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PRINCIPLE

Uses ultrasound wave to penetrate material, indicating discontinuities on Oscilloscope Screen.

APPLICATIONS
Used on metals, ceramics, plastics, etc. to detect surface and internal discontinuities. When automated, indications are recorded on paper, it provides a permanent record. Also used for measuring thickness.

LIMITATIONS
Moderately high initial cost. Interpretation of test results requires highly trained personnel.

TYPE OF ULTRASONIC WAVES


1. 2. 3. 4. LONGITUDINAL (OR COMPRESSION) WAVES TRANSVERSE (OR SHEAR) WAVES SURFACE WAVE PLATE ( LAM B ) WAVES

PROPERTIES OF ULTRASONIC BEAM


1. Travel in a straight line.

2. Reflect and refract from the boundary of different acoustic media.


3. .Attenuate while passing through a media. 4. The extent of attenuation depends on - Absorption ( dependent on grain size ) - Diffraction or spreading (dependent on wave length and probe diameter ) 5. Velocity in a media depends on the density & elastic constants. The values for different media's are given in the following chart.

TECHNIQUES 1. Contact Testing 2. Immersion testing

DATA PRESENTATION
1. `A' SCAN METHOD This method is commonly known as Pulse Echo Method. Time versus Amplitude display shown on Cathode Ray Tube.

2. `B' SCAN METHOD


This method displays cross sectional view. 3. `C' SCAN METHOD This method displays plan view and comparable to radiographic image. NOTE:More than 90 % of total Ultrasonic Examinations are carried out by "A" Scan Method.

METHODS .PULSE-ECHO .THROUGH TRANSMISSION .RESONANCE TYPES OF PROBES I. II. III. SINGLE CRYSTAL NORMAL BEAM PROBE. SINGLE CRYSTAL ANGLE BEAM PROBE. TWIN CRYSTAL PROBES.

"DAC" CURVE Same size of defect or reference reflector at different distance/depth give's different signal amplitude because of attenuation of ultrasonic beam in medium. As such defect Amplitude correction Curve has to be drawn as shown in fig.

T/2 T/2 SDH 2.4 mm

ULTRASONIC STANDARD SA - 388 Recommended practice for Ultrasonic inspection of heavy steel forging. SA - 435 Standard specification for examination of steel plates. SA - 577 Standard specification of examination of steel plates. straight testing and

beam

ultrasonic

ultrasonic

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beam

SA - 578 Standards specification for straight beam ultrasonic examination of plain and clad steel plates of special application. SA - 609 Standard specification for longitudinal ultrasonic inspection of carbon and low alloy steel casting. SA - 745 Standard practice for Ultrasonic examination of austenitic steel forging. SE - 213 Standard practice for ultrasonic inspection of metal pipes and tubes. SE - 797 Standard practice for thickness measurement by contact ultrasonic method. manual