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# Thermodynamic s

## Therme - Heat Dynamis - Power

System
A quantity of matter or region in space chosen for study

Surroundings
The matter or region outside the system

Boundary
The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings

System

Open System

## Transfer of matter and energy across the boundary

Closed System

No mass transfer across the boundary of the system, energy transfer is possible

Isolated system

## No energy and mass transfer

No interaction b/w system & surroundings

## Energy & mass are fixed

Thermodynamic Properties
Every system has certain characterestics by which its physical condition may be described They are macroscopic in nature Properties are co-ordinates to describe the state of the system

## Thermodynamic State Path Process Cycle

Thermodynamic State When all the properties need to describe the condition of the system, have defenite values, the system is said to exist in defenite state

Path

The succession of state passed through, during a change of state is called path

Process

When the path is completely specified, the change of state is called process

Thermodynamic Cycle

A series of state changes such that, the final state is identical with initial state

Thermodynamic Equilibrium
A system is said to be exist in thermodynamic equilibrium, when no change in any macroscopic property is registered, if the system is isolated from its surroundings

## Conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium

Mechanical equilibrium Chemical equilibrium Thermal equilibrium

Mechanical equilibrium
If there is no unbalanced force within the system itself and also b/w system & surroundings, the system is said to be in mechanical equilibrium If an unbalanced force exists, either the system or both the system & surroundings will undergo a change of state till mechanical eqbm is attained

Chemical equilibrium
If there is no chemical reaction or transfer of matter from one part of the system to another. Such as diffusion or solution, the system is said to exist in chemical eqbm.

Thermal equilibrium
When a system is in mechanical & chemical equilibrium, is seperated from its surroundings by diathermic wall & if there no spontaneous change in any property of the system, the system is said to exist in thermal equilibrium

## Quasi static process

Temperature
It is hotness or coldness of a body

When a body brought into contact with another body, at different temperature, heat is transfered from body at higher temperature to body at lower temperature

## Zeroth law thermodynamics

If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other

## Zeroth law thermodynamics

When a body A is in thermal eqbm with body B, and also seperately thermal eqbm with body C, then the bodies B & C will be in thermal eqbm

Temperature scale
It is a way to measure temperature quantitatively Celcius scale (water) Freezing point 0 C Boiling point 100 C Kelvin scale (water) Freezing poitn 273 K Boiling point 373 K Fahrenheit scale (water) Freezing point 32 F Boling point 212 F

work
Energy transfer across the boundary of the system, other than by the temperature diference

Heat (Q)
Energy transfer across the boundary of the system on account of the temperature difference Heat is a path function Heat transfered to the system (+) ve Heat transfered from the system(-) ve