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Customized Applications for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)

Zhaohui Deng Yinyan Zhou

What Is CAMEL

CAMEL is the wireless intelligent network standard for GSM networks CAMEL is not a separate service but a new feature ( It is a tool to help the network operator to provide the subscribers with OSS even when roaming outside the HPLMN) In North America the corresponding standard is WIN WIN and CAMEL use almost the same Intelligent Network Conceptual Model
OSS: Operator Specific Services HPLMN: Home Public Land Mobile Network

Evolution of Wireless Intelligent Network

Switchboard: Operator manually intervene with an intelligent routing decision Automatic Switching: hard-wired service logic, dependent on switching vendor for all aspects of service logic necessary to deploy new features, equipment from different vendors made it hard for ubiquitous service deployment

Evolution of Wireless Intelligent Network (Cnt)

Stored Program Control: programmable service logic, but not modular. New service introduction is hard due to dependency between service and service specific logic associated with that service. Service logic used for one service could not be used for another Common Channel Signaling: mid-1970s. Out-band signaling vs. in-band signaling path

Evolution of Wireless Intelligent Network (Cnt)

Advanced Intelligent Network: provide serviceindependent service logic and service management, facilitate independent service development capability WIN and CAMEL: standardized capabilities in conjunction with SS7 signaling, provide network intelligence efficiently and seamlessly in wireless networks

Driver for CAMEL Emerging

Prior to CAMEL, GSM has INAP as protocol injecting intelligence into GSM network. INAP designed for wireline networks, no mobility management. CAMEL: standard to provide wireless intelligent network capabilities for development, deployment and operation of enhanced mobile communications service and roaming across different vendor switches

WIN BCSM DP Example

Originating BCSM detection Points: Origination_attempt_Authorized DP A point in the call ( such as an authorized customers initiates a call) when an external element is queried prior to the calling party dialing digits. Can be used for service such as voice activated dialing. Analyzed_Information DP: for Incoming call screening at customers home MSC???? Collected_information DP: used for providing service to calling party such as Call forwarding
BCSM: basic call state model
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WIN BCSM DP Example

Terminating BCSM Detection Points:

Facility_Selected-and_Available DP: calling name service to customer T_Busy and T_No_Answer DP: for routing call to a voice message system or special announcements/tones

Service Drivers for WIN Phase I

Calling Name Presentation (CNAP) Voice Controlled Service (VCS)


Such as basic voice controlled dialing VCS with voice authentication, speech to-text conversion,etc Answer, dont answer, redirect

Incoming Call Screening (ICS)

Service Drivers for WIN Phase II

Prepaid Charging(PPC)

Should be invoked before any other service to verify the balance

Preferred Language Support Free Phone

Launch AnalyzedInformation message to SCP, seize IP to set up ConnectionResource message to MSC to connect to IP and IP play announcement to direct how to make the call, completely toll free and mobile airtime free
Advice of charging; inform cost of impending call Rejection of undesired annoying call
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Billing Service Capabilities

Call management service

Example of WIN phase II Free Phone


Serving System

IP

SCP

MSC MS origination
ANLYZD[TRIGTYPE, DGTSDIAL, TRANSCAP, WINCAP]

SEIZED[SRFCapability, PLIND]

Seizes[TLDN]
CONNRES[DSTDGT,CARDGTS,ROUTDGTS] TLDNAT INSTREQ[ ] call setup

MSC upon recognizing a FreePhone call attempt, launched a Analyzed Information(ANLYZD) message to SCP. The SCP getting the request, seizes the IP resource and IP send Connect Resource(CONNRES) message to the MSC, directing it to set up a connection to IP. IP plays an announcement to the caller(relative to the FreePhone number called)Upon listening to the announcement, a a series of release messages are played prior to the MSC setting the call up to the appropriate telephone number associated with FreePhone number.

SRFDIR[ANNLIST
PLAY ANNOUNCEMENT srfdir[] anlyzd[TERMLIST, DMH_SVCIDLIST, BILLDGTS] Release message instreq[ ] Call setup

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Service Drivers for WIN Phase III

Location-Based Service

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Phased Development of Standards CAMEL Phase I


Introduce basic INAP capabilities such as support of initial DP message Basic call set-up reporting capabilities: inform CSE of mobile origination and termination status, call-related CSE interactions Suppress announcement tones at the serving system during call termination, allowing the home system to play announcements in native language of the home system Offer Any Time Interrogation (ATI) message, a GSM MAP message: interrogate HLR to derive info about specific customers location and status
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CSE: CAMEL Service Environment MAP: Mobile Application Part, protocol that interconnects wireless telephone system

Example of CAMEL phase I MS Originating CAMEL call


MS
MSC/VLR + gmsSSF gsmSCF PSTN

A C

CAP-initialDP CAP-Connect ISUP-IAM B

A: MSC gets CAEML service info from VLR during the call setup of a MS, gmsSSF in the visiting network send the InitialDP message to gsmSCF and suspend the call processing. The InitialDP message contains service key, called and calling party number, calling partys Category, location number, bearer capability, event type BCSM, location and IMSI. After the service logic processing, B gsmSCF can for example do number translation, a CAMEL-specific Service logic is initiated from gsmSCF C MSC uses the information received to set up a call

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Phased Development of Standards CAMEL Phase II


Most significant enhancement over phase I is to support SRF, would allow user interaction with a VRU within CSE Provide additional GSM MAP related improvements including support of USSD, another user interaction capability enhancement, this call-unrelated CSE interaction capability allows the subscriber to invoke CAMEL-based service via USSD commands. Online charge indication via the Advice of Charge( AoC) feature for mobile originated calls. AoC is call-related CSE interaction that can be very useful when deployed in conjunction with services such as a Free Phone, prepaid and premium calling services.

SRF: Specialized Resource Function VRU: Voice Response Unit USSD: Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
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CAMEL Phase I Architecture


Home Network MAP

HLR
MAP MAP CAP

gsmSCF
CAP

gsmSSF GMSC
Interrogating Network Roaming leg

VLR

gsmSSF

VMSC
Visiting Network

Dotted lines for signaling connection, continuous line present a voice connection MAP: Mobile Application Part GMSC: gateway MSC CAP: CAMEL Application Protocol VMSC: visiting MSC
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CAMEL Phase I Architecture


Home Network present home PLMN (public land mobile network) of CAMEL subscriber Home Location Register (HLR) and GSM Service Control Function are the network elements involved in CAMEL HLR stores for subscriber requiring CAMEL support information regarding O-CSI, T-CSI, TIF-CSI, U-CSI and SS-CSI O-CSI, SS-CSI are sent to VLR in case of location update or O-CSI, SS-CSI update
U-CSI: USSD-CSI SS-CSI: Supplementary Service_CSI
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CAMEL Phase I Architecture


Home Network

O/T-CSI is sent to GMSC when HLR responds to a request for routing information

TIF-CSI, U-CSI and UG-CSI are stored in HLR only.


HLR may provide an interface towards gsmSCF for Any Time Interrogation
SS-CSI: Supplementary Service CSI TIF-CSI: translation information flag CSI, subscriber data indicate that when subscriber register a forward-to number, that HLR shall not attempt to perform any translation, number format check, (Forward To Number) FTN check, call barring check

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CAMEL Phase I Architecture

Interrogating Network Perform the interrogation of the home network for information on treatment of terminating CAMEL calls Calling party of the terminating CAMEL call resides in the interrogating network and the called party resides in the visiting network. Gateway MSC (GMSC) and gsmSSF are the entities handling of terminating CAMEL calls When processing the calls for subscriber requiring CAMEL support, GMSC receive O/T-CSI from HLR. If TCSI exists, indicating GMSC to request instructions from gsmSSF for further execution
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CAMEL Phase I Architecture

Visiting Network It is PLMN where the CAMEL subscriber is roaming. Involve handling of originating and forwarded CAMEL calls May request for location information and status of the subscriber Set up calls from and towards the visiting subscriber, while handling the originating calls, VMSC detects if OCSI exists, if does, then initial contact to gsmSCF take place When roaming to a visiting network which doesnt support CAMEL, home network handle the roaming
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Relationship

HLR-VLR interface: send CAMEL related subscriber data to VPLMN and provision of Mobile Station Roaming Number (MRSN), retrieve subscriber status and location, or to suppression of announcement for CAMEL service GMSC-HLR interface: used at terminating calls to exchange routing information, subscriber status and location, suppression of announcement GMSC-gsmSSF interface: internal interface, make it easy for handling DPs
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Relationship

gsmSSF-gsmSCF interface: used for gsmSCF to send instruction to gsmSSF to play tones.announcements to the users. gsmSCF-HLR interface: used by gsmSCF to request information from HLR

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CAMEL Phase I: Originating Basic Call State Model


O-Null&Authorize_Origination _Attempt_Collect-Info DP2 O_Exception

Collect_Info

Analyze, Routing & Alerting

DP7 DP9 O_Active

O_Answer

O-Disconnect

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Description of O-BCSM DPs in the MSC


CAMEL Detection
DP2 Collected_Info DP 4 Route_Select_Failur e DP 5 O_Busy TDP-R EDP-N, EDP-R

DP Type

Description:
Indication that the O-CSI is analysed. Indication that the call establishment failed Indication that:a busy indication is received from the terminating party, a not reachable event is determined upon a cause IE in the ISUP release message Indication that an application timer associated with the O_No_Answer DP expires
Indication that the call is accepted and answered by the terminating party. A disconnect indication is received from the originating party or from the terminating party. Indication that a disconnect indication is received from the originating party during the call establishm ent procedure

EDP-N, EDP-R

Note: BLUE for phase I


BLACK

DP6 O_No_Answer

EDP-N, EDP-R

DP7 O_Answer

EDP-N, EDP-R

is added In phase II

DP9 O_Disconnect

EDP-N, EDP-R

DP 10 O_Abandon

EDP-N

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Originating Call Example, Phase I


MSC
DP2 encountered (InitialDP) Monitor DP7 (N)(REquesrReportBCSMEvent) Monitor DP9 (R)(REquesrReportBCSMEvent) Continue call processing (Continue) Check connection (ActivityTest)
Answer to connection check(activityTest Response)

gsmSCF

N: Notification R: request

DP7 encountered (EventReportBCSM) DP9 encountered (EventReportBCSM) Continue call processing (Continue) 25

CAMEL Phase I: Terminating Basic Call State Model

T-Null

T_Exception

DP12 Terminating_Attempt_Authorized Terminating Call Handling

DP15 DP17 T_Active

T_Answer

T-Disconnect

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Description of T-BCSM DPs in the GMSC


CAMEL DP Type Detection Point: DP12 Terminating_Atte mpt_Authorised DP 13 T_Busy TDP-R Description:

Indication that the T-CSI is analysed.

EDP-N, EDP-R

DP 14 T_No_Answer DP15 T_Answer DP17 T_Disconnect DP 18 T_Abandon

EDP-N, EDP-R EDP-N, EDP-R EDP-N, EDP-R EDP-N

Indication that:a busy indication is received from the destination exchange, Not reachable or call establishment failure event is determined from the HLR response or upon a cause IE in the ISUP release message. Indication that an application timer associated with the T_No_Answer DP expires Call is accepted and answered by terminating party A disconnect indication is received from the terminating party or from the originating party. A disconnect indication is received from the originating party during the call establishment procedure

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CAMEL Phase II Architecture


Home Network

HLR

MAP

gsmSCF

MAP

CAP

MAP

MAP

CAP

gsmSSF
Incoming line

VLR
Roaming leg

gsmSSF MSC
MS

GMSC
Forwarded leg

MO call - Outgoing leg (or Forwarding leg) CAP Visiting Network

Interrogating Network

gsmSRF

Home/Interrogating/Visiting Network

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CAMEL Phase II Architecture and Relationship

Phase II is based on phase I architecture. The basic new component is the gsmSRF. It provides a pool of resources for access by other network entities gsmSCF gsmSRF interface: used by gsmSCF to instruct the gsmSRF to play tones/announcement to the users

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CAMEL Phase II: Originating Basic Call State Model


A O_Null & Authorise_Origination_ Attempt_Collect_Info O_Exception DP10

O_Abandon

Collected_Info

DP2 Route_Select_ Failure DP4

Analyse, Routing & Alerting

O_Busy

DP5

O_No_Answer

DP6 A

O_Answer DP9 O_Disconnect

DP7 O_Active

DP explanation Please refer to former slide

Basic Call transition Transition beyond Basic Call

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CAMEL Phase II: Terminating Basic Call State Model


A DP18 T_Abandon Terminating_Attempt_Authorised DP12 T_Null T_Exception

T_Busy Terminating Call Handling T_No_Answer

DP13

DP14

T_Disconnect T_Answer DP15 T_Active

DP17

DP explanation Please refer to former slide 31

Basic Call transition Transition beyond Basic Call

Terminating Call Example, Phase II


MSC
DP12 encountered (InitialDP) Monitor DP15 (N)(REquesrReportBCSMEvent) Monitor DP17 (R)(REquesrReportBCSMEvent) Continue call processing (Continue) Check connection (ActivityTest)
Answer to connection check(activityTest Response)

gsmSCF

DP15 encountered (EventReportBCSM) DP17 encountered (EventReportBCSM) Continue call processing (Continue) 32

An example of Virtual Private Network in a visited network using CAMEL

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An example of VPN in a visited network using CAMEL(Cnt)

1. A subscriber who has a VPN service in his home network is "roaming" in a network abroad. To call a colleague at the home office, all he has to do is dialing the colleague's four-digit extension number 4772. The exchange (SSP/MSC) in the visited network classifies the call as a "CSE event. DP2 is encountered, this InitialDP message contains from VMSC to gsmSCF contains service key and other subscription information. The set-up process is temporarily interrupted.

VPN: Virtual private networks

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An example of VPN in a visited network using CAMEL(Cnt)

2. gsmSCF in the home network ask VMSC to monitor the DP7 and DP9, then it translates the extension number into a Bnumber for international routing and transfers the information to the MSC in the visited network, which resumes the set-up process.

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Reference

3GPP TS 03.78: Customised Application for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic phase 2 3GPP TS 02.78: Service Definition Igor Faynberg, L. R. Gabuzda, T Jacobson, H.L Lu: The development of the Wireless Intelligent Network and its Relation to the international Intelligent Network Standards E. Geulen, J Hartmann: Open Service Provisioning in GSM What do we gain with CAMEL J Hartmann: The Alignment of IN and GSM Gerry Christensen etc. Wireless Intelligent Network

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