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Chapter 10

Food and Life

Overview of the Chapter

What you will learn....

How diet affects the body

How the body processes and uses food
How to read food nutrients labels
How to analyze diets
Overview of the Day:
10.1 Assessing Nutrients
Today you will learn about
 Nutrition
 Nutrients
 Nourishment
 Malnutrition
 The 6 essential nutrients, their functions and example of them.
Assessing Nutrients
 Is a branch of science that studies foods and
how our bodies use them.

 study the food needs of humans and other
 They develop lists of nutrient requirement
for these organisms
 Are substances found in foods.

 They provide nourishment for our body

 In order for an organism to maintain its health

it must consume a mixture of foods and drinks
to supply their bodies with enough nourishment
and energy .

 Nourishment and energy help the body to

maintain its cells, tissues, and organs, and to
support growth and development.

 This occurs when essential nutrients are missing from a diet.

 It can happen if you are eating to little, or even if your eating

enough in volume but the food you are consuming doesn't

contain important nutrients your body needs to be healthy.

 Malnourished people suffer from:

 High levels of sickness
 Disability
 Shorter life spans
 Malnourished children may not grow properly and suffer from brain
 More.....
Some Quick Statistics

Every year 15 million children die of hunger

About 183 million children weigh less than they

should for their age

Every 3.6 seconds someone dies of hunger

It is estimated that some 800 million people in the

world suffer from hunger and malnutrition,
The Next Couple of Slide are Graphic

The following slides are pictures of extreme

malnutrition. These are graphic so if you do not want
to look at them then do not look. I will tell you when
we are done looking at them.

This boy is suffering from sever malnutrition which had caused him to loose most of his
muscle. This is why you are able to clearly see the bones and loose skin on his tiny frame
Lack of Vitamin C
Lack of Vitamin A
The Nutrients We Need
 Your body requires 6 essential nutrients. Please be able to list
1. Carbohydrates
Can be in the form of sugar or starch
They are the primary source of energy for our body

2. Proteins
Build body tissue
Regulate chemical activity
Supply energy when carbohydrates and fats are not available

3. Fats
Are stored in the body for use as an energy source when carbohydrates are in
short supply
The Nutrients We Need

4. Vitamins:
Are organized according to whether they can be absorbed in fat or
Vitamins A,D,E, and K are in foods that contain fats.
Vitamins B and C are soluble in water.
6. Minerals:
Help carry out life functions
Includes; calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron, and iodine.
8. Water:
Is essential for life because it is used in every life function
The water you take in through food and drink needs to be balanced
with the water that is eliminated from your body
Overview: 10.2 Analyzing Diets

Today you will learn:

 What diet is......
 What a mixed diet is......
 Canada’s food guide.....
 How to read a food label.....
 Learn about vegetarian and fad diets. What are they?
Analyzing Diets

 refers to the amount and type of
food you eat every day

Mixed Diet:
 Is a diet in which it is easy to obtain
the nutrients you need. This is
because it consists of a wide variety
of food.
Canada’s Food Guide

Classifies food into 4 groups:

1. Grain Products
Bread and cereals

2. Fruits and Vegetables

Watermelon and zucchini

3. Milk Products
Cheese and yogurt

4. Meat and Alternatives

Fish and chicken
Canada’s Food Guide

The food guide is based on 5 guidelines:

1. Eat a variety of foods

3. Eat a lot of whole grain cereals, breads, fruits, and vegetables.

5. Choose low fat dairy products, lean meats, and food prepared
with little or not fat.

7. Participate in regular physical activity

9. Limit the intake of salt, sugar, alcohol and caffeine

Vegetarian Diets
They choose not to eat animal

Strict vegetarians are called

vegans and they do not eat any
animal products like eggs or milk.

Other vegetarians may eat dairy

products, fish and chicken but not
red meat like pork, lamb, or beef.

Since a vegetarian does not consume

meat they must ensure they are still
obtaining protein. They do this by eating
a variety of plant based foods.

Benefit: it is high in fibre and low in

harmful forms of fat.

Drawback: can be low in iron and vitamin

B and the vegan diet may lack calcium.
They should take vitamin supplements to
fill these nutritional needs.
Fad Diets

Fad diet
 refers to a current idea or craze about how or what people
should eat. These diets usually involve weight loss.


 Athletes that want to gain weight believed the atkins diet would
work because high amounts of protein are believed to develop
more body muscle. NOT TRUE

 To increase muscle bulk they need to consume more energy

from carbohydrates (which the atkins diet excludes completely),
not protien.

 They must also exercise to increase muscle mass

 Too much protein= dehydration because it takes more water to

eliminate excess protein from the body
Food Labelling

Going to the lab next week to learn more about

Canadian food labels.
10.3 The Digestive System: Mining for nutrients
Today you will learn....
 What mechanical and chemical digestion are
 What absorption means in terms of the digestive system
 More in-depth on the parts of the digestive system

Mouth & saliva

Small intestine
Large intestine
It wouldn't matter what nutrients you
ate if your body didn’t absorb them.

Remember that the job of the digestive

system was to break up your food into
chemical compounds your cells could

These chemical compounds include the

necessary nutrients you body needs to
be healthy
3 Steps Involved in Getting Nutrients

1. Mechanical digestion
 Teeth and stomach break food down
into small pieces

2. Chemical Digestion
 Chemicals known as enzymes break
food down into smaller particles

3. Absorption
 Molecule-sized products of chemical
digestion move into the bloodstream
The Mouth

The Teeth
 are the most important component of
mechanical digestion. They reduce the size of
food and help mix it with saliva.

 Contains enzymes which chemically break
down starch into smaller fragments known as
sugars (Chemical digestion).

The Stomach
 Breaks down food with muscle
contractions(mechanical digestion)
and mixes it with gastric juices to form a
pasty fluid

 Acids in the gastric juices activate enzymes

that digest food and turn it into liquid
form. They start breaking down proteins.
(Chemical Digestion)
Small Intestine

Once the food is partially digested it

is released into the small intestine.

Most chemical digestion and

almost all absorption occurs in
the small intestine.

Glands in the liver and pancreas

release enzymes to neutralize the
gastric juices in the food at the
beginning of the small intestine.
Small Intestine Digestion
 Carbohydrates
 Enzymes further break down carbohydrates into sugars.
These sugars can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

 Protein
 Enzymes split the proteins into simpler components
which can then be absorbed

 Fat
 Bile, a fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall
bladder, breaks fat into smaller particles.

 Enzymes in the pancreas can then digest these smaller


 Once these steps have been completed the fats are ready
to be absorbed
Large Intestine

Absorption continues in the

large intestine

Water, minerals, and

vitamins are absorbed into
the blood stream.
Please add to your notes!

Dr. William Beaumont was the first to do hands-on

research with the digestive system.

After Alexis St. Martin shot himself in the stomach.

The hole never healed and allowed Dr. Beaumont to
experiment on him.
10.4: The Role of Diet
Today you will learn....
 How to many fats in your diet can effect your life style....
 How skipping a meal can impact your day
Evaluate Your Choices

Your body depends on you to

fuel it with a good balance of
nutrients at regular intervals

Skipping meals can cause

your blood sugar to drop.

In order for your body to

conserve energy it slows
down and as a result you feel
drowsy and its hard to

To much fat in a diet can cause

several problems
 Your body has to work harder to digest fats

 Excess fat can cause you to feel

uncomfortable or to throw up

 High fat diets can cause fatigue and lack of


 Cholesterol from fatty foods blocks arteries

 Over time, fat causes weight gain