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Optical Transport Network (OTN)

ITU-T standard G.709 G.709 The Optical Transport Network (OTN)

Why OTN?
Standard for optical networks required Optical interconnection between equipment from different vendors Optical interconnection between different operators Once called digital wrapper because it wraps any client signal in overhead information for operations,administration, and management Framing of client signal of different protocols for transport over the physical optical layer E.g. IP/Ethernet or IP/ATM or SDH Takes SDH/SONET further, enabling optical functionality From a single to multiple wavelengths Forward Error Correction (FEC) What is FEC?

Properties of OTN
Protocol transparency
Handles any protocol-stack and gives a physical layer to higher layer protocols like e.g. IP

Backward compatibility for existing protocols

Handles both SDH and Ethernet

Reduces cost, improves performance

Reduction of 3R regeneration
Allows management of all-optical network elements

Inter-domain interfaces (IrDI)
Location between networks of two operators Location between sub-networks of two vendors in the same operator domain The location within the sub-network of one vendor 3R regeneration Why?

Intra-Domain interfaces (IaDI)

The location between the equipment of an individual manufacturers sub-network Transparent network

Intra- IaDI within e.g. an operator Inter- IrDI between operators or connection to e.g. a customer (client)

Inter and intra -domain

OTN layer structure

OCh = Optical channel OMS = Optical Multiplex section OTS = Optical Transmission Section

OTN hierarchy
Client Client OPU ODU


Client OPUk ODUk FEC



OCh payload Non Associated overhead OCCp OCCp OCCp OMS payload



OTS payload

In-band and out of band OH

Non-associated OH (out of band) may be added to OCh enabling management of multiple colours in OTN. Optical Multiplex Section (OMS)
Multiplex of OChs

Optical Transmission Section (OTS)

The transmission medium, I.e. the fibre

OTN (G.709) frame


7 8

14 15 16 17

3824 3825















ACT: Activation/deactivation control channel APS: Automatic Protection Switching PCC Protection Communication Channel EXP: Experimental, 2 bytes FAS: Frame Alignment Signal, 6 bytes, are used to delineate the frame FTFL: Fault Type & Fault Location, 256 byte, faults in the forward and reverse directions GCC: General Communication Channel, 2 bytes MFAS: MultiFrame Alignment Signal PCC: Protection Communication Control channel PM: Path Monitoring, 3bytes monitor the end-to-end path

PSI: Payload Structure Identifier , 256bytes RES: Reserved for future international SM: Section Monitoring, trail trace identifier,BIP-8 byte, and alarm signals TTI: identification of the two end points of the optical connection BIP-8: (bit interleaved parity8) used to monitor the bit error rate alarm signals : backward error indicator TCM: Tandem Connection Monitoring , to monitor the error performance of a signal for different applications

Optical Payload Unit (OPU)

Framing of client signal
May be of any protocol, e.g. SONET/SDH, GFP, IP, GbE

Payload Structure Identifier (PSI)

256 Byte message Justification bits for asynchronous mapping of client signal PSI0 contains Payload Type (PT) (single byte) identifying type of payload RES Bytes Reserved for future use

Optical channel Data Unit (ODU) functionality

Tandem Monitoring (TCM) Hierarchical error checking using parity bytes Allows up to six tandem connections, nesting and overlapping Path Monitoring (PM) Monitoring of particular sections Fault location General Communication Channels (GCC) Typically Management communication Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Protection switching at one or more levels What is protection switching?

ODU-k: Defined for several bitrates

-k is a number defining the bitrate Originally defined bitrates
ODU1: 2.5 Gb/s ODU2: 10 Gb/s ODU3: 40 Gb/s

Recently defined/to be defined

ODU0: 1 Gb/s (Matches Gigabit Ethernet) ODU4: 100 Gb/s (Matches 100 Gigabit Ethernet)

Tandem Connection monitoring

Six levels, nested or cascaded connections Nested: A1-A2/B1-B2/C1-C2 and A1-A2/B3-B4 Cascaded: B1-B2/B3-B4 Carriers may maintain their own service level agreement (SLA)
What is a SLA?

Figure from G.709 standard

Optical channel transport unit (OTU)

Support transport of OTU via one or more optical channel connections Frame alignment Signal (FAS)
Multi Frame Alignment Signal (MFAS) ODU frames may span multiple OTU frames TTI and TCM-ACT (activation) signals requires multiple ODU-frames for being processed

Forward Error Correction (FEC)

Forward error control(FEC) 16 FEC blocks of 16 bytes for the row. 64 bytes/frame Reed-Solomon RS(255,239) code Uses 16 byte interleaved codecs. Can correct up to eight symbol errors(correction mood) and detect up to 16 symbol errors in the code (detection mood). Enables communications to maintain acceptable performance quality in noisy environment. Provide additional coded data for error checking and error correction

Physical impairments to be compensated

Attenuation Noise Dispersion: Chromatic, mode and polarisation

Four wave mixing Self phase modulation Cross phase modulation

Wavelength Division Multiplex (WDM) Time Division Multiplex (TDM) TDM Tributary Slots TDM Overhead TDM Mapping

Summary OTN
Management to the high bandwidth WDM network SDH/SONET single wavelength, OTN multiple wavelengths Builds on management functionality from SDH/SONET Monitoring functionality GCC channels for management communication Transparency to other protocols, e.g. IP Wrap whatever you like FEC compensates physical impairments, increases costefficiency OTN switching is being deployed OTN transmission and switching market is increasing rapidly