessee Titans management rewarded Jevon Kearse with an incentive-laden contract was to demonstrate the club felt he was underpaid compared to similar NFL players. Titans management chose to reward Jevon with an equitable contract in order to help negotiations with his future contracts.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT12-10

Positive Reinforcement
Another reason Jevon Kearse signed a revised contract full of incentives was to keep him performing in the last year of his multiyear contract. In Kearses contract, different levels of incentives are triggered at different numbers of sacks. The incentives are also based on playing time, interceptions, fumble returns, Pro Bowl selection, defensive player of the year award, and Super Bowl MVP award. Jevon could earn between $1 and $2 million extra in the 2002 season if he achieves his incentives.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT12-11

Punishment
Pat Summitt yells at her players, which is normally a form of punishment. However, in her case players understand it is her method of motivating players.
For being late to team buses and arguing with the Boston Red Sox manager, the club punished Everett by suspending him and docking his pay. Unfortunately, the punishment did not change Everetts behavior; he continued to be a detriment to team morale, and was eventually traded.
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Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

Overrewarded
Some pro athletes negotiate extremely lucrative contracts that suddenly become hard to fulfill because of injury, age, or declining skills. The athlete may still be motivated to excel, but physical ability no longer warrants his or her compensation. Management has to accept the responsibility of the large contract and find alternate methods to make the team competitive.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT12-13

Goal-Setting Theory
Goal-setting theory proposes that achievable but difficult goals motivate employees. The idea behind goal setting is that behavior has purposeto fulfill needs. Goals help us marshal our resources to accomplish a given task.

Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning

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Motivating with Goal Setting


Lou Holtz, coach of Notre Dames 1988 championship football team, noted a circular key ring with three keys to success: a winning attitude, positive self-esteem, and high goals. Winning attitudes lead to positive self-esteem, which in turn motivates us to set high goals, and gives us an even more positive attitude and self-esteem. Every year Holtz had players set personal goals and the team set team goals, which he wrote in his notebook.
Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT12-15