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CASE STUDY 1

PREPARED BY:

NIZARUDIN AZNAN ZAINI MOHD BAKRY B ZULKIFLI NORFAIRUS BINTI MOHD KHALID NORASHIKIN BINTI AWANG KECHIK MOHD SHUKUR BIN MOHD SALLEH

MP111361 MP111471 MP111351 MP111359 MP131058

1. Case presentation: 2. Identifying key information:


Azmi is a seven year old boy in an inclusive class. His academic performance is at average level in his class but his behavior is unacceptable to his friends. Azmi often exhibits disruptive behaviors such as talking out, making noise and at times kicking chairs, tables and threatened his friends. His class teacher, Mr Reena called a meeting to discuss with Azmis mother, Aizal in trying to understand Azmi from his mothers perspective. To Ms Reenas surprise, Aizal did not regard Azmis behavior as exceptional, just that he could not manage his anger. However, Aizal could not explain Azmis temperament and admit that she was very upset when Azmi in his learning and behavior but she does not know where to begin.

3. Generating and ranking hypotheses:

1. Aizal parenting style may reinforce Azmi behavior. 2. Miss Reena lack of information about EBD. 3. Azmi was an autistic Children/ADHD.

Azmi often exhibits disruptive behaviors. His behavior is unacceptable to his friends.

What cause the childrens behavior problems?

Parenting Style?

In the family, parenting style directly impacts childrens behavior. There is ample evidence to support correlation between parenting style and childrens behavioral problems. Parenting is a composite activity that is the sum of many particular behaviors working together or individually, to finally have an effect on the childs behavior (Baumrind 1978).

Authoritarian

Permissive

Childrens Behavioral Problems

Uninvolved

Authoritarian
Characteristics Authoritarian parents: Have strict rules and expectations. Very demanding, but not responsive. Don't express much warmth or nurturing. Utilize punishments with little or no explanation. Don't give children choices or options. The Effects The children of authoritarian parents: Some children display more aggressive behavior outside the home. Is highly correlated with delinquency behavior. Have more depression. Others may act fearful or overly shy around others. Often have lower self-esteem. Have difficulty in social situations.

Permissive
Characteristics Permissive parents: Have few rules or standards of behavior When there are rules, they are often very inconsistent Are usually very nurturing and loving towards their kids Often seem more like a friend, rather than a parent. May use bribery such as toys, gifts and food as a means to get child to behave The Effects Children raised by permissive parents: Lack self-discipline Sometimes have poor social skills May be self-involved and demanding May feel insecure due to the lack of boundaries and guidance May make many bad decisions. Lack interest in school and become underachievers.

Uninvolved
Characteristics Uninvolved parents: Are emotionally distant from their children Offer little or no supervision Show little warmth, love and affection towards their children Have few or no expectations or demands for behavior Don't attend school events and parent-teacher conferences May intentionally avoid their children Are often too overwhelmed by their own problems to deal with their children The Effects Children raised by uninvolved parents: Must learn to provide for themselves Fear becoming dependent on other people Are often emotionally withdrawn Tend to exhibit more delinquency during adolescence Feel fear, anxiety or stress due to the lack of family support Have an increased risk of substance abuse

Authoritarian

Azmis Behavioral Problems


Permissive

Aizal did not regard Azmis behavior as exceptional, just that he could not manage his anger. Aizal could not explain Azmis temperament and upset when Azmi failed to behave appropriately. How can Aizal change Azmis misbehavior?

Parenting Young Children with Behavior Problems

Promoting Changes in a Positive Environment


While helping a child change is not easy, it can become easier and more effective when he or she has a positive environment. Parents can do many things to make the environment of their home more positive. Forehand and Long (2002) suggest the following: Have fun with your child. Communicate "I love you" often. Have structure and routines. Participate in family traditions and rituals. Be a good listener. Request feedback from your child and take turns talking. Work on developing patience. Build your child's self-esteem. Help your child solve problems with peers.

7 Ways to Start Parenting More Effectively

Work on the behavior you want to change most then, move on to the next one. Don't try to tackle everything at once. (James Lehman)

7 Ways to Start Parenting More Effectively 1. Decide What You Want to Work on First 2. Pinpoint Exactly What You Want to Change 3. Explain the Change 4. Tell Your Child What the Goal Is 5. Manage Opportunity

Start with the things that put your child at risk. These are the behaviors that are physically or emotionally dangerous to your child or others

7 Ways to Start Parenting More Effectively 1. Decide What You Want to Work on First 2. Pinpoint Exactly What You Want to Change 3. Explain the Change 4. Tell Your Child What the Goal Is 5. Manage Opportunity

Break behaviors down into separate pieces and work on them one at a time. Work on the behavior you want to change mostthen, move on to the next one. Dont try to tackle everything at once.

7 Ways to Start Parenting More Effectively 1. Decide What You Want to Work on First 2. Pinpoint Exactly What You Want to Change 3. Explain the Change 4. Tell Your Child What the Goal Is 5. Manage Opportunity

Sit down with your child and explain what that change is going to be. Don't make speeches, but keep remarks specific and focused. Speeches cut down on communication.

7 Ways to Start Parenting More Effectively 1. Decide What You Want to Work on First 2. Pinpoint Exactly What You Want to Change 3. Explain the Change 4. Tell Your Child What the Goal Is 5. Manage Opportunity

Define your goals to your child.

7 Ways to Start Parenting More Effectively 1. Decide What You Want to Work on First 2. Pinpoint Exactly What You Want to Change 3. Explain the Change 4. Tell Your Child What the Goal Is 5. Manage Opportunity

Once your child demonstrates that he cant handle something, remove the opportunity until he shows you that he can. Often, if your child doesn't have the opportunity to do something, it wont happen.

7 Ways to Start Parenting More Effectively 6. Dont Appeal to Your Childs Empathy 7. Set Limits and Give Consequences

Children don't experience much empathy for anybody. They are simply not in touch with those feelings. The apparatus that manages empathy in the mind is not working properly yet; some say it isnt fully formed. Regardless of the reasons, empathy is not an approach that will convince your child of anything.

Consequently, they dont experience empathy for everyday situations, so you cant depend on that tactic to change their behavior. Instead, you have to work with their self-interest.
If you want your child to change something, you have to demonstrate that he will benefit from changing; that its in his self-interest. If you want your child to stop lying or manipulating, you have to frame it in a way so he can see how he would benefit from stopping that behavior.

7 Ways to Start Parenting More Effectively 6. Dont Appeal to Your Childs Empathy 7. Set Limits and Give Consequences

An important component of teaching our kids is learning how to set limits on them. Theres an old saying: You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him drink. We cant make him drink but we can make him thirsty. Thats what your consequences should be designed to do. Accordingly, we cant make our child change. But if we use the right combination of consequences and motivation, we can, in a sense, make them thirsty to change.

Positive Parenting can end child behaviour problems

What makes children behave in challenging ways?


Children do not usually misbehave just to upset or annoy their parents. There is often a reason behind a childs behaviour. It may be: they are upset or anxious about school; they feel jealous of their brother or sister; they want their parent to listen to them; they want their parent to spend time with them. At some point most children will misbehave to get attention. If a parent doesnt pay much attention when children are behaving well, some children will try acting up to get attention, even if it results in a telling off.

Coping Under Pressure


Parents need to find ways to reduce the pressure in the home and can do a lot to help their childs behaviour through positive parenting. In fact, parents can make the difference between their childs behaviour getting out of control, and helping them manage everyday life in better ways

Tips for Helping With childrens Behaviour


Tip 1: Talk and Listen Getting to know your own child, and knowing what makes them angry or agitated can help you prevent angry or upsetting situations before they happen.

Talking and listening to your child helps them to understand whats going on:
Language: Try to use positive words. Tell your child what you want them to do, not what you dont want them to do. Instead of dont make such a mess try tidy up your toys please. This is an example of positive parenting.

Tips for Helping With childrens Behaviour


Tip 1: Talk and Listen Change your tone: Your voice is a powerful tool. Sometimes changing your tone or volume can be enough to stop a fraught situation or get your child to do what you want.

Listening: Your child is trying out his/her new language and needs to be heard. Encourage your child to talk to you sit beside him/her theyll find it easier to talk and listen to you if youre not standing over them. Explaining: If you have to say no, give your child a good reason and offer an alternative Rosie is playing with the doll now, lets find you another toy.

Tips for Helping With childrens Behaviour

Tip 2: Understand Changes As They Grow Encouragement: Your child will learn whats ok to do from you, so give lots of praise and attention to good behaviour. If you only pay attention to your child when they misbehave, theyll learn to misbehave to get your attention.

Tips for Helping With childrens Behaviour


Tip 3: Set Boundaries Children need clear rules, boundaries and routine. Be consistent. Parents need to agree the rules. It will help the child if both parents take the same approach. When you say no, mean no. Keeping to this can be hard work, but if you have a few clear rules, it helps you and your children. If you make promises keep them. Rules should be simple and clear. Keep to as few rules as possible. Try one new routine at a time and get it working before moving on to the next.

Tips for Helping With childrens Behaviour


Tip 4: Reward and Notice Good Behaviour Sometimes it is easy to ignore your child when they are behaving well, and only notice them when they are misbehaving. Children love their parents attention, and if they have to behave badly to get it, they will. Give them lots of praise when they are behaving well, rather than focussing on misbehaviour. Rewards do not have to be material things. Real praise and encouragement is the best reward as it can boost a child and build self-esteem and confidence. Try not to stress over the little things. If you are praising things they are doing well, and ignoring the small niggles, your child will learn that unacceptable behaviour no longer gets them the attention.

Tips for Helping With childrens Behaviour

Tip 5: Build Self Confidence Building your childs self confidence will help them to try out new things, make friends and cope with the upsets and problems they meet as they grow up. Finding out: Give your child the chance to face new experiences and challenges with your support. Love: Tell your child that you love them; its great to smile, cuddle and kiss them.

Tips for Helping With childrens Behaviour

Tip 5: Build Self Confidence Independence: Dont try to solve every problem for your child sorting it out for themselves can be a boost to their confidence. Praise: As a general rule, try to give five times more praise than criticism. Avoid comparisons: All children are unique. Dont compare your child to other children and share that with the child, they will grow up to compare themselves unfavourably with others.

CONCLUSION
Ultimately the most powerful method of influencing our childrens behavior is our relationship with them. You are your childs best teacher.

Miss Reena lack of information about EBD.

What is EBD?

Click Video

Conduct Disorder: Includes physical aggression, anger, disobedience, and oppositionality. Socialized Aggression: Involves behaviors such as stealing or using drugs around others, lying, school truancy, and gang membership. Attention Problems: Immaturity: Internalizing Disorders: Disorders Includes short attention span, that a typically expressed inwardly, problems in concentration, including personality problems, distractibility, and impulsivity. It also anxiety, and depression. includes passitivity and childishness. Anxiety Withdrawal: Includes Externalizing Disorders: Disorders internalizing disorders such as that are typically expressed generalized fearfulness and anxiety, outwardly, including aggression, fear of failure, poor self-esteem, and acting out, and disobedience. hypersensitivity to criticism. Dimensional Classification System: Psychotic Behavior: Includes speech disturbances, delusions, and impaired A classification system for emotional reality testing. disturbance that includes 6 Motor Tension Excesses: Involves categories or dimensions. behaviors such as over activity, restlessness, and tension.

Miss Reenas Strategy

1. Diagnostic Teaching Model


Identification of Relevant Attributes Attention Problems A student who has difficulty focusing on the task at hand may have trouble focusing on the teachers directions. Aggressive behavior A child who is easily upset and who acts out his or her aggression will have difficulty in class which will detract from the instructions. Withdrawn behavior - A child who avoids involvement with others may not benefit from group instruction well and will probably not be able to work on small group projects or in other cooperative learning situations. Hyperactivity Hyperactive children often have difficulty staying on task and may also have difficulty staying in one place long enough to get much done. Bizarre behavior A student with bizarre and unpredictable behavior will respond inconsistently. Some behavior are so bizarre that instructions is impossible

2. Behavior Management
Example : Eight year-old Anis is hyperactive. Your objective is to increase the time she says in her seat. Seven-year-old Abu withdraws from interaction with others. Your objective is to increase the time Abu cooperates in group activity. Ten-year-old Bakar frequently disrupts others with her aggressive behavior. Your objective is to reinforce Bakars cooperation with the rules of classroom activities. One of the most effective ways to achieve behavior management objectives is to offer a child rewards for desired behavior.

3. Specifying Teaching Objectives


Types of objectives - depends upon the childs particular abilities and disabilities. Setting objectives - are important so that the child will enjoy the learning experience and develop skills that will help them later in life.

4. Selecting Strategies and Materials Teaching


o Strategies and materials for children with behavior disorders must be carefully coordinated and must take into account the individual abilities and disabilities of these children. o Planning the main objective should be to find content and procedures that help students to reach goals. If a child often explores lesson materials before an activity begins, it is worth noting, because this need to become familiar with the materials may be an important learning strategy.

5. Evaluation
Was the student motivated? Was the students ability to attend to tasks improved? Did inappropriate behavior improve? If you feel a student has not reached the goal set, you must then analyze every step of the program and modify accordingly. Does the learning environment encourage students to pay attention? Are students allowed to interact with others as a way of learning more about the task? Are students given feedback on their work? Are students generalizing their new knowledge to other tasks?

MAIN ISSUES
Azmi often exhibits disruptive behaviors such as talking out, making noise and at times kicking chairs, tables and threatened his friends.

HYPOTHESIS
Azmi was an ADHD children

ACTION PLAN
Video; the characteristics of ADHD children. Role Play; conducting a session how to briefing an ADHD information giving a brochure.

The Characteristics of ADHD Children

Video

Brochure

An Information about ADHD Matters Another ADHD Brochure Review

CONCLUSION
Azmi was an ADHD children due to a few of symptom that he were exhibit; avoids or dislikes activities that require sitting still or a sustained effort, talks excessively, and etc. Although Azmi cannot performed well in school, Miss Reena can suggest to Aizal how to manage her son through parenting method or attending therapy session class with welfare department.