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Train Dynamics

BY

Syed Khaja Hussain

B.Tech., M.B.A

Instructor/Rng/DTTC/GTL

Easy
No steering is required

Complex
Hauling of an elastic mass connected with a series of springs and couplers Reaction from the trailing stock are neither instantaneous nor fully controllable

Comparison between Driving a Road Vehicle and a Train


Road Vehicle
Concentration Road knowledge Steering Control Normal concentration Not required Essential Essential but easy

Train
Sustained concentration Essential Not required Essential and complex due to trailing elastic mass Vigil and alertness/ guided by signal

Freedom to move/ stop Without restriction

Braking Distance
Responsibility

Short
Limited to self/ few persons

Long and variable


Of hundreds of passengers and goods worth millions
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Engneering Mechanics

Statics

Dynamics

Kinematics

Kinetics

Fashion of motion
Bouncing Lurching Pitching Nosing

Cause & Result of Motion


Jerks Speed

Syed Khaja Hussain Instructor/Rng/DTTC/GTL

General Terms Used In Train Dynamics


Tractive Effort Adhesion Friction Draw Bar Pull Vehicle Behavior Slack Run-in and Run-out Train resistance

What is Tractive Effort ?


The sum of forces at the rims of the driving wheels, which overcome the resistance, offered by the train, and cause it to move (or accelerate or maintained the speed, as the case may be)
Motion

Tractive Effort

RAIL

General Terms Used In Train Dynamics


Tractive Effort Adhesion Friction Draw Bar Pull Vehicle Behavior Slack Run-in and Run-out Train resistance

What is Adhesion?
Motion

Tractive Effort

54 42%
Adhesion

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Adhesion can be defined by the following locomotive formula: % Adhesion = Tractive Effort (kg) X 100/ Locomotive Weight
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General Terms Used In Train Dynamics


Tractive Effort Adhesion Friction Draw Bar Pull Vehicle Behavior Slack Run-in and Run-out Train resistance

Friction
When two moving surfaces, came in contact. Resistance to motion, is called as FRICTION

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General Terms Used In Train Dynamics


Tractive Effort Adhesion Friction Draw Bar Pull Vehicle Behavior Slack Run-in and Run-out Train resistance

Draw Bar Pull


Draw bar pull is the difference between the tractive effort and sum of the total rolling and the wind resistance of the locomotive at any operating speed. It is the useful force exerted by the entire locomotive in hauling trains
Draw Bar Pull = Tractive Effort Train Resistance
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General Terms Used In Train Dynamics


Tractive Effort Adhesion Friction Draw Bar Pull Vehicle Behavior Slack Run-in and Run-out Train resistance

Linear and Rotational Motion of Vehicle in Three different Axes Vehicle Behaviour

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Linear and Rotational Motion of Vehicle in Three different Axes Vehicle Behaviour
Mode of Oscillation Axis Linear Rotational

Shuttling

Rolling

Lurching

Pitching

Bouncing

Nosing (also call as Yaw)

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

SHUTTLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Compressive forces along the length of the train

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

ROLLING ABOUT THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

BOUNCING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

NOSING ABOUT THE VERTICAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

LURCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Increase in flange force

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

PITCHING ABOUT THE LATERAL AXIS Reduction in instantaneous wheel load

Linear and Rotational Motion of Vehicle in Three different Axes Vehicle Behaviour

90

Different Parasitic Motion Generation due to the Effect of Track Defect


TRACK DEFECTS X- level Loose Packing Low Jt Incorrect Alignment Slack Gauge Variation in versine PARASITIC MOTION Rolling Bouncing Rolling Pitching Nosing, Lurch Nosing, Lurch, Nosing, Hunting
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Different Parasitic Motion Generation due to the Effect of Vehicle Defect


VEHICLE DEFECTS Coupling PARASITIC MOTION Shuttling Nosing

Thin Flange WornWheel


Broken, Ineffective Spring Side Bearers Clearance

Hunting Nosing Lurching


Bouncing Pitching, Rolling Rolling Nosing

Ineffective Pivot

Nosing
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General Terms Used In Train Dynamics


Tractive Effort Adhesion Friction Draw Bar Pull Vehicle Behavior Slack Run-in and Run-out Train resistance

Concept of Slack :
Slack is inherent in any chain of vehicle. Tightening connections can reduce it but it cannot be eliminated altogether. Vehicles start moving at different time intervals because of slack. Slack causes severe shock loads unless driving is properly adjusted.

Slack is of Two Types


1. Free Slack 2. Spring Slack
Free Slack :
It is the free relative movement of vehicles without change in the draft gear spring. It could be 1 to 2.
Free Slack

Etc.
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COUPLER FREE SLACK It is distance a coupler can move if pulled manually by a bar. In crude term it is free travel of couple.
Free Slack

Free Slack

OPERATIONS OF A COUPLING SYSTEM

Spring Slack :
It is the additional slack caused due to spring compression and/ or elongation. It could be 4 to 6. Combined slack per vehicle could be 6. Relative movement between loco and the last vehicle could be 30 ft for a train of 60 vehicles.
Free Slack Spring Slack Etc.

A good driver caters to all the slacks to avoid shock loading and consequent damage to components and/ or accidents.
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General Terms Used In Train Dynamics


Tractive Effort Adhesion Friction Draw Bar Pull Vehicle Behavior Slack Run-in and Run-out Train resistance

Run-in and Run-out


When Run-in & Run-out occur ?
When length and load of a train is more.

The stress and strain on draft gear will also be more.


Such train experience Run-in & Run-out.

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Run-in and Run-out


Why Run-in & Run-out occur ?
It may occur due to - sudden application of brakes. - change in gradient. - sudden change in speed. - in-built gap between locked knuckles.
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Run-in and Run-out


What will be effect ?
The intensity of Run-in & Run-out is the major

cause for sudden

JERK.

It results into breakage of coupling component.

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Run-in and Run-out


Practically, when it occur ?
When restarting the train, stopped on an up-gradient. While restarting a train, after sudden application of brakes. While accelerating a train, on up-gradient or plain, after a down gradient.

While accelerating a train, after releasing dynamic brake.


While applying sudden brake from rear brake van.
103

General Terms Used In Train Dynamics


Tractive Effort Adhesion Friction Draw Bar Pull Vehicle Behavior Slack Run-in and Run-out Train Resistance

Train Resistance

Train resistance contains :


1. Resistance on straight level track 2. Journal Resistance :
i) Highest at starting. ii) Goes lower at 5 to 10 KMPH. iii) Remain constant at higher speed.

3. Air Resistance :
At high speed it consumes large portion of draw bar pull.

4. Flange Resistance :
Losses due to oscillation and vibration of the vehicle.
105

Train Resistance
5. Gradient Resistance :
Effort required to lift a train up on a gradient.

6. Curve Resistance :
Effort required to negotiate curve.

7. Acceleration Resistance :
Sum of the above three resistances subtracted from tractive effort available at the speed is the tractive effort available for acceleration.

106

Braking Distance
Braking Distance of Locomotive is the distance covered by the train after application of brakes, and is the sum of free running distance and retardation distance.

107

Method of Braking
Automatic Brake (A-9) and Throttle Handle Dynamic Brake Only Dynamic Brake & Automatic Brake SSM
(Slack Stretched Method)

SBM
(Slack Bunched Method)

SBM
(Slack Bunched Method)

Automatic Brake Only

Modified SBM
(Modified Slack Bunched Method)
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Speed Time Curve


Speed time curve of a train running on main line.

There are five distinct period :


Starting up period or notching up period (o-t1) Acceleration Period (t1to t2 ) Free Running Period or Negotiating (t2 to t3): Braking Period or Stopping

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Train Dynamics
Depends on : Slack of train Track condition and geometry Train marshalling Driving technique

Resources to be mobilized :Ensure safety Punctuality Economy of operation Customer satisfaction


110

Hazards of Poor Enginemanship

Loss of Punctuality. Excess fuel consumption. Jerks/Rough riding. Train Stalling. Passing Signal at Danger. Brake Binding. Train Parting. Loco Failures. Damage to the Rolling Stock. Traffic dislocation Accidents.

Forces acting on a running train

FULLY UNDER DRIVERS CONTROL

PARTIALLY UNDER DRIVERS CONTROL

NOT UNDER DRIVERS CONTROL

Forces acting on a running train

TRACTIVE EFFORT FULLY UNDER DRIVERS CONTROL

BRAKING FORCE

Forces acting on a running train

TOTAL SLACKNESS

PARTIALLY UNDER DRIVERS CONTROL

MOMENTUM

Forces acting on a running train


TRAIN RESISTANCES

Rolling friction Journal Resistance Flange Resistance Wind Resistance Gradient Resistance Curve Resistance. NOT UNDER DRIVERS CONTROL

OPERATIONAL FEATURES;

APPLICATION AND REDUCTION OF BRAKING EFFORT

WHAT ARE THE OPERATIONS DONE BY THE DRIVER OF A LOCOMOTIVE ?

APPLICATION AND REDUCTION OF TRACTIVE EFFORT

(Apply/Release the Brake)

(Open/Close theThrottle)

Parasitic Oscillation generated due to Operational features

LINEAR IN

X- AXIS

Which is experienced as

JERK !!

What is a Jerk ?
INSTANTANEOUS CHANGE IN SPEED

The intensity of a jerk is directly proportional to the mass and the square of the velocity (mv2)

DRIVER SHOULD BE ABLE TO OPERATE WITHOUT

JERK AND OVERSPEEDING

To avoid parasitic oscillations due to operational features

Slackness in Train
Free Slackness: Gap between Couplings Spring Slackness: Due to Compression of Draft gear. Total Slackness = Free slackness + Spring Slackness (2 + 4) = 6 Inches/Vehicle Gradual Stretching of the slackness

Gradual Bunching of the slackness NO JERKS (Smooth RUN-IN & RUN-OUT)

Train
Handling

Methods
.
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Train Handling
1.THROTTLE

2. SELECTOR HANDLE ( Dynamic Brake)


3. A9 (AUTOMATIC BRAKE) 4. SA9 (INDEPENDENT BRAKE)

THROTTLE
Rapid Notching Up To Higher Notches

THROTTLE

Rapid Notching Down From Higher Notches To Idle.

Picking Up of 2nd Transition in WDM3A & Ist Transition in WDG 3A at 7 th & 8th Notch Notching Up Immediately After Releasing A9 By Watching The BP Gauge

Rapid Notching Up To Higher Notches


EFFECT :
Due to which head-on portion Will get movement and rear portion will not move thereby a chance of developing high tensile force and chance of train parting.

REMEDY :
1. Apply SA9, open throttle to 1st notch allow the complete train to stretch then open 2nd notch gradually release the SA9 allow the train to move at least 25 feet. 2. Give a gap of 30 seconds. 3. While notching up to avoid wheel slip. 4. While notching up from 4th to 5th maintain minimum 5 KMPH of speed, 5th to 6th Notch 7 KMPH, 6th to 7th 11 KMPH, 7th to 8th 15 KMPH. 5. Feel the load on the loco by experience.

THROTTLE
Rapid Notching Up To Higher Notches

THROTTLE

Rapid Notching Down From Higher Notches To Idle.

Picking Up of 2nd Transition in WDM3A & Ist Transition in WDG 3A at 7 th & 8th Notch Notching Up Immediately After Releasing A9 By Watching The BP Gauge

Rapid Notching Down From Higher Notches To Idle


EFFECT : Due to which BUFF OR COMPRESSIVE FORCE will develop which may cause derailment and damage to the consignment. REMEDY : Notch down slowly pausing between notch to notch and allow the train to bunch slowly thereby minimizing the development of compressive force.

THROTTLE
Rapid Notching Up To Higher Notches

THROTTLE

Rapid Notching Down From Higher Notches To Idle.

Picking Up of 2nd Transition in WDM3A & Ist Transition in WDG 3A at 7 th & 8th Notch Notching Up Immediately After Releasing A9 By Watching The BP Gauge

Picking Up of 2nd Transition in WDM3A & WDG 3A in 7 th & 8th Notch


EFFECT : Due to which train will be bunched and immediately stretched due to dropping and picking up of GF contactor. REMEDY : Allow the transition to pick up on lower notches. Notch down immediately when transition picks up.

THROTTLE
Rapid Notching Up To Higher Notches

THROTTLE

Rapid Notching Down From Higher Notches To Idle.

Picking Up of 2nd Transition in WDM3A & Ist Transition in WDG 3A at 7 th & 8th Notch Notching Up Immediately After Releasing A9 By Watching The BP Gauge

Notching Up Immediately After Releasing A9 By Watching The BP Gauge


EFFECT : Since the loco is the 1st vehicle and the rear portion will have to get prescribed B.P pressure. Hence high tensile force will develop due to non realeasing of brakes. REMEDY : Notch up by watching Air flow indicator white needle to coinside with the red needle or wait for minimum releasing time based on the application of A9.

Train Handling
1.THROTTLE

2. SELECTOR HANDLE ( Dynamic Brake)


3. A9 (AUTOMATIC BRAKE) 4. SA9 (INDEPENDENT BRAKE)

Dynamic Brake
ADVANTAGES: Keeps the brakes block wear and wheel life more. It is more economical than A9 if you tally with the fuel consumed and brake wear.

It is time saving because after using DB you have to wait for only 10 seconds to switch over to motoring, but for A9 you have to wait 90 to 120 seconds minimum based on A9 application.
EFFECTIVE USAGE OF DB IS BETWEEN 20-45 KMPH FOR GOODS AND 20-60 KMPH FOR COACHING. BELOW 20 KMPH THE EFFECT OF DB WILL BE FADING OUT.

Dynamic Brake
Rapidly Bringing from Motoring To Braking In Full Range

Selector
Rapidly Bringing from Braking To Motoring and immediately Notching UP

Rapidly Bringing from Motoring To Braking In Full Range


EFFECT : Due to which BUFF OR COMPRESSIVE FORCE will develop as you are controlling head-on portion and the tail-end portion will come and bunch on the head-on portion. which may cause derailment and damage to the consignment.

REMEDY :
1. After closing the throttle, wait for 4 seconds, for the magnetic fields developed in the traction motors to decay. 2. Move the selector handle to big D, keep it for 6 to 30 seconds based on the type of load and grade, and allow the complete train to bunch. 3. Advance it slowly 4Ds at once move it to maximum duly watching load ammeter if it permits.

Dynamic Brake
Rapidly Bringing from Motoring To Braking In Full Range

Selector
Rapidly Bringing from Braking To Motoring and immediately Notching UP

Rapidly Bringing from Braking To Motoring and immediately Notching UP


EFFECT : As the head-on portion suddenly gains the momentum and the tailend portion is on controlling sudden stretching of train will take place thereby development of high tensile force which in turn causes parting. The D.C traction motor will have high starting torque. If you notch up immediately after bringing the selector handle from braking to motoring, there is every chance of 4th notch out put on 1st notch due to the availability of 4th notch RPM (DB RPM) thereby high tensile force will develop which may cause train parting. REMEDY :
Move the selector handle slowly D by D to Big D. Allow the train to stretch slowly then bring the selector to motoring. Give minimum of 10 seconds after bringing the selector handle to motoring before opening the throttle to the RPM to settle down.

Train Handling
1.THROTTLE

2. SELECTOR HANDLE ( Dynamic Brake)


3. A9 (AUTOMATIC BRAKE) 4. SA9 (INDEPENDENT BRAKE)

Automatic Brake -- A9
Low Brake Pipe Pressure
Heavy Application

Applied Brake Too Fast

A9
Running Release

Cyclic Braking

Short Brake Application

Low Brake pipe pressure


Low Brake pipe pressure: In normal working condition if the Driver drops the BP more than 1.5 kg/cm2 it is called as Low Brake Pipe Pressure. If you drop B.P through A9 the pressure applied on brake cylinder is as follows.

B.P.Dropped in KG/cm2 4.5----0.5 4.0----1.0

Pressure applied on Brake Cylinder KG/cm2


1.2 3

3.4----1.6
0

3.8 + or 0.1
3.8 + or 0.1

Low Brake pipe pressure


EFFECT :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. If the you drop the B.P more than 1.5 kg/cm2 which will have maximum effect on brake cylinder. In normal working condition, if you drop more than 1.5 kg/cm2 the valuable compressed air is wasted. Due to which the compressors are required to work more time thereby excessive fuel consumption will take place. To recharge time (realeasing time )taken will be more thereby loss of running time. Wear in the brake blocks will be more thereby life of brake blocks and wheel tyre will go down. Causes brakes binding thereby flat tyre will occur.

REMEDY :
1. Try to control the speed by manipulating throttle and selector. Use A9 only when it is extremely required as per the procedure.

Automatic Brake -- A9
Low Brake Pipe Pressure
Heavy Application

Applied Brake Too Fast

A9
Running Release

Cyclic Braking

Short Brake Application

Heavy Application
Heavy application: In normal condition when the train is running with 25 KMPH or above if the driver drops B.P more than 0.7 kg/cm2 in 5 seconds it is called Heavy application. EFFECT :

1.

If you drop B.P more than 0.7 kg /cm2, in 5 seconds, front portion will be applied and the rear portion will RUN IN to front portion as the time gap between applications of brakes in front portion and rear portion is more because the dropped air will be vented out only through Ad C2 relay valve. This causes development of high compressive force, which may cause derailment.
Further as per the Newtons 3rd law (action will have same reaction) the rear portion after hitting the front portion will stretch (RUN OUT) on its own there by developing high tensile force which in turn causes parting.

2.
3.

Heavy Application
Note: In emergency application, the development of compressive/tensile forces will be less than service application due to, the time gap between the application of brakes in the front and rear portion will be less because the dropped air will be vented out through the A9 as well as Ad C2 relay valve. REMEDY :

Always apply A9 to Min Reduction, after waiting for 20 seconds advance it to service zone to compensate the application of brakes in front and rear portions.

Automatic Brake -- A9
Low Brake Pipe Pressure
Heavy Application

Applied Brake Too Fast

A9
Running Release

Cyclic Braking

Short Brake Application

Applied Brake Too Fast


Applied Brake Too Fast: When you apply A9 to min reduction and not keeping in min reduction for 20 seconds and advancing within 10 seconds to service zone is called as ABTF EFFECT : Development of compressive and tensile forces will be same as in the case of Heavy application, but the chances are 70% in Heavy application compared to 30% in ABTF. REMEDY : Always apply A9 to MIN Reduction , after waiting for 20 seconds advance it to service zone to compensate the application of brakes in front and rear portions.

Automatic Brake -- A9
Low Brake Pipe Pressure
Heavy Application

Applied Brake Too Fast

A9
Running Release

Cyclic Braking

Short Brake Application

Running Release
Running Release: After dropping the B.P to 0.7 kg/cm2 as per the procedure and when the train speed is between 5 to 15 KMPH, if you release A9 i.e., called as Running release. Effect : 1. 2. Due to which the front portion brakes will get released and will try to run ahead due to its tendency. The rear portion will be still on brakes-on condition. Due to lesser speed brake blocks will be tight on the wheels which will cause development of high tensile force there by parting.

Remedy : To avoid running realease

Automatic Brake -- A9
Low Brake Pipe Pressure
Heavy Application

Applied Brake Too Fast

A9
Running Release

Cyclic Braking

Short Brake Application

Cyclic Braking
Cyclic braking: Repeated application of A9 above 0.7 kg/cm2 within 50 seconds of release is called cyclic braking. Effect : 1. The compressed air which you have sent in to the brake cylinders, before it could act on the brake rigging you are connecting it back to DV exhaust thereby improper utilization of compressed air. Wastage of fuel oil since the compressor is working for more time. In single pipe fading of brake power due to wastage of auxiliary air from aux.reservoir. Due to brake wear brake block life will come down. In CC rakes in the last lap of KMs the brake power will be less. Damages to wheel disc. Smooth application of brakes will not be there and jerks will develop.

2. 3.
4. 5. 6.

Remedy : Always repeat the A9 application after the correct interval (60 sec. approx.) depends on the previous application.

Automatic Brake -- A9
Low Brake Pipe Pressure
Heavy Application

Applied Brake Too Fast

A9
Running Release

Cyclic Braking

Short Brake Application

Short Brake Application


Short Brake Application:
1. 2. Applying A9 to Min Reduction (0.5) and release. Applying A9 to MR (0.5) and wait for 20 seconds advance it to service zone and release before 60 seconds.

Effect : 1. If you drop the BP to 0.5kg/cm2 and release, the recharging pressure will be only 0.5kg/cm2 and the same when it reaches the last vehicle it will be 0.2kg/cm2 approx., which will cause the rear portion brakes on when the front portion brakes are released. 2. Improper utilization of compressed air and there by wastage of fuel oil and travel time. Remedy: 1. If your train has come to a stop with the application of A9 to Min Reduction, do not release from Min Reduction further drop it to service zone and release after 60 seconds. So that the recharging pressure will at higher rate and releases the rear portion on par with front portion. 2. After advancing the A9 to service zone from Min Reduction do not release before 60 seconds.

Train Handling
1.THROTTLE

2. SELECTOR HANDLE ( Dynamic Brake)


3. A9 (AUTOMATIC BRAKE) 4. SA9 (INDEPENDENT BRAKE)

SA9
Do Not : Do not apply SA9 fully when the train speed is above 5 KMPH. Do not apply SA9 on ascending grade when the train is still on move. Effect : This will cause development of high compressive force and causes damage to consignment and for coaching passengers will not have riding comfort. Remedy : 1. 2. Always apply SA9 fully when the train speed is below 5 KMPH if the speed is more than that do cyclic application. On ascending grade apply SA9 only after train comes to dead stop.

BRAKE WEAR
a. Before starting, ensure that all brakes are in released condition. b. Observe all speed restrictions by manipulating throttle and using DB to the maximum level and avoid A9 as far as possible. c. For stopping the train use dynamic brake to reduce the speed and then apply A9 as per the procedure. Avoid Short Brake, Running Release, Cyclic Braking, Heavy Application And ABTF While Using A9. Avoid Brake Binding On Train.

e. Keep watch on Air flow indicator white needle it should be in alignment with the fixed red needle, then only notch up not by watching BP gauge. f. Avoid over controlling.

BRAKE WEAR
For example in normal condition when a train is running with 60 KMPH controlling can be done in the following manner. Close the throttle and allow the train to coast the speed to drop up to 55 KMPH approx. Apply DB and drop the speed further to 50 KMPH approx. Now apply A9 to Min Reducation wait for 20 seconds mean while the speed comes down to 40 KMPH approx. Then advance the A9 to service zone to stop the train. Do not release A9 before 60 seconds or when the speed is between 5 to 15 KMPH. Thus avoided Short Brake, Running Release, Cyclic Braking, Heavy Application and ABTF.

Emergency Braking Distance


WDP 4 WDM 3D VARIATION WITH LOCO

WDM 2
Warning signal Stop signal

Brake application

Brake application

Depends on Loco Gradient Load Brake system of the trailing loco.

Brake application

Emergency Braking Distance


VARIATION WITH LOAD

Warning signal

Stop signal

Brake application

Brake application

Brake application

Emergency Braking Distance


VARIATION WITH GRADIENT

Emergency Braking Distance


VARIATION WITH STOCK

Warning signal

Stop signal

Brake application Stop signal

Warning signal

Brake application

EMERGENCY BRAKING DISTANCE


EBD OF LE WITH 100 KMPH IN 1in 100 FALLING GRADIENT
TYPE OF LOCO MPS GRADIENT TYPE OF BRAKE BLOCKS/ BRAKING DISTANCE CAST IRON WDM2/WDM3A 110 1 in 100 Fall 1150 M COMPOSIT 650 M

WDM2/WDM3A
WDP4 WDP4

100
110 100

1 in 100 Fall
1 in 100 Fall 1 in 100 Fall

1000 M
*** ***

600 M
800 M 700 M

WDM3D
WDG4

100
100

1 in 100 Fall
1 in 100 Fall

1150 M
***

600 M
650 M

EMERGENCY BRAKING DISTANCE


EBD OF COACHING TRAIN
LOCO MPS GRADIENT NO. OF BRAKING NO. OF BRAKING COACHES DISTANCE COACHES DISTANCE

WDM2
WDM3 -A WDP4 WDM3D

110
110 110 100

1 in 100 Fall
1 in 100 Fall 1 in 100 Fall 1 in 100 Fall

18
21 21 21

600
650 600 650

20
24 24 24

600
650 650 650

EMERGENCY BRAKING DISTANCE


EBD OF GOODS TRAIN
TYPE OF STOCK GRADIE NT NO.OF VEHICLES % OF BRAKE POWER EMPTY LOAD (CC+8+2)

BRAKING MPS DISTANCE


75 75 75 500 M 500 M 600 M

MPS

BRAKING DISTANCE
700 M 750 M 750 M

1 in 100 BOX-N Falling 1 in 100 BCN Falling 1 in 100 BTPN Falling

59+1 43+1 50+1

100 90 90

60 60 60

Train Handling Level Terrain :


Grades of less than - 1 in 400

Starting The Train :


Release the automatic brake. Open the throttle to first notch and simultaneously release independent brake. Note the load meter reading and move to second notch, when the load meter needle is stabilized. Like wise move throttle up to fourth notch duly allowing pauses between notches. If the train starts moving in the stretched mode, increase throttle slowly to accelerate the train. Wait until the train has absorbed the power from the present notch position, before notching up.
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Level Terrain :
Accelerating The Train :
The acceleration of train depends on connected load. Load meter can be used as a guide for throttle handling. Notch up in the stretch mode to obtain balance speed / desired speed Avoid slack while notching up.

Negotiating (Steady running) :


Once the desired / balance speed is achieved, adjust the throttle notch to maintain the speed. Frequent adjustment of notch position is not advisable as this disturbs the propulsion control circuits unnecessarily.
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Level Terrain :
Slowing Down :
Reduce throttle slowly and allow to coast. Apply brake to decelerates rapidly Either dynamic brake alone or dynamic brake with automatic brake can be applied in slack bunch method. Brake should be applied keeping in view the train speed and the state of slack prior to initiating action for slowing down brake equipment, train make up and the state of slack prior to initiate the slowing down.

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Level Terrain :
Stopping The Train :
Close the throttle gradually. Apply brake in slack bunch method. Dynamic braking in lower speed (less than 18 Kmph) should not be used. (Exception GM locomotives). Apply independent brake, after the train comes to dead stop.

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Heavy Ascending Grade :


Grades of more than - 1 in 100

Starting The Train :


Train brakes to be fully released. Advance throttle sufficiently to hold the train. Release the independent brake very slowly. As the train starts moving, notch up gradually keeping a watch on load meter to ensure that power at a particular notch is absorbed before moving to next higher position. If the wheel slips, reduce one or two notch position and apply sand. Once the wheel slip stops, reapply power smoothing. If the train does not move, reduce throttle sufficiently to hold the train and apply independent brake. Then investigate the reason for not moving.
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Heavy Ascending Grade :


Accelerating The Train :
Advance throttle to higher notch duly observing load meter. Fast notching up may result in high draw bar pull and should be avoided.

Negotiating :
Maintain free running in the slack stretched condition. Do not change throttle notch position frequently as frequently as this disturb the propulsion control circuit.

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Heavy Ascending Grade :


Slowing Down :
Slowly reduce throttle. handle position. Allow sufficient time between notch positions to keep the slack stretched. Control the train speed only by reducing throttle. Do not apply automatic brake, except in emergency.

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Heavy Ascending Grade :


Stopping The Train :
Reduce throttle slowly. Allow the train to stall in one or two notch position.

Apply independent brake.


If automatic brake is applied, create the brake pipe pressure to initial level just before the train comes to dead stop.

As soon as the train stops apply independent brake to avoid roll back.

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Heavy Descending Grade :

Grades of more than - 1 in 100

Starting The Train :


For loaded train move the selector handle to big B (or) D and then release the independent brake slowly.
For empty train, release the independent brake slowly and then apply dynamic brake gradually. As the train starts moving, apply both dynamic brake and automatic brake to the required extent.
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Heavy Descending Grade :


Accelerating The Train :
Allow the train to accelerate by suitably releasing the automatic brake and dynamic brake. Slack bunch should be maintained to avoid run out.

Negotiating :
Allow free run in dynamic brake mode operation to maintain the slack bunch. In order to maintain the train speed on heavy descending grade automatic brake should be supplemented by dynamic brake.

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Heavy Descending Grade :


Slowing Down :
Slack bunch braking method can be used to slow down. For loaded train automatic brake can be used to a higher degree than for empty train.

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Heavy Descending Grade :


Stopping The Train :
Use slack bunch and cyclic braking method. Do not allow brake pipe pressure to build up to initial level, before the train comes to dead stop. How ever allow the brake pipe pressure when the train comes to dead stop.

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Undulating Grade
It is defined as a track profile with grade changing frequently, and three or more ascending and descending grades in a stretch. Train slack is constantly adjusting as vehicles in descending grades tend to roll faster then those on ascending grade. Grade more then 1 in 100 is defined as a severe undulating grade. An undulating grade with track curvature greater then 2 degrees should be treated with special consideration. 194

Undulating Grade
Train handling in this type of territory depends on the following :

Train make-up
Train speed Train length

Train load
Train features
195

Undulating Grade
Starting The Train :
Head end of train on descending grade.

Release independent brake slowly. After the slack is stretched, open throttle handle to first notch to move. If the train moves rapidly, while releasing independent brake,

apply train brake to control the speed.


Head end of the train on ascending grade.

Open throttle to first notch. Release the independent brake slowly. Advance throttle as the slack is stretched.

196

Undulating Grade
Accelerating The Train :

Advance throttle very slowly than normal condition. As the slack can not be stretched-throttle should be very slowly adjusted.
Negotiating : Employing throttle manipulation.

Maintain train speed as constant as possible. Do not change the throttle position frequently as this will increase the in-train forces.
Employing dynamic brake.

Maintain train speed by slowly adjusting the selector handle. Do not change the selector position rapidly, as this will increase the in-train forces.
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Undulating Grade
Slowing Down :
Employing throttle manipulation. Use lower throttle position on ascending portion of grade. Employing throttle and train brake. Only minimum reduction of train brake is advisable duly controlling the train reducing throttle well in advance. Employing dynamic brake and train brake.

In conjunction with dynamic brake, train brake can also be used to slow down.
Dynamic brake should be carefully adjusted to avoid severe in-train forces.
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Undulating Grade
Stopping The Train : Use slack bunch braking method to stop.
Train brake may be applied to minimum reduction position before applying train brake further. The dynamic brake and train brake has to be adjusted to reduce in-train forces.

199

Ghat Section
General : The ruling gradient of 1 in 50 or steeper are considered as Ghat section. Ensure :
100%/ 90% of brake power on formation. Dynamic brake in working order. Speedometer in working order. Sand gear in working order.
206

Ghat Section
Starting : Ascending :
Ensure train brakes are fully released. Advance the throttle sufficiently to hold the train. Release the independent brakes slowly, so as the train start in the slack stretched condition, open the throttle notch by notch keenly watching load meter without wheel slip. Apply sanders to avoid any slipping during starting. Note : Banker operation instructions strictly if banker loco is provided.

207

Starting : Descending :

Ghat Section

Ensure the brake power continuity on formation. Apply dynamic brake and release independent brake so as to start the train in slack bunched condition. As the train starts rolling, control the train in bunched mode by the manipulation of dynamic brake.
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Negotiating : Ascending :

Ghat Section

Maintain free running in slack stretched condition. Maintain the section speed and do not change the notch frequently to avoid Heavy in train forces.

Wheel slip/ stalling.


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Negotiating : Descending :

Ghat Section

Keep on control over the train running with in the speed limits by the maximum effort of dynamic brake application along with automatic brake application, if necessary. Train speed should be controlled/ reduced by cyclic brake application.

210

Stopping :
Ascending :

Ghat Section

By reducing the throttle to lower notches so as to stop & hold the train in a stretched condition.

Fully apply the independent brake and formation brakes to min reduction to avoid roll back.
Bring the throttle to idle.
211

Stopping : Descending :

Ghat Section

Along with dynamic brake application apply train brakes to bring train to dead stop. Apply independent brakes fully.

If necessary apply train brake to minimum reduction to avoid pushing.


Special Note : To avoid rolling back of the train at the time of engine failure (loco shutdown) immediately apply train brakes fully and take precautions as per the GR & SR instructions.
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Alcoholism
Analysis indicates that more than half the times, accidents occur because of human failure.

213

Alcoholism Effects :
Heavy drinking of alcohol can produce more serious effect such as, Physical :
Mental confusion. Violent trembling. Hallucinations (visions) Paralyzes the hands and feet. Loosing memory. Damage to liver, kidney and finally they end in very painful death.
214

Alcoholism
Social:
Decay of social relationship. Problems in his duty. o Poor concentration o Poor health. o Poor memory, weakness. Family problems. Indebtedness. Mental disorder. Mental fear. Reporting late for duty. Eager to leave duty early. Improper HOC and TOC. Adopting short cut method. Not able to do the simple normal work like buttoning shirt, zipping and tying his dhoti.
215

Alcoholism
Alcoholism may lead even a good driver to commit mistakes. The train handling skill of the good driver will also deteriorate due to mental and physical imbalance. Drunkenness makes you lose control on yourself. Do not ever drive after drinking; you will not only kill hundreds of persons, but yourself too. Remember your wife and family are waiting eagerly for your safe return home.
216

217

Train Parting
Train parting is an unusual occurrence affecting the train movements. There are a number of contributory factors which lead to train parting such as improper maintenance, material failure, poor enginemanship, improper marshalling, jerky driving etc.

218

Train Parting
Role of Enginemanship Towards Train Parting :
What is Engineman ship ?
It is the capability of a driver to handle his loco along with its trailing load, so that same reaches destination in time in a most economic manner and without adversely affecting safety.

When The Train Parting is Taking Place ?


If the tractive force is exceeding the tensile strength of the coupling material. If any coupling gets opened or worked out. If any coupling gets dis-engaged due to large buffer height/ difference in rail level.
Out of the above 3 situation the first one is related to engineman ship, provided there is no material failure. 219

How the Tractive Effort Exceeds the Tensile Strength ?


Due to sudden notching up.
Shock

loads.

Sudden application of brakes from rear.


Notching up without proper recreation of vacuum/ air.

How To Notch Smoothly And Steadily :


While advancing the throttle in power, time interval of minimum 10 sec. Should be given between two consecutive notches. This practice will definitely avoid sudden development of tensile force on coupling that may lead to breakage and parting especially in lower speed.
220

Shock Loads/ Jerks :


What is Jerk ? Instantaneous and sharp variation in momentum of anybody moving with a uniform velocity can be termed as jerk. The intensity of a jerk depends upon mass. velocity and range of speed variation during jerk. How jerks are formed ? Sudden increment or reduction of tractive effort due to : Poor Engineman ship Loco defects such as power ground
wheel slip automatic shutting down or

Sudden application of brakes from rear by guard/ banker driver on run.


221

For Avoiding Jerks During Starting :


Ensure all the coupling are properly secured. Ensure complete release of train brakes. First open throttle and wait for 10 sec. So that the load ammeter will stabilize then release the loco brake. In case of level gradient and lighter trains 1st notch will be sufficient to move the train. In case of starting on up gradient and heavier trains, throttle should be advanced suitably to develop sufficient tractive effort for moving the train before releasing the loco brake. If the train is starting from down gradient, gradually release the loco brake so that the train will start rolling due to gravitational force. No jerk will develop since the all 222 couplings are in bunched condition.

How to Avoid Jerks on Run :


Advance the throttle notch gradually giving sufficient time for engine RPM and load meter to stabilize. Through knowledge of road is essential for maintaining uniform drafting force in undulating gradients. Uniform and steady acceleration and decelerations. Apply brakes judiciously and control the train will in advance taking advantage of the permissive signals. Ensure complete recreation of vacuum/ air pressure and free rolling after each brake application, before taking notches further. In case of wheel slip due to wet rails or up gradient bring the throttle to lower notches.
223

How to Avoid Jerks While Stopping :


Apply the brakes gradually as far as possible. Apply the loco brake after stopping the train. Always try to stop the train by raising vacuum/ air pressure. Working heavy train in up gradient. If we stop the train by destroying vacuum/ air pressure, restarting may be difficult due to brake binding. Marshalling of trains is also an important factor contributing to train parting. Loaded vehicles may preferably be marshalled in front portion and empty vehicle at rear.
224

The Action to be taken by crew during Train parting :


Apply automatic brakes after ensuring that rear portion has stopped Bring throttle to idle Advise guard to protect rear portion Keep brakes in applied condition to avoid rolling back Close angle cocks of adjacent vehicles after identifying culprit vehicle Try to couple the train and clear the section. If coupling is not possible clear the section in two parts after advising ASM
225