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CHAPTER 7
NON-LINEAR CONDUCTION PROBLEMS
7.1 Introduction
Non-linearity is due to:
- Temperature dependent properties
- Radiation effect
- Free convection at boundary
- Phase change
7.2 Sources of Non-linearity
7.2.1 Non-linear Differential Equations
- Temperature dependent properties
t
T
c q
x
T
k
x
p
c
c
=
' ' '
c
c
c
c
+ ) (
(7.1)
2
Rewrite 7.1

) (T c c
p p
=
) (T k k =
t
T
c q
x
T
dT
dk
x
T
k
p
c
c
=
' ' '
+
(

c
c
+
c
c

2
2
2
(7.2)
- Fins with convection and radiation
0 ) ( ) (
4 4
2
2
=
sur
T T
kA
C
T T
kA
hC
dx
T d o c
(7.3)
7.2.2 Non-linear Boundary Conditions
(1) Free convection
4 / 5
) (

=
c
c
T T
x
T
k |
(7.4)
) (T =
3
(2) Radiation

(3) Phase change interface

7.3 Taylor Series Method
!
) 0 (
! 3
) 0 (
! 2
) 0 (
! 1
) 0 (
) 0 ( ) (
3
3
3
2
2
2
n
x
dx
T d x
dx
T d
x
dx
T d x
dx
dT
T x T
n
n
n
+ +
+ + + =
(7.7)
) (
4 4
sur
T T
x
T
k =
c
c
o c
(7.5)
(7.6)
s L s
x
T
k
x
T
k =
c
c

c
c
L
t d
dx
i
4
Example 7.1: Slab with Variable Thermal
Conductivity
Solution
(1) Observations
- Non-linearity is due to variable k
- Symmetry
- Expansion about mid-plane
) 1 (
2
T T k k
o
| + + =
q ' ' '
T
x
0
F i g . 7 . 1
) ( T k
(2) Origin and Coordinates: Fig. 7.1
(3) Formulation
(i) Assumptions
5
(1) Steady state
(2) Symmetry
(3) Uniform energy generation
(ii) Governing Equation
NOTE: The heat equation is not solved in this method.
(iii) Boundary Conditions

(1)
T (0) =T
o

0
) 0 (
=
dx
dT
(2)
0
2
2
2
=
' ' '
+
(

+ q
dx
dT
dT
dk
dx
T d
k
(a)
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(4) Solution. Use Taylor series expansion, eq. (7.7)

+ +
+ + + =
! 4
) 0 (
! 3
) 0 (
! 2
) 0 (
! 1
) 0 (
) 0 ( ) (
4
4
4 3
3
3
2
2
2
x
dx
T d x
dx
T d
x
dx
T d x
dx
dT
T x T
(b)
Second derivative: Apply the heat equation (a) at
Third derivative: Differentiate (a)
) 0 (
) 0 (
2
2
k
q
dx
T d
' ' '
=
(c)
2
2
3
2
2
3 2
2 2 3
3
2 1
1
dx
T d
dx
dT
dT
dk
k dx
dT
dT
k d
k
dx
dT
dT
dk
k
dx
dT
dT
dk
k
q
dx
T d

+
' ' '
=
(d)
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Evaluating (d) at x = 0 and using BC (2)
0
) 0 (
3
3
=
dx
T d
(e)
Fourth derivative: Differentiate (d), set x = 0, use BC (2) and (c)

Substitute into (b)
where
dT
dk
k
q
dx
T d ) 0 (
)] 0 ( [
) (
3
) 0 (
3
2
4
4
' ' '
= (f)
! 4
) 0 (
)] 0 ( [
) ( 3
! 2 ) 0 (
) 0 ( ) (
4
3
2 2
x
dT
dk
k
q x
k
q
T x T
' ' '

' ' '


= (g)
) 1 (
2
T T k k
o
| + + = (h)
8
BC (1) and (h)
and
) 1 ( ) 0 (
2
o o o
T T k k | + + =
(i)
) 2 (
) 0 (
o o
T k
dT
dk
| + =
(j)
Substituting (i) and (j) into (g)
! 4
) 1 ( ) (
) 2 ( ) ( 3
! 2
) 1 (
) (
4
3 2 2
2
2
2
x
T T k
T q
x
T T k
q
T x T
o o o
o
o o o
o
|
|
|
+ +
+
' ' '

+ +
' ' '
=
(k)
(5) Checking
Dimensional check
9
Limiting check:
(i) Constant k: set = = 0 in (k)
This is the exact solution for constant
(ii) Symmetry: Even powers of x
2
2
) ( x
k
q
T x T
o
o
' ' '
=
(l)
(6) Comments
(i) Role of L
(ii) Accuracy of solution
(iii) Exact solution to eq. (7.1)
0 =
' ' '
+
(

q
dx
dT
k
dx
d
(m)
10
Substitute (h) into (m), separate variables, integrate and apply the
two BC
7.4 Kirchhoff Transformation
7.4.1 Transformation of Differential Equation
Applies to variable k. Differential equation:
Define
t
T
c q
x
T
k
x
p
c
c
=
' ' '
c
c
c
c
+ ) (
(7.1)
2 3 2 3 2
2 3 2 3 2
x
k
q
T T T T T T
o
o o o
' ' '
+ + = + +
| |
(n)
=
T
o
dT T k
k
T
0
) (
1
) ( u
(7.8)
(7.8) gives a relationship between
u
and T.
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Differentiate (7.8)
Transformation of t T c c / x T c c / and
(b) and (c) into (7.1)
t k
k
c q
x k
k
k
x
o
p
o
c
c
=
' ' '
+
(

c
c
c
c u

u
o
k
k
dT
d
=
u
(a)
t k
k
t d
dT
t
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(b)
x k
k
x d
dT
x
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(c)
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p
c
k
T

o o = = ) (
NOTE:
- Steady state stationary problems: eq. (7.9) becomes linear
- Approximation: = constant, eq. (7.9) becomes linear
(

c
c
c
c
x
T
T k
x
) (
(non-linear)
2
2
x
k
o
c
c u
(linear) -
) ( ) (
) (
) (
T c T
T k
T
p

o o = =
: (7.9) is still non-linear
-
t k
q
x
o
c
c
=
' ' '
+
c
c u
o
u 1
2
2
(7.9)
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7.4.2 Transformation of Boundary Conditions
(1) Specified Temperature
o
T T = (7.10)
Eq. (7.8) gives
Eq. (7.10) into (a)
Thus, specified T specified =
o
(2) Specified Heat Flux
) (T F = u
(a)
o o
T F u u = ) ( (7.11)
o
q
x
T
k
' '
=
c
c

(7.12)
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However
(b) into eq. (7.12)
) 1 ( T k k
o
| + =
Determine: Steady state
temperature distribution
Fig. 7.2
o
r
r
L
0
z
o
q
o
T
0
r
Example 7.2: 2-D conduction in a cylinder with
variable k(T)
x k
k
x d
dT
x
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(b)
o o
q
x
k
' '
=
c
c

u
(7.13)
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Solution
(1) Observations
- Non-linearity is due to variable k
- BC: Specified temperature and specified heat flux
- Kirchhoff transformation is applicable
(2) Origin and Coordinates
(3) Formulation
(i) Assumptions.
(1) Steady state
(2) Two-dimensional conduction
(3) Axisymmetric temperature distribution.
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(iii) Boundary Conditions
(2)
o o
T z r T = ) , (
(ii) Governing Equations. Eq. (1.11) for variable k
Fig. 7.2
o
r
r
L
0
z
o
q''
o
T
0
r
0
) , 0 (
=
c
c
r
z T
(1)
0
1
=
(

c
c
c
c
+
(

c
c
c
c
z
T
k
z r
T
kr
r r
(a)
(3)
0
) 0 , (
=
c
c
z
r T
(4)
o
q
z
L r T
k
' '
=
c
c ) , (
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(4) Solution. Use Kirchhoff transformation
(c) into (b)
) 1 ( T k k
o
| + =
(c)
}
=
T
o
kdT
k
T
0
1
) ( u
(b)
2
0
2
) 1 (
1
) ( T T dT T k
k
T
T
o
o
|
| u + = + =
}
(d)
r k
k
r d
dT
r
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(c)
Determine :
Transform the governing equation and boundary
conditions
18
(e) into (a)
z k
k
z d
dT
z
T
o
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c u u
u
(e)
0
1
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
z
r r
r
u u u
(f)
(2)
o o o o
T T z r u | u + = 2 / ) , (
2
(3)
o o
q
x
L r
k
' '
=
c
c ) , ( u
(4)
0
) 0 , (
=
c
c
x
r u
0
) , 0 (
=
c
c
r
z u
(1)
Transformation of BC
19
NOTE:
- DE and BC are linear
- Eq. (f) is solved by separation of variables
- Solution gives (r,z)
T(r,z) is obtained from (d)
|
u
|
|
1
) , (
2 1
) , (
2
+ = z r z r T
7.5 Boltzmann Transformation
- Based on similarity method
- Limited to semi-infinite domains
- Restricted initial and boundary conditions
20
- Combines two variables (similarity variable): For k = k(T)
- Result:
non-linearPDEnon-linearODE
Surface temperature =T
o

Example 7.3: Transient Conduction in a Semi-
infinite Region, Variable Conductivity
I nitial temperature =T
i
Fig. 7.3
0
x
i
T

0
T
) (T k
Determine: T(x,t)
21
(1) Observations
(2) Origin and Coordinates
(3) Formulation
- Semi-infinite, uniform initial temperature: Similarity solution
is possible
- Non-linearity is due to k =k(T)
(i) Assumptions
(1) One-dimensional transient conduction
(2) initial temperature is uniform.
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(ii) Governing Equations
(1) T(0 , t) = T
o
(2) T( , t) = T
i
(3) T(x , 0) = T
i

(4) Solution. Introduced (x,t) Fig. 7.3
0
x
i
T

0
T
) (T k
(iii) Boundary and Initial Conditions
t
T
c
x
T
k
x
p
c
c
=
(

c
c
c
c

(a)
t
x
t x = ) , ( q
(b)
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(a) becomes
Transformed BC and IC:
(1) T(0) = T
o
(2) T() = T
i
(3) T() = T
i

NOTE:
- PDE ODE
- Eq. (7.14) is second order. Needs two B.C.
- Transformed problem has two B.C.
0
2
1
) ( = +
(

q
q
q q d
dT
c
d
dT
T k
d
d
p
(7.14)
24
(5) Comments. Note restriction on solution:
- Semi-infinite region
- Uniform initial temperature
- Constant surface temperature
- Constant and c
p
- Solution by successive approximation
- Eq. (7.14) is non-linear: k =k(T) , = (T) and c
p
= c
p
(T)
- Solution for constant and c
p
is obtained using successive
approximation
7.6 Combining Boltzmann and Kirchhoff
Transformations
Re do Example 7.3. Introduce the Kirchhoff transformation
25
Applying eq. (7.8) to eq. (7.14)
B.C.
(2)
}
=
i
T
i i
o
T dT T k
k
0
) ( ) (
1
) ( u u
p
c
k

o =
(a)
0
2
1
2
2
= +
q
u
q
o
q
u
d
d
d
d
(7.15)
}
=
T
o
dT T k
k
T
0
) (
1
) ( u
(7.8)
}
=
o
T
o o
o
T dT T k
k
0
) ( ) (
1
) 0 ( u u
(1)
NOTE: Eq. (7.15) is non-linear because
) (u o o =
26
BC give A and B
(d) into eq. (7.8)
) 2 / ( ) (
2
T T k T
o
| u + =
B
t
x
A t x + =
o
u
4
erf ) , (
(b)
Assume: constant
, o eq. (7.15) becomes linear. Solution becomes
o o i
t
x
t x u
o
u u u + =
4
erf ) ( ) , ( (c)
Example:
Convert (c) from
this equation gives
u
to
: T
Use eq. (7.8) . For specified
), (T k
u
in terms of
. T
) 1 ( T k k
o
| + = (d)
27
) 2 / (
2
o o o o
T T k | u + =
) 2 / (
2
i i o i
T T k | u + =
7.7 Exact Solutions
- Semi-infinite fin
- Convection and radiation at surface
d x

T h,
x

=T T
s u r
Fig. 7.4
0
kA
hc
m
c
=
2
kA
c
m
r
o c
=
2
, (a)
0 ) ( ) (
4 4 2 2
2
2
=

T T m T T m
dx
T d
r c
(7.16)
The constants
o
u
and
i
u
become

T
- Ambient and fluid at
28
B.C.
Introduce the transformation
Differentiating (b)
Solving (b) for dx
d x

T h,
x

=T T
s u r
Fig. 7.4
0
+ =
dx
dT
(b)
(1)

o
T T = ) 0 (

= T T ) (
(2)

dx
d
dx
T d +
=
2
2
(c)
+
dT
dx=
(d)
29
(d) into (c)
Separating variables and integrating
Using (e) to eliminate
2
2
dx
T d
in eq. (7.16)
where C is constant of integration.
dT
d
dx
T d +
+ =
2
2
(e)
) ( ) (
4 4 2 2

+ = T T m T T m
dT
d
r c
+
+
(7.17)
C T T T m
T T T m
r
c
+
+ =

) ( ) 5 / (
) 2 / ( ) 2 / (
2
4 5 2
2 2
2
+
(f)
30
Substituting (h) into (g) and solving for C gives
C T T T m
T T T m
dx
dT
r
c
+
+ = =

2 / 1
4 5 2
2 2
) 5 / (
) 2 / ( 2 +
(g)
Solving (f) for and using (b)
If

> T T
o
then , 0 / < dx dT use negative sign
Determine C, apply (g) at = x

= T T ) (
0
) (
=

dx
dT
(h)
5 2 2 2
) 5 / 4 ( ) 2 / 1 (

+ = T m T m C
r c
(i)
31
NOTE
0
) (
2
2
=

dx
T d
(j)
dx
dT
kA q
c
) 0 (
=
2 / 1
5 4 5 2
2 2 2
) 4 5 )( 5 / (
) 2 )( 2 / ( 2


+
+ + =
T T T T m
T T T T m kA
o o r
o o c c
(7.18)
To determine
: q
plus sign is for

> T T
o
- Exact solution is for
q
- No solution for
T
- For
,

= T T
sur
use same method. Need
). ( T
At

= x
32
Substituting (j) into (7.16) gives
This equation is solved for by a trial and error procedure.
) ( T
0
4
2 2
4
= +

sur r c
T ) ( T m T ) T( m