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Prepared by : Fateha Nor Haila Chai Jee June Tasha Prabha

Sources -Motorcycles -Aeroplanes -Construction site -Agricultural machinery - Industrial machinery

Sources Burning of fossil fuels by vehicles, industrial power stations and factories.


Types of Pollution

Water Wate r

Sources Effluents from industrial and residential areas. Run off from agricultural areas.

Souces Sources Industrial process -Water cooling towers of tempereture electrical power stations.

urning Fossil Fuels High level of carbon particles. High level of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.

Pollutants in Air of Different Environments

Industrial plants and factories: Large amount of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.

Open Burning: Large amount of suspended solids. Large amount of carbon disoxide and carbon monoxide.

9.1 HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT ENDANGER AN ECOSYSTEM The sources of thermal pollution and its impact.
Sources: Electric power plants Industrial factories Effects: Oxygen becomes less soluble in water. For other species, for example, algae, an increase in temperature actually encourages their rapid growth which, in turn, leads to a higher B.O.D value. If the temperature increase continues over a long period, this may result in permanent changes in the species composition of the aquatic ecosystem.

Thermal pollution


Learning outcomes: Explain what greehouse effect is. Correlate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with global warming. Explain the thinning of the ozone layer. Explain the impact of thinning of the ozone layer and the global warming on the ecosystem.

a) The Greenhouse Effect

1. The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon to increase the Earth temperature. Without it the Earth would be too cold for the survival of living organisms. 2. It occurs when the 10% of the Earths atmosphere remains trapped by the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), methane and nitrous oxide) 3. The greenhouse gases act as the glasspanel of a greenhouse which traps heat and warm the greenhouse, hence the term is the greenhouse effect 4. As the concentration of greenhouse gases rises, the greenhouse effect is trapped in the atmosphere and the Earth temperature is raising the average

a. b.

The consequences of global warming include:

The melting of ice in the polar regions raises the sea level and submerges the coastal residential area and agriculture land. The change of the world climate that leads to unexpected heavy rains,floods, strong winds etc. In certain areas. Deterioration of health when many people die because of heatstroke. the widespread of epidemic (e.g. after flood), malnutrition etc.


b. The Thinning of The Ozone Layer

1. The ozone layer is a region in the stratosphere between 17 and 25 kilometers above the Earth surface 2. The function is to shield the Earth from receiving too much ultraviolet radiation from the sun. 3. The thinning of ozone layer has been recorded since the 1970s. The area with very low ozone concentration ends up with the formation of ozone hole. 4. The destruction of ozone layer is due to the increasing levels of (CFCs) in the atmosphere. 5. CFCs are group of chemical compounds that contain cholorine, carbon and flourine. 6. CFCs are used as coolants in air conditioners and refrigerators, as propellants in aerosol cans and as foaming in the making of styrofoam packaging.

7. The chemical processes that destroy the ozone layer are as follows:

The CFCs in the atmosphere are struck by UV light forming chlorine atoms


Chlorine CFCl 3

atom the CFCl ozone molecule into Cl then breaks + 2 chlorine monoxide and oxygen gas





c. Chlorine monoxide then reacts with the free oxygen atom in the atmosphere to form chlorine atom and oxygen molecule.

ClO + O Cl + O2 d. The chlorine atoms repeat the breaking of the ozone molecules causing the depletion of the ozone layer continuously.


The impact of ozone depletion on human and the ecosystems:


Increase greenhouse effect Earth temperature increases when more UV (ultraviolet) radiation reaches the Earth surface and more IR (infrared) radiation is reflected into the atmosphere.

Skin Cancer Long exposure to sunlight may cause skin cancer, especially to those with fair skin (less melamin to protect oneself from UV light.) iii. Cataract - A harmful growth on a persons eyeball which can eventually lead to blindness.

ii. -

iv. Damaging the photosynthesis mesophyll layers of plants. - Reduce crops production and destruction of forest. v. Reduced human immune system - Human beings are exposed to various diseases.

Industries, deforestation and burning fossil fuels produce green house gases: carbon dioxide carbon monoxide methane water vapour


Heat energy is absorbed by Earths surface, which then radiated into the atmosphere. Some are reflected back by the greenhouse effect and rises the Earths temperature. This is important to regulate the climate and stabilize the Earths itself.

In modern days, more and more greenhouse gases especially carbon dioxide, are pumped into the atmosphere each year that the Earths average temperature is steadily rising. This situation is known as global warming.
Effects: Sea level rises due to melting ice cap in polar regions causing flood in low coastal areas. contaminating freshwater supply. change the global weather patterns such as more storms and rains. spreading of epidemic diseases after floods. Expansion of desert areas.

Ozone layer: Functions to absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation and shield organisms from its damaging effect. Statosphere Reaction happens between CFC and Chlorine molecules.

Increasing CFC level

Sources of CFC: increasing levels of chlorofluorocarbons air conditioners propellants in aerosol as foaming agent in the making of styrofoam packaging.


The meachanism: Ultraviolet radiation strikes a CFC molecule and causes a chlorine atom to break away. the free chlorine atom combine with an ozone molecule to form chlorine monoxide and a molecule of oxygen. when a free atom of oxygen collides with the chlorine monoxide, the two oxygen atoms form a molecule of oxygen. The chlorine atom is thus released and free to destroy more ozone molecules.


Effects: skin cancer, melanoma. sunburns. reduce nutrient contents and crop yields of plants such as soya beans and peas. leaf cells and chlorophyll are easily damaged. kill microorganisms and phytoplankton.