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Magnetic Circuits
and Transformers
Discussion D10.1
Chapter 6
2
Hans Christian Oersted (1777 1851)
Ref: http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/oersted.htm

1822
In 1820 he showed that a current
produces a magnetic field.
X
3
Andr-Marie Ampre (1775 1836)
French mathematics professor who only
a week after learning of Oersteds
discoveries in Sept. 1820 demonstrated
that parallel wires carrying currents
attract and repel each other.
attract
repel
A moving charge of 1 coulomb
per second is a current of
1 ampere (amp).
4
Michael Faraday (1791 1867)
Self-taught English chemist and physicist
discovered electromagnetic induction in
1831 by which a changing magnetic field
induces an electric field.
Faradays electromagnetic
induction ring
A capacitance of 1 coulomb per volt
is called a farad (F)
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Joseph Henry (1797 1878)
American scientist, Princeton University
professor, and first Secretary of the
Smithsonian Institution.
Discovered self-
induction
Built the largest
electromagnets of
his day
Unit of inductance, L, is the Henry
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Magnetic Fields and Circuits
A current i through a coil produces a
magnetic flux, |, in webers, Wb.
BA | =
A
d | =
}
B A
H = magnetic field intensity in A/m.
v
i
+
-
N
B = magnetic flux density in Wb/m
2
.
= B H
= magnetic permeability
Ampere's Law: d i =

}
H l
Hl Ni =
Ni = F
Magnetomotive force
| = F R
reluctance
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Magnetic Flux
Magnetic flux, |, in webers, Wb.
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
+ +
- -
2
N
1
N
11
flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 1 | =
12
flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 2 | =
21
flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 1 | =
22
flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 2 | =
1 11 12
total flux in coil 1 | | | = = +
2 21 22
total flux in coil 2 | | | = = +
Current entering
"dots" produce
fluxes that add.
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Faraday's Law
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
+ +
- -
2
N
1
N
1 1 1
N | =
Faraday's Law: induced voltage in coil 1 is
Sign of induced voltage v
1
is such that the current i through
an external resistor would be opposite to the current i
1
that
produces the flux |
1
.
Total flux linking coil 1:
1 1
1 1
( )
d d
v t N
dt dt
|
= =
i
Example of Lenz's law
Symbol L of inductance from Lenz
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Mutual Inductance
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
+ +
- -
2
N
1
N
1 11 12
1 1 1 1
( )
d d d
v t N N N
dt dt dt
| | |
= = +
Faraday's Law
1 2
1 11 12
( )
di di
v t L L
dt dt
= +
In linear range, flux is proportional to current
self-inductance mutual inductance
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Mutual Inductance
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
+ +
- -
2
N
1
N
1 2
1 11 12
( )
di di
v t L L
dt dt
= +
1 2
2 21 22
( )
di di
v t L L
dt dt
= +
12 21
L L M = =
Linear media
1 2
1 1
( )
di di
v t L M
dt dt
= +
1 2
2 2
( )
di di
v t M L
dt dt
= +
2 22
L L =
1 11
L L = Let
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Ideal Transformer - Voltage
1 1
( )
d
v t N
dt
|
=
2 2
( )
d
v t N
dt
|
=
|
1 1 1
2 2 2
d
v N N
dt
d
v N N
dt
|
|
= =
2
2 1
1
N
v v
N
=
1
1
1
( ) v t dt
N
| =
}
The input AC voltage, v
1
,
produces a flux
This changing flux through
coil 2 induces a voltage, v
2

across coil 2
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
+ +
- -
2
N
1
N
AC Load
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Ideal Transformer - Current
|
1
2 1
2
N
i i
N
=
The total mmf applied to core is
Ni = F
Magnetomotive force, mmf
1 1 2 2
N i N i | = = F R
For ideal transformer, the reluctance R is zero.
1 1 2 2
N i N i =
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
+ +
- -
2
N
1
N
AC Load
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Ideal Transformer - Impedance
1
1 2
2
N
N
= V V
Input impedance
2
2
L
=
V
Z
I
2
1 2
1
N
N
= I I
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
+ +
- -
2
N
1
N
AC Load
Load impedance
1
1
i
=
V
Z
I
2
1
2
i L
N
N
| |
=
|
\ .
Z Z
2
L
i
n
=
Z
Z
2
1
N
n
N
=
Turns ratio
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Ideal Transformer - Power
1
2 1
2
N
i i
N
=
Power delivered to primary
P vi =
2
2 1
1
N
v v
N
=
1 1 1
P v i =
1
v
2
v
2
i
1
i
+ +
- -
2
N
1
N
AC Load
Power delivered to load
2 2 2
P v i =
2 2 2 1 1 1
P v i v i P = = =
Power delivered to an ideal transformer by the source
is transferred to the load.
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L.V.D.T.
Linear Variable Differential Transformer
http://www.rdpelectronics.com/displacement/lvdt/lvdt-principles.htm

Position transducer
http://www.efunda.com/DesignStandards/sensors/lvdt/lvdt_theory.cfm

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LVDT's are often used on clutch actuation
and for monitoring brake disc wear
LVDT's are also used for
sensors in an automotive
active suspension system