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Politics of Stalemate
Politics a major fascination of late

nineteenth century White males make up bulk of electorate

women may vote in national elections only in Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Colorado black men denied vote by poll tax, literacy tests

The Party Deadlock

Post-Civil War Democratic party divides

electorate almost evenly with Republicans One-party control of both Congress, White House rare Federal influence wanes, state control rises

Experiments in the States

State government commissions

investigate, regulate railroads, factories Munn v. Illinois (1877) upholds constitutionality of state investigations Wabash case (1886) prompts establishment of Interstate Commerce Commission

Reestablishing Presidential Power

Presidency hits nadir under Johnson Later presidents reassert executive power Hayes ends military Reconstruction Garfield asserts leadership of his party Arthur strengthens navy, civil service reform Cleveland uses veto to curtail federal activities

Republicans in Power: the Billion-Dollar Congress

1888--Republicans control both White

House and Capitol Hill 1890--Adoption of Reed rules permits enactment of billion dollar program

Tariffs, Trusts and Silver

1890--McKinley Tariff raises duties to

historic high By 1893--1 million Union pensions granted 1890--Sherman Anti-Trust Act regulates big business 1890--Sherman Silver Purchase Act backs paper money with silver

The 1890 Elections

Republicans also assert activist

government policies on state level

Sunday closing laws prohibition mandatory English in public schools

1890--alienated voting blocks turn out

Republican legislators

The Rise of the Populist Movement

Discontented farmers of West and South

provide base of support The National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union the result

The Farm Problem

Worldwide agricultural economy causes

great fluctuations in supply and demand Farmers complaints

lower prices for crops (actual prosperity rising) rising railroad rates (rates actually declining) onerous mortgages (loans permit improvement)

Conditions of farmers vary by region

General feeling of depression, resentment

Selected Commodity Prices

The Fast-Growing Farmers' Alliance

1875Southern Alliance begins 1889Southern Alliance absorbs

Northwestern Alliance Alliance Captures local Democratic parties in South After 1890 Runs its own candidates in North and West

The Fast-Growing Farmers' Alliance: Ocala Demands

System of government warehouses to

hold crops for higher prices Free coinage of silver Low tariffs Federal income tax Direct election of Senators Regulation of railroads

The People's Party

Southern Alliance splits from Democrats to

form Populist party Southern Populists recruit AfricanAmericans, give them influential positions 1892--Populist presidential candidate James Weaver draws over one million votes Alliance wanes after 1892 elections

The Crisis of the Depression

Economic crisis dominated the 1890s Railroads overbuilt, companies grew

beyond their markets, farms and businesses went deeply in debt

The Panic of 1893

February 1893--failure of major railroad

sparks panic on New York Stock Exchange Investors sell stock to purchase gold Depleted Treasury shakes confidence May, 1893--market hits record low, business failures displace 2 million workers 1894--corn crop fails

Coxey's Army and the Pullman Strike

1894--Jacob Coxey leads Coxeys Army

to Washington to demand relief Pullman strikes by Eugene Debs American Railway Union close Western railroads President Cleveland suppresses strikes with federal troops

The Miners of the Midwest

United Mine Workers strike 1894

Old miners--English and Irish workers,

owners of small family mines New miners--1880s immigrants Strike pits new miners against old

A Beleaguered President
Cleveland repeals Sherman Silver

Purchase Act to remedy Panic of 1893 Repeal fails to stop depression Repeal makes silver a political issue Democrats renege on promise of lower tariff

Breaking the Party Deadlock

Election of 1894 reduces Democrats to a

sectional southern organization Republicans sweep congressional elections Republicans become majority elsewhere

Changing Attitudes
Depression of 1893 forces recognition of

structural causes of unemployment Americans accept the need for government intervention to help the poor and jobless

Everybody Works but Father

Women and children paid lower wages,

displace men during depression Employers retain women and children after depression to hold down costs

The Presidential Election of 1896

Free coinage of silver the main issue boost the money supply seen as solution to depression New voting patterns emerged and national

policy shifted

The Mystique of Silver

Free and independent coinage of silver set ratio of silver to gold at 16:1 U.S. mints coin all silver offered to them U.S. coins silver regardless of other nations policies Silverites believe amount in circulation

determines level of economic activity A moral crusade for the common people

Republicans and Gold

Candidate: William McKinley

Silverite Republicans defeated on

convention floor Promises gold standard to restore prosperity

The Democrats and Silver

Candidate: William Jennings Bryan

Free silver promised in "Cross of Gold"

speech Democrats enthusiastic

Campaign and Election

Populist party endorses Bryan

Bryan offers return to rural, religious U.S.

McKinley defends urban, industrial society Election is a clear victory for McKinley,

utter rout of Populist party

The McKinley Administration

McKinley takes office at depressions

end An activist president Dingley Tariff raises rates to record highs 1900--U.S. placed on gold standard 1900--McKinley wins landslide reelection against William Jennings Bryan

A Decades Dramatic Changes

September, 1901--McKinley assassinated Theodore Roosevelt becomes president

America Looks Outward

U.S. expansion shifts after 1890 Strategically placed islands taken, intended only as colonies

Catching the Spirit of Empire

Domestic concerns dominated the postCivil War years 1870s bring new interest in areas beyond U.S. boundaries Internationalism began to replace nationalism

Reasons for Expansion

Expansion abroad sought to gain markets Evolutionary ideas encourage expansion to give guidance to native peoples elsewhere Missionary spirit expressed in Josiah Strong's popular Our Country (1885)

Foreign Policy Approaches: 1867-1900

Expansionist foreign policy Acquisitions: Alaska, Midway Islands Erode European influence in Latin America

diverts Latin American trade from Europe through a series of reciprocity treaties U.S. supports Venezuela against Great Britain

The Lure of Hawaii and Samoa

1875--U.S. grants Hawaiian sugar free entry Queen Liliuokalani retaliates for McKinley Tariff, attempts to reduce U.S. influence 1893--American settlers pull off coup 1898--Hawaii made U.S. possession 1872--U.S. granted port facilities in Samoa 1899--U.S. shares control with Germany

Hawaiian Islands

The New Navy

Alfred Mahan argues that overseas markets are essential for industrial surpluses Large merchant marine, strong navy needed 1889--Secretary of Navy Benjamin Tracy supervises a program of naval construction U.S. gains offensive capability at sea

War with Spain

The war increased overseas possessions

It also gained the U.S. recognition as a

world power Americans became convinced they had a special destiny

A War for Principle

February, 1895--rebellion in Cuba "Yellow press" whips up U.S. sentiment to favor Cuban independence McKinley gains Spanish concessions February, 1898--explosion of the Maine April 19--Congress declares Cuba independent, passes "Teller Amendment" April 25--U.S. declares war on Spain

"A Splendid Little War"

U.S. regular army small, ill-prepared Problems of equipment and supply

regulars possess latest Krag-Jorgensen rifles Guard units possess old Springfield rifles

Most soldiers fight in National Guard units

Smoked Yankees

African Americans serve in army Guard units Black troops resist segregation African American soldiers win 26 Certificates of Merit, 5 Congressional Medals of Honor

The Course of the War

May 1--Commodore George Dewey captures Manila Bay June--Cuba invaded July--Santiago surrenders, Puerto Rico occupied August 13--Philippines surrender

Spanish-American War: Pacific Theater

Spanish-American War: Caribbean Theater

Acquisition of Empire

Fate of the Philippines was the thorniest issue at the peace negotiations December 1898--Treaty of Paris

Cuba independent U.S. takes Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines

The Treaty of Paris Debate

Debate over annexation of the Philippines

Opponents formed the Anti-Imperialist

League February, 1899--ratification of peace treaty makes U.S. a colonizing nation

American Empire, 1900

Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines

1898-1901--Emilio Aguinaldo leads Philippine independence movement 1901--U.S. replaces military with civil rule

local self-government permitted schedule established for independence

July 4, 1946--Philippine independence

World Colonial Empires, 1900

Governing the Empire

Supreme Court permits selective application of Constitution to new territories Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico organized as territories, inhabitants made U.S. citizens Navy controls Guam Cuban constitution ends U.S. occupation Platt Amendment--U.S. given right to intervene in Cuban affairs

The Open Door

March, 1900--"Open Door" policy in China

no European nation should carve out a sphere of influence in China and exclude others from trading in the area

Policy opens the potential for later conflict with expansion-minded powers in Pacific

Outcome of the War with Spain

Teddy Roosevelt a war hero Set back the cause of civil rights for African Americans Confirms Republicans as majority party U.S. soldiers stationed outside the country

The Changing Face of Industrialism

Industrial growth means more goods at

lower prices Residue of social problems from 1890s New century begins on optimistic note

The Innovative Model T

Henry Ford transforms auto industry with

mass production Small profit on each unit, grosses huge profit on high volume of sales 1908--Model T introduced 1916--Federal government begins highway subsidies

The Burgeoning Trusts

The trend toward bigness in industry

accelerates after 1900 Bankers provide integrated control through interlocking directorates Trusts controversial

often denounced as threats to equality some defend as more efficient

Business Consolidations (mergers), 1895-1905

Managing the Machines

Frederick Taylor advocates Scientific

Management to increase efficiency Worker welfare, morale suffers

better paychecks increased danger, tedium

1911--Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire

demonstrates risks of factory work

Better Times on the Farm

Isolation reduced by mail and parcel post

deliveries to farms Tenant farmers remain impoverished Western farmers benefit from vast irrigation projects

Irrigation and Conservation in the West to 1917

Women and Children at Work

Women resist ideals of domesticity to

enter work force Womens labor unions defend rights of women, child laborers 1921--Congress passes laws protecting pregnant workers, their infants health

"I Hear the Whistle": Immigrants in the Labor Force

1901-1920--fresh influx of Europeans,

Mexicans, Asians to labor force Non-English speakers considered a social problem Programs to "Americanize" them Immigration limited from China, Japan, Mexico, southern, central Europe

Immigration to the United States, 1900-1920 (by area of origin)

Mexican Immigration to the United States, 1900-1920

Conflict in the Workplace

1915-1918--new round of labor unrest

Industrial productivity falls

Union membership soars

Organizing Labor
A.F.L. the largest union

1903--women excluded from A.F.L. form

Women's Trade Union League 1905--others excluded from A.F.L. form Industrial Workers of the World Radical organizations win spectacular strikes with small numbers Fears of class warfare increase

Labor Union Membership, 18971920

Working with Workers

Employers improve working conditions to

avoid trouble Henry Ford doubles wages, reduces workday

plant production increases union activity ends

Amoskeag mills model paternalistic

approach to labor management Company hires whole families Benefits include playgrounds, health care, home-buying plans, recreation

A New Urban Culture

Mass production means mass

consumption Most Americans experience abundance

Production and Consumption

1900-1920--new advertising techniques

create demand for goods Goods increase U.S. standard of living Wealth increasingly concentrated

Living and Dying in an Urban Nation

By 1920 the average life span increased

substantially Booming cities take on modern form Zoning regulations separate industrial, commercial, residential areas


The Spirit of Progressivism

Progressivism not a coherent movement Shared values sense of evangelical Protestant duty faith in the benefits of science commitment to improve all aspects of American life

The Rise of the Professions

Professions bulwarks of Progressivism Law Medicine Business Education Social work Professionalism strengthened through

entrance exams, national associations

The Social-Justice Movement

Reformers forsake individualized reform

to address larger structural problems Apply scientific methods to social reform Social work became a profession

The Purity Crusade

Crusade against vice 1911--membership in Women's Christian

Temperance Union hits 250,000 1916--19 states prohibit alcohol 1920--18th Amendment prohibits alcohol

Woman Suffrage, Woman's Rights

Women fill Progressive ranks National Conference of Social Work General Federation of Women's Clubs 1890--National American Woman Suffrage

Association formed 1920--Nineteenth Amendment passed Suffrage seen as empowering women to benefit the disadvantaged

Womens Suffrage Before 1900

A Ferment of Ideas: Challenging the Status Quo

Progressives, pragmatists, measure value

of ideas by actions they inspire Reject social Darwinism John Dewey--education should stress personal growth, free inquiry, creativity

A Ferment of Ideas: Challenging the Status Quo (2)

1901--Socialist party formed

Unites intellectuals, factory workers,

tenant farmers, miners, lumberjacks Promises Progressive reform rather than overthrow of capitalism 1912--Socialist presidential candidate Eugene Debs polls over 900,000 votes

Reform in the Cities and States

Progressives wanted government to

follow the public will Reform government

reorganize for efficiency, effectiveness new agencies address particular social ills posts staffed with experts

Government power extended at all levels

Interest Groups and the Decline of Popular Politics

Decline in voter participation 77% from 1876-1900 65% from 1900-1916 52% in the 1920s remains near 52% through 20th century Interest groups get favorable legislation

through lobbying

Voter Participation in Presidential Elections, 18761920

Reform in the Cities

Urban reform leagues form professional,

nonpolitical civil service Appointed commissioners replace elected officials in many cities City manager idea spreads Reform mayors

Tom Johnson of Cleveland "Golden Rule" Jones of Toledo

Action in the States

State regulatory commissions created to

investigate economic life Initiative, referendum, and recall created 1917--17th Amendment provides for direct election of U.S. senators

Action in the States: Reform Governors

Robert La Follette of Wisconsin Wisconsin Idea taps experts in higher education for help in sweeping reforms Other Progressive governors Joseph Folk of Missouri Hiram Johnson of California Charles Evans Hughes of New York Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey

The Republican Roosevelt

Often defies convention

Brings an exuberance to the presidency

Surrounds himself with able associates

Busting the Trusts

1902--wave of trust-busting led by suit

against Northern Securities Company 1904--Northern Securities dissolved Roosevelt reputed a "trust-buster" Comparatively few antitrust cases under Roosevelt

"Square Deal" in the Coalfields

1902--United Mine Workers strike in

Pennsylvania threatens U.S. economy U.M.W., companies to White House Roosevelt wins company concessions by threatening military seizure of mines Roosevelt acts as broker of interests

Roosevelt Progressivism at Its Height

1904A four-way election RepublicanTheodore Roosevelt DemocratAlton B. Parker SocialistEugene V. Debs ProhibitionSilas C. Swallow Roosevelt wins 57% of popular vote, 336

electoral votes

Regulating the Railroads

1903--Elkins Act prohibits railroad rebates,

strengthens Interstate Commerce Commission Widespread popular demand for further railroad regulation after Roosevelts reelection 1906--Hepburn Act further strengthens Interstate Commerce Commission
membership from five to seven may fix reasonable maximum rates jurisdiction broadened to include oil pipeline, express, sleeping car companies

Cleaning Up Food and Drugs

Upton Sinclairs The Jungle (1906) prompts

federal investigation of meatpacking industry 1906--Meat Inspection Act

sets rules for sanitary meatpacking requires government inspection of meat products

Samuel Hopkins Adams exposes dangers of

patent medicines 1906--Pure Food and Drug Act

requires manufacturers to list certain ingredients bans manufacture and sale of adulterated drugs

Conserving the Land

First comprehensive national conservation

Roosevelt works with Gifford Pinchot, chief of Forest Service policy defines conservation as wise use of natural resources

Quadruples acreage under federal


National Parks and Forests

Conserving the Land (2)

Roosevelts challenge attacks malefactors of great wealth criticizes conservatism of federal courts agitates for pro-labor legislation Popular response business leaders blame for financial panic overwhelming majority support

The Ordeal of William Howard Taft

Taft able administrator, poor president

Conservative Republicans resurge

Taft loses support of Progressives

Party Insurgency
Tariff splits Republicans Progressives: high tariff favors trusts Conservatives: high tariff protects business 1909 Payne-Aldrich Act provokes

Progressives to break with Taft

The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair

Gifford Pinchot leading conservationist,

Roosevelt appointee Pinchot accuses Interior Secretary Richard Ballinger of selling public lands to friends Taft fires Pinchot Progressives antagonized

Taft Alienates the Progressives

1910--Taft successfully pushes Mann-

Elkins Act to strengthen ICC

empowers ICC to fix railroad rates Progressive Republicans attack Tafts plan of a Commerce Court to hear ICC appeals progressives obstruct Tafts negotiations

1910--Taft attacks Progressive

Republicans, Democrats gain Congress

Taft Alienates the Progressives (2)

Legislation protecting laborers
Sixteenth Amendment creates income tax Taft a greater trustbuster than Roosevelt

Taft, Roosevelt attack one another publicly

1912--Taft renominated by Republicans,

little chance for victory

Differing Philosophies in the Election of 1912

Roosevelt--Progressive ("Bull Moose") New Nationalism federal regulation of economy wasteful competition replaced by efficiency

Woodrow Wilson--Democrat "New Freedom" for individual restrain big business, government Democrats win White House, Congress

Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson former president of

Princeton, governor of New Jersey Progressive, intellectual, inspiring orator One of America's most effective presidents

The New Freedom in Action

1913--Underwood Tariff cuts duties 1913--Federal Reserve Act reforms

banks, establishes stable currency 1914--Clayton Antitrust Act outlaws unfair trade practices, protects unions 1914--Federal Trade Commission

New Freedom in Action: Retreating from Reform

November, 1914--Wilson announces the

"New Freedom" has been achieved It was a time of healing because a time of just dealing Statement stuns many progressives

Wilson Moves Toward the New Nationalism

Reasons for the move distracted by the outbreak of war in Europe needs conservative Southern support Republicans seem to gain by attacking his programs 1916--Presidential election

Wilson Moves Toward the New Nationalism (2)

Wilson renews reform in reelection bid Federal Farm Loan Act intervenes in strikes on behalf of workers attempts to ban child labor increases income taxes on the rich supports womens suffrage Program wins Wilson a close election

The Fruits of the Progressivism

Reform of government at all levels

Intelligent planning of reform

World War I ends Progressive optimism


A New World Power

American foreign policy aggressive,

nationalistic since late 19th century Colonialism draws U.S. into international affairs

"I Took the Canal Zone"

1903--Colombian senate refuses to allow

U.S. to build Panama Canal Roosevelt abetted revolution to separate Panama from Colombia Independent Panama permits construction 1914--Panama Canal opened

The Panama Canal Zone

The Roosevelt Corollary

U.S. treats Latin America as a protectorate

Roosevelt Corollary--U.S. will ensure

stability of Latin American finance Roosevelt Corollary spurs intervention in

Dominican Republic Panama Cuba

Ventures in the Far East

1905--TR mediates the Ruso-Japanese

War Diplomatic agreements with Japan

Korea under Japanese influence Japan to respect U.S. control of Philippines

Japanese resentment builds over Open

Door policy in China

Taft and Dollar Diplomacy

Taft substitutes economic force for

military American bankers replaced Europeans in Caribbean Taft's support for U.S. economic influence in Manchuria alienates China, Japan, Russia

Foreign Policy Under Wilson

Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy

Tries to base foreign policy on moral force

Conducting Moral Diplomacy

Wilson negotiated cooling-off treaties to

try and settle disputes without war Resorts to military force in Latin America
intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft

Troubles Across the Border

1913--Huerta leads coup in Mexico Wilson denies Huerta recognition Revolutionary regimes must reflect a just government based upon law Wilson blocks arms shipments to Mexico 1914--U.S. seizes Vera Cruz 1916--U.S. Army pursues Pancho Villa

across U.S., Mexican border

Activities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898-1930

Toward War
1914--War in Europe Central Powers headed by Germany Allied Powers headed by England, France Wilson sympathizes with England, seeks

U.S. neutrality

The Neutrality Policy

Progressives see war as wasteful,

irrational Suspicion that business seeks war for profit Immigrants prefer U.S. neutrality A long tradition of U.S. neutrality Americans see little national stake in war

Freedom of the Seas

England blockades Germany

U.S. ships to Germany seized

Wilson accepts English promise of

reimbursement at wars end

The U-Boat Threat

German submarines violate international

law by shooting without warning August, 1915-- Lusitania sunk by U-Boat April, 1916--Wilson issues ultimatum: call off attacks on cargo and passenger ships or U.S.-German relations will be severed Germany pledges to honor U.S. neutrality

"He Kept Us Out of War"

1916--Wilson campaigns on record of

neutrality Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigns on tougher line against Germany Wilson wins close election

wins large labor, progressive vote wins majority of womens vote

The Final Months of Peace

1917--Germany lifts restrictions on U-

Boats Wilsons response

orders U.S. merchant vessels armed orders U.S. Navy to fire on German U-Boats

April 2, 1917--War declared on Germany

Over There
U.S. allies in danger of losing war Germans sink 881,000 tons of Allied shipping during April, 1917 mutinies in French army British drive in Flanders Stalled Bolsheviks sign separate peace with Germany; German troops to West Italian army routed Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive

U.S. Losses to the German Submarine Campaign, 1916-1918

No U.S. contingency plans for war

200,000 troops at wars beginning

Draft conscripts 2.8 million by wars end

European Alliances and Battlefronts, 1914-1917

War in the Trenches

Teaming of U.S., English navies halves

Allied losses to submarines June 1917--U.S. troops arrive in France Spring, 1918--U.S. forces help halt final German offensive

battle of Chateau Thierry battle of Belleau Wood

September--Germans out of St. Mihiel

The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918

Over Here
Victory on front depends on mobilization at

home Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production and distribution Wilson begins campaign for American emotions

The Conquest of Convictions

1918--Wilson uses popular anti-German

rage to pass the Sedition Act

criticism of the war was penalized dissenters imprisoned

Summer, 1918--anticommunism prompts

deployment of U.S. troops to Russia 1918-1919--Red Scare results in domestic suppression of radicals

A Bureaucratic War
Wartime agencies supervise production,

distribution to maximize war effort Government seizes some businesses to keep them running Cooperation between government and business the norm Business profits from wartime industry

Labor in the War

Union membership swells

Labor shortage prompts wage increase entry of Mexican-Americans, women, AfricanAmericans to war-related industrial work force

African American Migration Northward, 1910-1920

Labor in the War (2)

200,000 blacks serve in France 42,000 combat troops Great Migration to northern factories blacks must adjust industrial work pace encounter Northern racism 1917-1919--Race riots in urban North Wartime experience prompts new surge of

black resistance

The Treaty of Versailles

Common concern about Bolshevik

revolution Wilsons Fourteen points call for nonpunitive settlement England and France balk at Fourteen Points
want Germany disarmed and crippled want Germanys colonies skeptical of principle of self-determination

A Peace at Paris
Wilson fails to deflect Allied punishment of

Germany in treaty Treaty creates Wilsons League of Nations

Article X of League charter requires members to protect each others territorial integrity

League's jurisdiction excludes member

nations domestic affairs

Europe after The Treaty Versailles, 1919

Rejection in the Senate

Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge

leads opposition to Treaty, League October, 1919--stroke disables Wilson November--Treaty fails in Senate January, 1920--final defeat of Treaty July, 1921--U.S. peace declared by joint Congressional resolution

Rejection in the Senate (2)

Wilson hopes reelection will provide

mandate for League of Nations Landslide for Republican Warren Harding Defeat of League of Nations brings defeat of Progressive spirit

Postwar Disillusionment
To the next generation the war seemed

futile, wasteful The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support Americans welcomed Hardings return to normalcy