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Control and Regulation

~ Nervous system

Nervous system

Is a systems of neurones To detect and respond to changes i) Central nervous system ii) Peripheral nervous system

Organisation of the nervous system

generate and transmit nerve impulses i) sensory neurones (afferent neurones) ii) Interneurones iii) motor neurones (efferent neurones)

Structures of a neurone

Has large cell body (nucleus,cytoplasm and organelles) Neuronal processes i) Dendrites conduct nerve impulses towards cell body ii) Axon conduct nerve impulses away from cell body - divides at its end form synaptic terminal - contain synaptic vesicle filled with neurotransmitter

In peripheral nervous system ~ axon is covered by myelin sheath form by Schwann cells ~ nodes of Ranvier small uncover parts of myelinated axon between Schwann cell ~ myelin sheath - act as electrical insulator -prevent movement of ions through axon membrane

Formation of resting potential


potential electrical charge difference across plasma membrane Resting potential neurone is not conducting an impulse ( - 70 mV) - due to difference in concentration of K+ ions and Na+ ionson inside and outside of cell - inside the cell: K+ ions increase,Na+ ions decrease


potential difference is maintained by : ~ sodium-potassium pump ~ facilitated diffusion by non-gated ion channels ~ anions

Formation of action potential


potential nerve impulses i) Depolarisation phase threshold level (-55mV) ii) Repolarisation phase - action potential (+40mV) iii) Hyperpolarisation phase

Characteristics of nerve impulse

Refractory period after axon transmitted an impulse,it cannot immediately transmit another inpulse for a short period absolute refractory period - axon membrane cannot transmit another action potential no matter how strong the stimulus Relative refractory period - a new action potential can be generated if the stimulus is greater than the usual one


or none law ~ if intensity of stimulus is less than threshold level, no action potential can be generated ~ size/ amplitudes of action potential is constant ~ it is not affected by intensity of stimulus of action potential ~ a strong stimulus produces fewer action potential


Factors affecting the speed of impulse transmission

Diameter of axon ~ larger diameter of axon ,higher speed of transmission Presence or absence of myelin sheath ~sodium potassium channel found in nodes of Ranvier ~exchange of ions occur on the nodes only ~action potential jump from one node of Ranvier to another along axon ~known as saltatory conduction

Structure of synapse and role of neurotransmitter


~ small gap between neurone and effector as well as between sensory receptor and sensory neurone Has synaptic cleft - 20 nm wide Synaptic knob contains synaptic vesicles Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitter 2 types of neurotransmitter: a) norepinephrine b) acetylcholine

Mechanism of transmission and spread of impulse along axon


one region of axon is stimulated ~ voltage-gated Na+ ion channels open ~ Na+ ions flow into axon ~ causes depolarisation of membrane ~ action potential produced ~ it propagated along axon as nerve impulse

Localised current depolarises adjacent region ~ influx Na+ ions from extracellular fluid into one region of axon creates a local circuit ~ increase in Na+ ions in axoplasm repels cations to move the adjacent region which is more negatively charged ~ increases membrane potential in adjacent region and opens up voltage-gated Na+ ions channel ~ Na+ ions diffuse into neurone and membrane in adjacent region depolarised ~ when threshold level exceeded, a new action potential is generated after depolarisation phase,K+ ions diffuse out from axon causing previous region become repolarised resting potential re-established in previous region by Na+/K+ pump and facilitated diffusion of ions through non-gated channel ion channels

Mechanism of impulse transmission across a synapse

Comparison between the impulse transmission across the synapse and along the axon
Transmission of impulse across the synapse 1.The transmission is chemical in nature 2.Neurotransmitter involves during transmission 3.Neurotransmitter binds to specific receptor on the post synaptic membrane 4.The conduction of impulse involve two adjacent neurone 5.Can be excitatory and inhibitory Transmission of impulse along the axon 1.The transmission is electrical in nature 2. Only organic ions involve during transmission 3. No such binding of chemical molecules occur 4.The conduction of impulse travels along one neurone 5. Only excitatory

6. Depolarisation is due to influx of Na+ ions only

6.Depolarisation is due to a greater inward diffusion of Na+ ions into the neurone than an outward diffusion of potassium ions 7. Action potential is an all or none-response 8.Recovery is due to efflux of K+ ions and Na+/K+ pump 9.Speed of transmission affected by diameter of axon and presence of myelin sheath 10. No Ca2+ ions involve during impulse transmission

7.Several action potential can be summated to reach the threshold level 8.Recovery involves enzyme: acetylcholinesterase 9.Speed of transmission is affected by drugs : curare 10. Influx of Ca2+ ions when impulse reach synapse

Neuromuscular junction

a synapse found between motor neurone and skeletal muscle fibres

Structure of sacromere

Role of sacroplasmic reticulum, calcium ions, myofibrils and T tubules in muscle contraction

Mechanism of muscle contraction based on sliding filament theory

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

Feature 1. Origin of neurones 2.Locationof ganglion 3.Length of nerve fibre Sympathetic system Emerges from thoracic and lumbar region of CNS Close to spinal cord Short preganglionic fibres Long postganglionic fibres Parasympathetic system Emerges from cranial and sacral regions from CNS Close to effector Long preganglionic fibres Short postganglionic fibres

4.Transmitter substance 5.Effect on target organ

Noradrenaline Activates the body for emergency and stress condition ~Increase body metabolism ~Increase metabolic level ~Increase rhythmic activities

Acetylcholine Prepares body for relaxation, dominant during rest, control routine body activities ~None ~Decrease metabolic level ~Decrease rhythmic activities

6.General effect


~Increase pupil size ~Increase heart rate ~Increase sweating ~Increase rate of respiration ~Increase hair angles

~Decrease pupil size ~Decrease heart rate ~Decrease sweating ~Decrease rate of respiration ~Decrease hair angles

Mechanism of cocaine on nervous system