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Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.

5. The Bernoulli Equation


5.1. Newtons Second Law along a Streamline of
a Steady Flow
5.2. Alternative Forms of the Bernoulli Equation

5.3. Applications

5.4. Pressure Variation Perpendicular to Streamlines
5.5. The Bernoulli Equation in Rotating Reference
system

5.6. The Bernoulli Equation for Unsteady Flow

5.7. The Bernoulli Equation from Energy
conservation Principle

Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.
5.1. Newtons Second Law along
a streamline of a Steady Flow
5.1.1. The acceleration of a steady flow at a given location
on a streamline
r

Fig. 5.1
where, : acceleration tangent to the streamline.

: acceleration normal to the streamline.

s
v
v a
s
c
c
=
R
v
a
n
2
=
dt
dr
r
v
dt
r v d
a
i
i

c
c
= =

) (
n
R
v
s
s
v
v n a s a a
n s
+
c
c
= + =
2

(5.1)
(5.2)
5.1.2. Applying Newtons second law to a small
fluid particle of along a streamline y n s o o o
Fig. 5.2
V g
s
p
y n s g y n s
s
p
W F F
s ps s
o u
o o o u o o o
o o o
|
.
|

\
|

c
c
=

c
c
=
+ =

sin
sin
From Eq. (5.3) and Eq. (5.4) we obtain the equation of
motion along the streamline, s, where and
and using
ds
dv
v
ds
dz
g
ds
dp
=
ds dp s p = c c
ds dz = u sin
ds dv s v = c c

c
c
= =
s
v
V a m F
s s
o o o
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
5.1.3. By integrating the Eq.(5.5) along a streamline
where C is an integration constant to be determined by
conditions at some point on the streamline.
For incompressible flow, = constant, the Eq. (5.6) becomes
the Bernoulli equation for steady, inviscid, incompressible
Flow :
Attention for the limitation of applicability of the
Bernoulli equation!
}
= + + . C gz v
dp
2
2
1

] / [ kg m N const gz v
p
= + +
2
2
1

along a streamline.
(5.6)
(5.7)
Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.
5.2. Alternative Forms of the
Bernoulli Equation
5.2.1. The pressure Form ;
Static, Dynamic, Stagnation, and Total Pressure

5.2.2. The Head Form ;
Pressure, Velocity, and Elevation Head
5.2.1. The Pressure Form
The Bernoulli equation (5.7) can be written with terms in
pressure dimension [N/m
2
]
] / [ .
2 2
2
1
m N const z g v p = + +
(5.8)
Fig. 5.3
2
2
1
v
Where, p : Static pressure,
measured by a piezometer tube.
: Dynamic pressure,
measured by a pitot-static tube.
: Total pressure is constant along a streamline.
C z g v p = + +
2
2
1
2
2
1
v p + : Stagnation pressure on stagnation
streamline measured by a Pitot-tube.
] [ . m const z
g
v
g
p
= + +
2
2

5.2.2. The Head Form


Equation (5.7) can be written in the head form :
: Pressure head,
: Velocity head
: Elevation head
g
p

g
v
2
2
z
Cz
g
v
g
p
=++
2
2

: The head is constant along a streamline


(5.9)
The total head can be represented by the Energy Line (EL),
measured by Pitot-tube. The sum of the pressure and
elevation head, is represented by the Hydraulic Grade
Line (HGL), measured by piezometer tube.
g
v
g
p
2
2
+

Fig. 5.4
Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.
5.3. Applications
5.3.1. Torricellis Discharge (Free jet)

5.3.2. Flow around a Body

5.3.3. Flow along a Solid Wall

5.3.4. Pitot and Pitot-Static Tube
5.3.1. Torricellis Discharge (Free jet)
0
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
g U p h g p

+ + = + +
h g U h g U 2 2
2
= = ;
(5.10)
(5.10)
Fig. 5.5
Emptying Time : ? t A
dt A U dh A
2 1
=
h
dh
A
A
g
dt
2
1
2
1
=
} }
= = A
A
e
a
h
h
t
h
dh
A
A
g
dt t
2
1
0
2
1
( )
e a
h h
A
A
g
t = A
2
1
2
(5.12)
5.3.2. Flow around a Body
Bernoulli constant for different streamlines?
... = + = +
2 2 1 1
z g p z g p
C z g U p z g U p = = + + = + +

...
2
2
2 1
2
1
2 2


+ + = + +
2
2
2
2
2 2
z g U p z g U p

o o o

+ + = + +
4
2
4
2
2 2
z g U p z g U p

| | |
| | o o o

z g U p z g U p + + = + +

2 2
2 2
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
(5.16)
(5.17)
Fig. 5.6
5.3.3. Flow along a Solid Wall
( )
1 1 1
z h g p p
i
+ + =
( )
2 2
z h g p p
re
+ + =
( )
2
1
2
2
2
U U p
M
= A

( ) ( )
2 2 1 1
z g p z g p p
M
+ + = A
(5.18)
(5.19)
(5.20)
(5.21)
Fig. 5.7
5.3.4. Pitot and Pitot-Static Tube
t s
p U p p = + =

2
2

1) Pitot-Tube
(5.22)
Fig. 5.8
2) Pitot-Static Tube

M
p
U
A
=

2
(5.23)
Fig. 5.9
Fig. 5.10
Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.
Using the acceleration normal to a streamline from Eq.
(5.2)
5.4. Pressure Variation Perpendicular
to Streamlines
R
v
a
n
2
=
R
v
V
R
v
m F
n
2 2
o o o = =

V
n
p
g F W F
pn n n
o u o o o
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
= + =

cos
Newtons second law in this normal direction :
(5.24)
(5.25)
Putting Eq. (5.25) into Eq. (5.24) and using
we obtain
R
v
n
p
dn
dz
g
2
=
c
c

dn dz = u cos
If gravity is neglected, e.g. for gas or if the flow is in a
horizontal plane Eq. (5.26 ) becomes
For R (parallel streamlines) p = const. across the
streamline.
R
v
n
p
2
=
c
c
(5.26)
(5.27)
For a complete integration must be known.
} }
= + + . const gz dn
R
v dp
2

}
= + + . const z g dn
R
v
p
2
( ) ( ) n s R and n s v , ,
Equation (5.26) can be integrated across the streamline :
across the streamline
For incompressible Flow
valid again for steady, inviscid, incompressible flow
across the streamline.
(5.28)
(5.29)
5.4.1. Application to the Free Vortex (Potential Vortex)
For a flow of concentric streamlines with a velocity distribution :
R
c
U =
where c = constant and R is the radial coordinate, the pressure
gradient normal to the streamlines is :
R
p
n
p
c
c
=
c
c
Putting this into Eq. (5.27)
3
2 2
R
c
R
U
R
p
= =
c
c
(5.30)
Fig. 5.10
Integrating it with an initial condition , we obtain :
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 2
0
2
0
1 1
2 R R
c
p R p

) (
or
. ) ( ) ( const U p R U R p = + = +
2
0 0
2
2 2

This shows that the Bernoulli constant for all streamlines
are the same. It means the flow is irrotational.*

* more in the lecture Thermo-Fluid
0 0
p R p = ) (
(5.31)
Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.
5.5. Bernoulli Equation
in Rotating Reference System
Considering a reference system rotating with a
constant angular velocity around an axis and
observing a steady flow from this rotating
reference system, additional body forces due to the
rotation besides the gravity force are acting :

- Centrifugal force :
- Coriolis force : no component tangential to the
streamline
r
e r

2
e
The equation of motion for the rotating reference system along a
streamline :
u e cos
2
r
ds
dz
g
ds
dp
ds
dv
v + =
Integrating along the streamline, using dr = ds cos :
.
2 2
2 2
2
const
r
z g v p = + +
e

along a streamline (5.33)


(5.32)
Fig. 5.11
Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.
5.6. The Bernoulli Equation
for unsteady flow
The acceleration along a streamline of an unsteady flow, :


The equation of motion for unsteady flow :
( ) t r v ,

s
v
v
t
v
a
s
c
c
+
c
c
=
s
z
g
s
p
s
v
v
t
v
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
(5.33)
Integrating along an unsteady streamline of incompressible
flow between point (1) and (2) :
2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
2
) , (
2
2
1
z g v p ds
t
t s v
z g v p
s
s

+ + +
c
c
= + +
}
(5.33)
Simplification for an unsteady pipe flow, where : ( ) t v
) (
) ( ) , (
1 2
2
1
s s
t
t v
ds
t
t s v
with
s
s

c
c
=
c
c
}

and , the Eq. (5.33) becomes
1 2
v v =
Unsteady Bernoulli Equation in Rotating Reference System :
2 2 1 2 1 1
) (
) (
z g p s s
t
t v
z g p + +
c
c
= + or
) (
) (
) ( ) (
1 2 2 1 2 1
s s
t
t v
z z g p p
c
c
= +
(5.34)
(5.35)
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
r
z g v p ds
t
v r
z g v p
s
s
e

+ + +
c
c
= + +
}
(5.36)
Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.
5.7. The Bernoulli Equation
from Energy Conservation Principle
The first law of thermodynamics in words
time rate of
increase of the
total stored
energy of the
system :


dt z g
v
u d E d /
2
~
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

net time rate of


energy addition
by heat transfer
into the system :

Q d

net time rate of
energy addition by
works transfer into
the system :

shaft stress normal
W W W d

+ =
+ =
The following assumptions simplify the energy equation
derived from the first law of thermodynamics :
1. Inviscid flow : no dissipation of mechanical energy
into the internal energy
2. Adiabatic system : Heat transfer is zero
3. One-dimensional steady flow and incompressible flow
Fig. 5.12
The time rate of increase of the total stored energy or the system,
in Fig. (5-12) is composed of the time rate of the difference of
kinetic energy and the elevation(potential) energy between the
cross section 2 and1 respectively :
E d

V ) z g z g ( V
2
u
2
u
E d
1 2
2
1
2
2

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 2 1 1
A u A u V with = =

(5.37)
The net time rate of energy addition by work transfer is
composed of the time rate of work difference done by the
normal stress (pressure) and the time rate of mechanical shaft
works done to the flow system, e.g. by a pump :
) (
1 1 1 2 2 2
u A p u A p W W d
shaft
=

According to the first law of thermodynamics
Q d W d E d

+ =
V p p W z g z g V
u u
V
shaft

) ( ) (
2 2
1 2 1 2
2
1
2
2
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|

(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
1
2
1
1 2
2
2
2
2 2
z g
u
p z g
u
p V W
shaft


(5.38)
0
is the needed powers of a pump to deliver the flow rate of
from cross section 1 to 2.
If no shaft work has been done , we obtain the
Bernoulli Equation for incompressible steady flow along a
streamline from Eq. (5.38) :
shaft
W

0 =
shaft
W

2
2
2
2 1
2
1
1
z g
2
u
p z g
2
u
p + + = + +
(5.39)