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ELEMENTS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (10 EME 14/24)

UNIT 7 : SOLDERING, BRAZING AND WELDING.


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INTRODUCTION

Some products cannot be manufactured as a single piece. The desired shape and size of such products can be obtained by joining two parts of same or different materials. These parts are manufactured individually and are joined together to obtain the desired product. Metal fabrication involves joining of two metals together. Various processes are used to join the metals together depending on the strength of the joint, material and thickness of the work metals and other several factors. Metal Joining processes are generally classified as: Welding Soldering Brazing 2 Mechanical Fasteners like bolts, nuts, rivets, screws etc. Adhesive bonding.

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WELDING

Definition Welding is a fabrication process of joining two similar or dissimilar metals by heating them to a suitable temperature and then fusing them together with or without the application of pressure and filler metal. Types Plastic or Pressure Welding (Under pressure without additional filler metal) Fusion or non-pressure welding (With additional filler material)
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ARC WELDING

Working principle: Arc welding is a fusion welding process and basically works on the principle that the intense heat produced by an electrical arc struck between the electrode (filler rod) and the work metal is used to join the two metals. In this welding process the electrical energy is converted into heat energy producing a temperature of around 50000C in the welding zone. The high temperature of the electric arc melts the base metal and at the same time the tip of filler metal also melts and mixes with molten base metal to form the weld metal. The weld metal cools and solidifies to form the weld.
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CONSTRUCTION

The constructional details of an arc welding machine are as follows: Power supply Insulated cables Electrode holder and Clamping system Electrodes The two types of electrodes used in arc welding are: 1. Consumable electrodes 2. Non-consumable electrodes

WORKING

OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING
Principle of operation: Oxy-Acetylene Welding is basically a fusion type of gas welding process, in which a flame produced by the combustion of gases is employed to melt the metal. By burning acetylene in combination with right proportion of pure oxygen, in a welding torch, a flame upto 35000C can be attained. As in arc welding, a filler metal is used to fill the joint. The molten metal is allowed to flow together thus forming a solid continuous joint upon cooling.

CONSTRUCTION

Gas cylinders Pressure regulators Pressure gauges Welding Torch Hoses

TYPES OF OXY-ACETYLENE FLAME

The flame temp. is not uniform throughout the entire length of the flame, indeed it varies with the gas composition. There are three kinds of flame:

1. Neutral Flame 2. Oxidizing Flame 3. Carburizing Flame

SOLDERING

Definition: Soldering is defined as the method of joining two similar or dissimilar metals by using another low temp. metal alloy called solder under the application of heat. Types: Soldering is classified into, Soft Soldering Hard Soldering

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WORKING PRINCIPLE

The surfaces to be joined are cleaned and are placed on each other. A flux is employed to prevent oxidation. The solder is heated by soldering iron and the molten filler metal is made to flow between the two closely placed adjacent surfaces by the capillary action. In the soldering process only the solder melts and the workpieces does not. Though soldering results in a good joint between the two plates, the strength of the joint is limited. The soldered joints are not 11 suitable for high temperature applications because of the low melting temperatures of the filler metals used.

METHOD OF SOLDERING

The following operations are required to be performed sequentially for making soldered joints. Shaping and fitting of metal parts together Cleaning of surfaces Application of flux Tinning Application of heat Cooling and final clean up

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BRAZING

Definition: Brazing is defined as the method of joining two similar or dissimilar metals by using a non-ferrous fusible filler metal called spelter (having melting point lower than that of the base metal) under the application of heat. Types: Brazing is classified into, Gas Torch Brazing Furnace Brazing Dip Brazing Electrical Brazing

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WORKING PRINCIPLE

The surfaces to be joined are cleaned and are placed in joining position. A flux is employed to prevent oxidation. The part to be joined is heated and the molten filler metal is made to flow between the two closely placed adjacent surfaces by the capillary action. If a large gap is present, capillary action will not take place and the joint will not be strong Brazing gives a much stronger joint than soldering. The principal difference is the use of a harder filler material commercially known as spelter. The spelter is usually an alloy of copper, zinc and tin.

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METHOD OF BRAZING

The following operations are required to be performed sequentially for making soldered joints. Cleaning and preparing the surface to be brazed. Cleaning may be done by wire brushing, filing or grinding. Coating the surface of both base metal and the filler metal with a flux. The parts are aligned, held in right position and clamped. Heating the joint using a blow torch or other suitable mean in the presence of the filler metal. Filler metal melts and fills the joint by capillary action. The joint is allowed to cool and later is cleaned with a solvent to remove the left out flux.

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COMPARISON BETWEEN WELDING, SOLDERING AND BRAZING

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COMPARISON BETWEEN WELDING, SOLDERING AND BRAZING

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THANK YOU
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