Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

The Missing Piece

Quantifying Non-Completion Pathways to Success

Presented by Kathy Booth | October 9, 2013

Whats Completion Got to Do with It?

What Student Course-Taking Behaviors Can Tell Us
In a study published in 2010 in the journal Research in Higher Education, Peter Riley Bahr followed course-taking patterns over seven years for 165,921 first-time California community college students who enrolled in at least one credit or noncredit course in fall 2001. He found that 30% of students:
CTE 3% Completion -Unlikely 28%

Noncredit 1%

SkillsBuilder 30%

Completion -Likely 38%

Took an average of one course a year for two years Attempted an average of 7 credits Passed their courses at a rate of 94%, but completed a credential or transferred at a rate of only 9%

o o

First-Time Student Types, Based on Head Count

the skills-builders

Identifying a Skills-Builder Cohort

Working with WestEd, Bahr conducted further analyses of course-taking patterns among the first-time students who entered the CCC system between fall 2002 and summer 2006. He focused his next phase of research on low-unit skills-builder students who: o Do not attain a degree, community college certificate, or transfer to a four-year college within six years of entering college o Enroll for no more than four semesters o Carry a mean course load of six or fewer credits o Achieve a unit success rate of at least 70% One in seven (14%) students met this definition.

Identifying Skills-Builder Course Clusters

Using the California Community College Taxonomy of Programs (TOP), Bahr examined:

o the percentage of skills-builder students who took for-credit courses in the 24 broad fields of study defined in the TOP
o whether these students continued in the same field during successive semesters o the percentage of courses taken in each of the 220 TOP subfields by skills-builders who began in each of the broad fields in which these students primarily are found

Documenting Wage Outcomes

Bahr linked quarterly earnings data from the California unemployment insurance database with credits earned in each of the 220 TOP subfields for first-time students who: o were successful in their coursework but did not complete a credential or transfer o were between the ages of 20 and 50 at entry

o had at least one quarterly earnings record prior to college entry and after college entry
This group included both skills-builders and other highly successful non-completers.

Findings: Student Attributes

Skills-builder students had the following characteristics: o enrolled for an average of 1.7 semesters and attempted an average of 5 credits o three-fifths stayed just one semester, one-fifth continued for two semesters, and one-fifth continued for up to four semesters

o achieved a unit success rate of 98%, with 71% earning a GPA of 3.0 or higher (compared to 28% for other first-time students).
o average age at college entry was 37 years, 51% male, 47% white, 33% Latino, 7% African American, and 7% Asian American

Findings: Fields of Study

About three-fifths (58%) of skills-builder students enrolled initially in fields that are primarily CTE:

o engineering and industrial technologies (19%)

o business and management (13%) o public and protective services (8%)

o family and consumer sciences (7%)

o information technology (5%) The remainder pursued fields like interdisciplinary studies, education, fine and applied arts, and humanities.

Findings: Fields of Study

Percentage of skills-builder students who enrolled in each of 24 fields of study in their first semester
Engineering and Industrial Technologies Business and Management Interdisciplinary Studies Education Public and Protective Services Fine and Applied Arts Family and Consumer Sciences Humanities Information Technology Mathematics Social Sciences Health Foreign Language Psychology Agriculture and Natural Resources Media and Communications Biological Sciences Physical Sciences Environmental Sciences and Technologies Commercial Services Law Architecture and Related Technologies Library Science Military Studies 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Percentage of Skills-Builders Who Enrolled in Coursework

Field of Study

Findings: Persistence within a Field

Most CTE skills-builder students pursued courses within the same field of study if they continued for more than one semester: o engineering and industrial technologies (90%) o public and protective services (79%) Some students appeared to be pursuing focused crossdisciplinary studies: o in information technology, 45% of those who continued into a second semester enrolled in information technology and 17% enrolled in business and management

Findings: Dominant Subfields

Within the broader CTE fields, there were dominant subfields, such as:

o family and consumer sciences 65% childhood development and early childhood education
o public and protective services 55% administration of justice

o business and management 30% real estate

o information technology 22% each for computer information systems and general IT o engineering and industrial technologies 17% construction crafts, 15% manufacturing and industrial technology

Findings: Labor Market Outcomes

16 of the 24 non-completing course clusters yielded significant earnings gains for students. Many students who completed six credits boosted earnings between 510%, such as: o administration of justice 9% earnings gain o electronics and electric technology 8% earnings gain o computer infrastructure and support 5% earnings gain o child development & early care education 3% earnings gain

Findings: Labor Market Outcomes

Percent quarterly earnings increase for students who successfully completed coursework in selected subfields but did not secure a credential or transfer to a four-year college
Water and Wastewater Technology Administration of Justice Electronics and Electric Technology Manufacturing and Industrial Tech

Fire Technology
Computer Infrastructure and Support Civil and Construction Management Tech General Information Technology 6 credits 9 credits 12 credits 0% 5% 20% 25% Increase in Quarterly Earnings 10% 15%


More Data on Skills-Builders: CTE Employment Outcomes Survey

36% of respondents to the CTE Employment Outcomes Survey were non-completing, non-transfer students

had earned an average of 32 units 27% came to community college with a bachelors degree 57% attended more than one community college

41% had attained an industry certificate or journey-level status within a year of stopping coursework 35% of job-seekers had found a job by the time they finished school and another 27% found jobs within 3 months 22% average wage gain after taking courses

More Data on Skills-Builders: Chancellors Office Analysis

Examined outcomes for students reporting advance in current job/career as their college application goal (4% of enrollments in fall 2010)

62% took CTE courses 33% had previously attended a four-year institution 26% had earned some type of award in the California community college system

Significant one year wage gains in particular fields:

Dental Laboratory Technician - $44,887

Plastics and Composites - $35,038

Respiratory Care/Therapy - $27,462

Defining Success
Limiting the definition to success to completion misses a significant number of students who are improving their standard of living by taking community college courses

Discussion: At your college, have career and technical education offerings been impacted by the funding crisis or the focus on completion outcomes? What types of information would help inform decisionmaking about the value of these offerings?

Measuring Success
Unemployment insurance wage data are very helpful, but not sufficient to capture all aspects of employment student outcomes, such as

earnings from self-employment, federal government employment, military service, informal jobs paid in cash, employment in other states, and several other sources (i.e., real estate and construction crafts)

how many jobs an individual held at any point in time or whether employment was part-time or full-time impact of course-taking on job retention (i.e., auto technology) external certifications or licenses (i.e., early childhood education)

Discussion: Is your college collecting additional noncompletion success metrics locally, like industry certifications and job retention data?

Improving Success
Given that significant numbers of students are pursuing short-term course-taking, with a positive impact in many CTE fields, colleges should work to improve these pathways
o Learn from examples like petroleum technology at Taft College completing one credit led to an average 11% gain in quarterly earnings, and 12 credits yielded an average increase of 143% o Identify common exit points to guide modularization or redesign Discussion: Should certificate programs be altered so that they end at the point where most students attain a living-wage job or an external certification?

What Can You Do?

1) Download an inquiry guide and fact sheet on this research and launch conversations on your own campus! 2) Contact Kathy Booth to discuss your thoughts about how this research can be shared and how we can gather better information on skills-builder students ( 3) Watch for a brief in January that describes skills-builder pathways in ten California community colleges