CHAPTER 7
NONLINEAR CONDUCTION PROBLEMS
7.1 Introduction
Nonlinearity is due to:
 Temperature dependent properties
 Radiation effect
 Free convection at boundary
 Phase change
7.2 Sources of Nonlinearity
7.2.1 Nonlinear Differential Equations
 Temperature dependent properties
t
T
c q
x
T
k
x
p
c
c
=
' ' '
c
c
c
c
+ ) (
(7.1)
2
Rewrite 7.1
) (T c c
p p
=
) (T k k =
t
T
c q
x
T
dT
dk
x
T
k
p
c
c
=
' ' '
+
(
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
(7.2)
 Fins with convection and radiation
0 ) ( ) (
4 4
2
2
=
sur
T T
kA
C
T T
kA
hC
dx
T d o c
(7.3)
7.2.2 Nonlinear Boundary Conditions
(1) Free convection
4 / 5
) (
=
c
c
T T
x
T
k 
(7.4)
) (T =
3
(2) Radiation
(3) Phase change interface
7.3 Taylor Series Method
!
) 0 (
! 3
) 0 (
! 2
) 0 (
! 1
) 0 (
) 0 ( ) (
3
3
3
2
2
2
n
x
dx
T d x
dx
T d
x
dx
T d x
dx
dT
T x T
n
n
n
+ +
+ + + =
(7.7)
) (
4 4
sur
T T
x
T
k =
c
c
o c
(7.5)
(7.6)
s L s
x
T
k
x
T
k =
c
c
c
c
L
t d
dx
i
4
Example 7.1: Slab with Variable Thermal
Conductivity
Solution
(1) Observations
 Nonlinearity is due to variable k
 Symmetry
 Expansion about midplane
) 1 (
2
T T k k
o
 + + =
q ' ' '
T
x
0
F i g . 7 . 1
) ( T k
(2) Origin and Coordinates: Fig. 7.1
(3) Formulation
(i) Assumptions
5
(1) Steady state
(2) Symmetry
(3) Uniform energy generation
(ii) Governing Equation
NOTE: The heat equation is not solved in this method.
(iii) Boundary Conditions
(1)
T (0) =T
o
0
) 0 (
=
dx
dT
(2)
0
2
2
2
=
' ' '
+
(
+ q
dx
dT
dT
dk
dx
T d
k
(a)
6
(4) Solution. Use Taylor series expansion, eq. (7.7)
+ +
+ + + =
! 4
) 0 (
! 3
) 0 (
! 2
) 0 (
! 1
) 0 (
) 0 ( ) (
4
4
4 3
3
3
2
2
2
x
dx
T d x
dx
T d
x
dx
T d x
dx
dT
T x T
(b)
Second derivative: Apply the heat equation (a) at
Third derivative: Differentiate (a)
) 0 (
) 0 (
2
2
k
q
dx
T d
' ' '
=
(c)
2
2
3
2
2
3 2
2 2 3
3
2 1
1
dx
T d
dx
dT
dT
dk
k dx
dT
dT
k d
k
dx
dT
dT
dk
k
dx
dT
dT
dk
k
q
dx
T d
+
' ' '
=
(d)
7
Evaluating (d) at x = 0 and using BC (2)
0
) 0 (
3
3
=
dx
T d
(e)
Fourth derivative: Differentiate (d), set x = 0, use BC (2) and (c)
Substitute into (b)
where
dT
dk
k
q
dx
T d ) 0 (
)] 0 ( [
) (
3
) 0 (
3
2
4
4
' ' '
= (f)
! 4
) 0 (
)] 0 ( [
) ( 3
! 2 ) 0 (
) 0 ( ) (
4
3
2 2
x
dT
dk
k
q x
k
q
T x T
' ' '
+ +
' ' '
=
(k)
(5) Checking
Dimensional check
9
Limiting check:
(i) Constant k: set = = 0 in (k)
This is the exact solution for constant
(ii) Symmetry: Even powers of x
2
2
) ( x
k
q
T x T
o
o
' ' '
=
(l)
(6) Comments
(i) Role of L
(ii) Accuracy of solution
(iii) Exact solution to eq. (7.1)
0 =
' ' '
+
(
q
dx
dT
k
dx
d
(m)
10
Substitute (h) into (m), separate variables, integrate and apply the
two BC
7.4 Kirchhoff Transformation
7.4.1 Transformation of Differential Equation
Applies to variable k. Differential equation:
Define
t
T
c q
x
T
k
x
p
c
c
=
' ' '
c
c
c
c
+ ) (
(7.1)
2 3 2 3 2
2 3 2 3 2
x
k
q
T T T T T T
o
o o o
' ' '
+ + = + +
 
(n)
=
T
o
dT T k
k
T
0
) (
1
) ( u
(7.8)
(7.8) gives a relationship between
u
and T.
11
Differentiate (7.8)
Transformation of t T c c / x T c c / and
(b) and (c) into (7.1)
t k
k
c q
x k
k
k
x
o
p
o
c
c
=
' ' '
+
(
c
c
c
c u
u
o
k
k
dT
d
=
u
(a)
t k
k
t d
dT
t
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(b)
x k
k
x d
dT
x
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(c)
12
p
c
k
T
o o = = ) (
NOTE:
 Steady state stationary problems: eq. (7.9) becomes linear
 Approximation: = constant, eq. (7.9) becomes linear
(
c
c
c
c
x
T
T k
x
) (
(nonlinear)
2
2
x
k
o
c
c u
(linear) 
) ( ) (
) (
) (
T c T
T k
T
p
o o = =
: (7.9) is still nonlinear

t k
q
x
o
c
c
=
' ' '
+
c
c u
o
u 1
2
2
(7.9)
13
7.4.2 Transformation of Boundary Conditions
(1) Specified Temperature
o
T T = (7.10)
Eq. (7.8) gives
Eq. (7.10) into (a)
Thus, specified T specified =
o
(2) Specified Heat Flux
) (T F = u
(a)
o o
T F u u = ) ( (7.11)
o
q
x
T
k
' '
=
c
c
(7.12)
14
However
(b) into eq. (7.12)
) 1 ( T k k
o
 + =
Determine: Steady state
temperature distribution
Fig. 7.2
o
r
r
L
0
z
o
q
o
T
0
r
Example 7.2: 2D conduction in a cylinder with
variable k(T)
x k
k
x d
dT
x
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(b)
o o
q
x
k
' '
=
c
c
u
(7.13)
15
Solution
(1) Observations
 Nonlinearity is due to variable k
 BC: Specified temperature and specified heat flux
 Kirchhoff transformation is applicable
(2) Origin and Coordinates
(3) Formulation
(i) Assumptions.
(1) Steady state
(2) Twodimensional conduction
(3) Axisymmetric temperature distribution.
16
(iii) Boundary Conditions
(2)
o o
T z r T = ) , (
(ii) Governing Equations. Eq. (1.11) for variable k
Fig. 7.2
o
r
r
L
0
z
o
q''
o
T
0
r
0
) , 0 (
=
c
c
r
z T
(1)
0
1
=
(
c
c
c
c
+
(
c
c
c
c
z
T
k
z r
T
kr
r r
(a)
(3)
0
) 0 , (
=
c
c
z
r T
(4)
o
q
z
L r T
k
' '
=
c
c ) , (
17
(4) Solution. Use Kirchhoff transformation
(c) into (b)
) 1 ( T k k
o
 + =
(c)
}
=
T
o
kdT
k
T
0
1
) ( u
(b)
2
0
2
) 1 (
1
) ( T T dT T k
k
T
T
o
o

 u + = + =
}
(d)
r k
k
r d
dT
r
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(c)
Determine :
Transform the governing equation and boundary
conditions
18
(e) into (a)
z k
k
z d
dT
z
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(e)
0
1
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
z
r r
r
u u u
(f)
(2)
o o o o
T T z r u  u + = 2 / ) , (
2
(3)
o o
q
x
L r
k
' '
=
c
c ) , ( u
(4)
0
) 0 , (
=
c
c
x
r u
0
) , 0 (
=
c
c
r
z u
(1)
Transformation of BC
19
NOTE:
 DE and BC are linear
 Eq. (f) is solved by separation of variables
 Solution gives (r,z)
T(r,z) is obtained from (d)

u


1
) , (
2 1
) , (
2
+ = z r z r T
7.5 Boltzmann Transformation
 Based on similarity method
 Limited to semiinfinite domains
 Restricted initial and boundary conditions
20
 Combines two variables (similarity variable): For k = k(T)
 Result:
nonlinearPDEnonlinearODE
Surface temperature =T
o
Example 7.3: Transient Conduction in a Semi
infinite Region, Variable Conductivity
I nitial temperature =T
i
Fig. 7.3
0
x
i
T
0
T
) (T k
Determine: T(x,t)
21
(1) Observations
(2) Origin and Coordinates
(3) Formulation
 Semiinfinite, uniform initial temperature: Similarity solution
is possible
 Nonlinearity is due to k =k(T)
(i) Assumptions
(1) Onedimensional transient conduction
(2) initial temperature is uniform.
22
(ii) Governing Equations
(1) T(0 , t) = T
o
(2) T( , t) = T
i
(3) T(x , 0) = T
i
(4) Solution. Introduced (x,t) Fig. 7.3
0
x
i
T
0
T
) (T k
(iii) Boundary and Initial Conditions
t
T
c
x
T
k
x
p
c
c
=
(
c
c
c
c
(a)
t
x
t x = ) , ( q
(b)
23
(a) becomes
Transformed BC and IC:
(1) T(0) = T
o
(2) T() = T
i
(3) T() = T
i
NOTE:
 PDE ODE
 Eq. (7.14) is second order. Needs two B.C.
 Transformed problem has two B.C.
0
2
1
) ( = +
(
q
q
q q d
dT
c
d
dT
T k
d
d
p
(7.14)
24
(5) Comments. Note restriction on solution:
 Semiinfinite region
 Uniform initial temperature
 Constant surface temperature
 Constant and c
p
 Solution by successive approximation
 Eq. (7.14) is nonlinear: k =k(T) , = (T) and c
p
= c
p
(T)
 Solution for constant and c
p
is obtained using successive
approximation
7.6 Combining Boltzmann and Kirchhoff
Transformations
Re do Example 7.3. Introduce the Kirchhoff transformation
25
Applying eq. (7.8) to eq. (7.14)
B.C.
(2)
}
=
i
T
i i
o
T dT T k
k
0
) ( ) (
1
) ( u u
p
c
k
o =
(a)
0
2
1
2
2
= +
q
u
q
o
q
u
d
d
d
d
(7.15)
}
=
T
o
dT T k
k
T
0
) (
1
) ( u
(7.8)
}
=
o
T
o o
o
T dT T k
k
0
) ( ) (
1
) 0 ( u u
(1)
NOTE: Eq. (7.15) is nonlinear because
) (u o o =
26
BC give A and B
(d) into eq. (7.8)
) 2 / ( ) (
2
T T k T
o
 u + =
B
t
x
A t x + =
o
u
4
erf ) , (
(b)
Assume: constant
, o eq. (7.15) becomes linear. Solution becomes
o o i
t
x
t x u
o
u u u + =
4
erf ) ( ) , ( (c)
Example:
Convert (c) from
this equation gives
u
to
: T
Use eq. (7.8) . For specified
), (T k
u
in terms of
. T
) 1 ( T k k
o
 + = (d)
27
) 2 / (
2
o o o o
T T k  u + =
) 2 / (
2
i i o i
T T k  u + =
7.7 Exact Solutions
 Semiinfinite fin
 Convection and radiation at surface
d x
T h,
x
=T T
s u r
Fig. 7.4
0
kA
hc
m
c
=
2
kA
c
m
r
o c
=
2
, (a)
0 ) ( ) (
4 4 2 2
2
2
=
T T m T T m
dx
T d
r c
(7.16)
The constants
o
u
and
i
u
become
T
 Ambient and fluid at
28
B.C.
Introduce the transformation
Differentiating (b)
Solving (b) for dx
d x
T h,
x
=T T
s u r
Fig. 7.4
0
+ =
dx
dT
(b)
(1)
o
T T = ) 0 (
= T T ) (
(2)
dx
d
dx
T d +
=
2
2
(c)
+
dT
dx=
(d)
29
(d) into (c)
Separating variables and integrating
Using (e) to eliminate
2
2
dx
T d
in eq. (7.16)
where C is constant of integration.
dT
d
dx
T d +
+ =
2
2
(e)
) ( ) (
4 4 2 2
+ = T T m T T m
dT
d
r c
+
+
(7.17)
C T T T m
T T T m
r
c
+
+ =
) ( ) 5 / (
) 2 / ( ) 2 / (
2
4 5 2
2 2
2
+
(f)
30
Substituting (h) into (g) and solving for C gives
C T T T m
T T T m
dx
dT
r
c
+
+ = =
2 / 1
4 5 2
2 2
) 5 / (
) 2 / ( 2 +
(g)
Solving (f) for and using (b)
If
> T T
o
then , 0 / < dx dT use negative sign
Determine C, apply (g) at = x
= T T ) (
0
) (
=
dx
dT
(h)
5 2 2 2
) 5 / 4 ( ) 2 / 1 (
+ = T m T m C
r c
(i)
31
NOTE
0
) (
2
2
=
dx
T d
(j)
dx
dT
kA q
c
) 0 (
=
2 / 1
5 4 5 2
2 2 2
) 4 5 )( 5 / (
) 2 )( 2 / ( 2
+
+ + =
T T T T m
T T T T m kA
o o r
o o c c
(7.18)
To determine
: q
plus sign is for
> T T
o
 Exact solution is for
q
 No solution for
T
 For
,
= T T
sur
use same method. Need
). ( T
At
= x
32
Substituting (j) into (7.16) gives
This equation is solved for by a trial and error procedure.
) ( T
0
4
2 2
4
= +
sur r c
T ) ( T m T ) T( m