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TRANSPORTATIO N SYSTEMS

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TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
3.1.2 Types of Elevators
1. Electric elevators

3.1 Elevators and Dumbwaiters


3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

3.1.1 Definition of Elevator


Are generally used in buildings where several peak periods of traffic occur each day, (ie. In office buildings, hospitals, apartment buildings)

Bulkhead Penthouse Top Car Clearance

Hoisting Machinery Control Panel

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems
Hoistway Bank

Driving Sheave Idle Sheave

Machine Beam Hoisting Cable Landing Guide Rail Traveling Cable

Elevator Car Safety Rise

Hoistway Door Counterweight

Limit Switch

Elevator Pit Bottom Car Clearance

Buffer

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2. Oil-hydraulic elevators
3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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Car Frame The structural steel frame of an elevator car to which are attached the platform, guide shoes, elevator car safety, hoisting cables and control equipment

Machine Room A room housing the hoisting machinery, control equipment, and sheaves for raising and lowering an elevator car

Lantern A light, usually over the entrance to an elevator on each floor of a multistory building that signals the approach of the elevator Annunciator A signaling apparatus in an elevator car or at a landing that displays a visual indication of floor landings
Call Button A pus button for requesting an elevator Door Interlock A safety device for preventing the operation of an elevator car unless the hoistway door is locked in the closed position

Door Contact A safety device for preventing the operation of an elevator car unless its door or gate is fully closed

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3.1.3 Parts of an Electric Elevator

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

1. Shaft vertical passageway for car and counterweights. 2. Car a cage of light metal supported on a structural frame, the top member of which the cables, that carry the car, are fastened. 3. Cables are the means for lifting or lowering the car, usually 3 to 8 cables placed in parallel fastened to top of car by cable sockets passing over a motor driven cylindrical sheave to the counterweights.

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4. Counterweights
these are rectangular blocks of cast iron stacked in one frame which is fastened to the opposite ends of the cables to which the car is fastened.

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9. Safety Devices
a) Main Brake mounted directly on the shaft of the elevator machine. b) Safety Switch is designed to stop an elevator car automatically before car speed becomes excessive. On overspeed, the speed governor will cut off power to the motor and set the brake.

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes

5. Guide Rails
are vertical tracks that guide the car and the counterweights.

6. Machine Room
3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems a room usually placed directly above the shaft in which the elevator machine is housed. It contains the motor-generator (MG) set which supplies energy to the elevator machine, the control board and the control equipment.

7. Elevator Machine
turns the sheave that lifts and lowers the car.

8. Controls
a combination of push buttons, contacts, relays, and devices, operated manually or automatically to initiate door opening, starting acceleration, retardation, leveling and stopping of the car.
This usually stops the car, but should speed still increase, the governor will actuate rail clamps mounted at the bottom of the car one on each side. This will clamp the guide rails bringing the car to a switch stop.

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c) Electric Final Limit Switches are located a few feet below and above safe travel limits of elevator car. If car over-travels, either down or up, these switches de-energizes the motor and sets the main brake. d) Oil or Spring Buffers are placed at the bottom of the elevator pit, not to stop a falling car, but to bring it to a partially cushion stop if the car should overshoot the lower terminal.

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3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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2) One-to-One Double Wrap Traction Machine cables first wrap over the traction sheave T, then around the secondary or idler sheave S, and once more going around T and S to the counterweights. This provides greater traction and is used in many automatic high-speed installations.

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

3.1.4 Methods of Arranging Elevator Machines, Sheaves and Ropes


1) Single Wrap Traction Machine supporting cables pass over the sheave in grooves and connect to the counterweights. The lifting power is exerted by the sheave through the traction of the cables in the grooves.

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3) Two-to-One Double Wrap Traction Machine (for freight elevators) This 2:1 roping, has a mechanical advantage of 2, which results in a high-speed, low-power and therefore, low-cost traction machine.

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4) Underslung System is used where the elevator machine is located at the basement.

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
2) Geared Traction Machine this type of machine employs a worm and gear between the driving motor and the sheave. It is considered to be less superior to the gearless traction machine since it has more moving parts and requires more maintenance. Used for low and medium speed passenger and freight elevators.

3.1.5 Types of Elevator Machines


3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

1) Gearless Traction Machine

consists of a DC motor, the shaft of which is directly connected to the brake wheel and to the driving sheave. The elevator cables are placed around this sheave. This type of machine is used for medium and high speed elevators for office and residential condominiums of 10 stories or more; where high speeds and smooth quality operation are desired.

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TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
3) Electronic Group Supervisory Dispatching and Control this system is used to control not only single elevators but an entire group or bank of cars. During peak periods, all cars are in operation; automatically, the system shuts down successively cars as the number of passengers reduces and return them to service as the number of passengers again increases to a high peak. The system of Otis Elevator Company is called autotronic elevatoring. The system of Westinghouse Electric Co. is called the selectomatic elevator system.

3.1.6 Systems of Elevator Controls


3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

1) Single Automatic Push Button Control this is the simplest of passenger operated automatic control system. It handles only one call at a time providing an uninterrupted trip for each call.

2) Collective Control control is arranged to collect all waiting up calls on the trip up and all waiting down calls on the trip down. The control system, stalls all calls until they are answered and automatically reverses the direction of travel at the highest and the lowest calls. When all calls have been cleared, the car will remain at the floor of its last stop awaiting the next call.

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TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

3.1.7 Oil Hydraulic Elevators


3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

also called plunger elevators. It is raised by means of a movable rod nor plunger rigidly fixed to the bottom of the car. The system is hydraulic and operates the same way as a hydraulic automobile jack. Oil from a reservoir is pumped under the plunger thereby raising it and the car. The pump is stopped during downward motion, the car being lowered by gravity and controlled by action of bypassed valves which also controls the positioning of the car during the upward motion.

rail

car

guide shoe

plunger

The absence of cables, drums, MG set and penthouse equipment, makes this system inexpensive and often the choice for low speed, low rise applications where construction of the plunger pit does not present difficulties and where absence of a penthouse is desirable.

motor pump

buffer spring

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3.1.8 Dumbwaiters
3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
3.2.2 Parts of an Escalator Installation
1) Truss a welded steel frame which supports the moving stairway equipment. It comes in 3 sections: the middle straight section maybe of any desired length to provide rises of different heights.

3.2 Escalators and Conveyors


3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

3.2.1 Definition of Escalator


used where large numbers of people are scattered throughout a given area and on a large number of floors. These people being interested in moving about almost constantly to various locations for short periods of time. Thus traffic is constantly on the move both up and down. Examples are department stores and terminal buildings. Typical Specifications Width of Escalator Angle of inclination Length or run Speeds = 32 and 48 = 30 degrees = variable = 90 fpm and 120 fpm

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2) Tracks are steel angles attached to the truss on which the step rollers are guided thus controlling the motion of the steps.

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4) Controller consists of contactors, relays and a circuit breaker. Usually located near the drive machine, an emergency stop button wired to the controller and placed in or near the escalator, will stop the drive machine and apply the brake. Key operated control switches, at the top and bottom newels, will start, stop, and reverse the direction of travel of the stairway. 5) Handrail and Balustrade Assembly Rubberhandrail guide covered handrail

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

3) Sprocket Assemblies, Chains, and Drive Machine provide the motive power for the unit. An emergency brake located on the top sprocket will stop a loaded escalator safely in the event of a break in the chain.

longitudinal cording canvas layers

inside balustrade

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TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
4) In case of over-speed or underspeed, an automatic governor shuts down the escalator, prevents reversal of direction and operates the service brake. 5) An emergency stop switch is located near the comb plate which may be manually operated to stop the escalator. The electric controls are also designed to shut down the stairway, if by some accident, it is caused to reverse direction.

3.2.3 Safety Features of Escalators


3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

1) Handrails and steps travel at the same speed to ensure steadiness and balance, and to aid naturally in stepping on and off the comb plates. 2) Steps are large, steady, and are designed to prevent from slipping.

3) Automatic controls of a service brake will bring the stairway to a smooth stop, if electric power or mechanical parts should fail. Passengers would then walk the steps as they would any stationary stairway.

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3.2.4 Fire Protection Systems of Escalators


3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

1) Rolling Shutter

This shuts off the well way at a given floor, thus preventing draft and the spread of fire upward through escalator wells. The movement of the shutter is actuated by temperature and smoke relays.

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3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

2) Spray Nozzle Curtain are closely spaced, high-velocity water nozzles which will, in the case of fire, form a compact water curtain to prevent smoke and flame from rising through the well ways. Automatic thermal or smoke relays, open all nozzles simultaneously.

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3) Smoke Guard consists of fire proof baffles surrounding the well way, extending downward about 20 below ceiling level. Smoke and flames rising upwards, meet a curtain of water from sprinkler heads surrounding the baffles, which serves as a smoke and flame deflector. Vertical shields between adjacent sprinklers, ensure that the spray from one will not cool the nearby thermal fuses and prevent the opening of adjacent sprinklers.

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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4) Sprinkler Vent
3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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Well way floor openings have a duct on each floor equipped with a number of smoke pick up relays. In case of fire, these relays automatically start the fans in the fresh air intake, located on the roof, driving air downward through the well ways. Dangerous gases and smoke are drawn in thru the ducts and exhausted at the roof. The usual spray nozzles on the ceiling around the stair well aid in quenching the fire.

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Types of installations Horizontal or level Bi-level Overpass installation Underpass installation

3.2.5 Moving Sidewalks or Electric Walks


3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

While escalators are used to transport people vertically, electric walks are used to transport people horizontally at any inclination from 0 deg to 15 deg. Typical applications

For exhibit halls, where management desires that persons move smoothly through or pass a particular area without stopping or boarding. For airport terminals.
Typical Specifications Standard width = 27 and 36 Speeds = 120 fpm and 180 fpm

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People Mover Any of various forms of mass transit, as moving sidewalks or automated driverless vehicles, used for shuttling people around airports or in congested urban areas

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3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

Moving Sidewalk A power-driven, continuously moving surface, similar to a conveyor belt, used for carrying pedestrians horizontally or along low inclines

Inclined Lift A platform mounted on a steel guide rail and driven by an electric motor used for raising or lowering a person or moving along a stairway. Also called a stair lift

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3.3 Chutes
3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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Cage/Cab
An enclosure for housing the operator and the hoisting mechanism, power plant and equipment controlling a crane.

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems 3.4.1 Definitions


Accidental Contact
Any inadvertent physical contact with power transmission equipment, prime movers, machines or machine parts which could result from slipping, falling, sliding, tripping or any other unplanned action or movement.

Capacity of Works, Project or Plant


The total horsepower of all engines, motors, turbines or other prime movers installed, whether in operation or not.

Car
The load carrying unit of an elevator including its platform, frame, enclosure and door or gate.

Crane
Means a machine for lifting or lowering a load and moving it horizontally, the hoisting mechanism being an integral part of the machine.

Balustrades
The frames on either side of the moving steps of an escalator.

Buffer
A device designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its normal limit of travel by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or counterweight.

Dumbwaiter
A hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car not to exceed 3861 sqcm in area and a maximum height of 1.20m, the capacity of which does not exceed 277 kilos, used exclusively for carrying materials.

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Elevator
3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems A hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car or platform which moves in guides in a vertical direction serving two or more floors of a building or structure. Movement of the car may be controlled by gravitational, manual or mechanical power.

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otherwise removable doors or sections to permit inspection, lubrication or proper maintenance.

Escalator
A power driven, inclined, continuous stairway for raising or lowering passengers.

Elevator Landing
That portion of a floor, balcony or platform for loading or discharging passengers or freight to or from the elevator.

Guarded
Shielded, fenced or otherwise protected by means of suitable enclosure guards, covers or standard railings, so as to preclude the possibility of accidental contact or dangerous approach to persons or objects.

Elevator Wire Ropes


Steel wire ropes attached to the car frame or passing around sheaves attached to the car frame from which elevator/dumbwaiter cars and their counterweights are suspended.

Hoist
An apparatus for raising or lowering a load by the application of a building force, but does not include a car or platform. It may be base-mounted, hook suspension, monorail, overhead, simple drum type or trolley suspension.

Enclosed
Means that the moving parts of a machine are so guarded that physical contact by any part of the human body is precluded or prevented. This does not however prohibit the use of hinged, sliding or

Hoistway
A shaftway for the travel of one or more elevators or dumbwaiters.

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Machine
The driven unit of an equipment. 3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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Process Machine
An equipment designed and operated for a specific purpose.

Machine house
An enclosure for housing the hoisting mechanism and power plant.

Travelling Cable
A cable made up of electric conductors which provides electrical connection between an elevator or dumbwaiter car and a fixed outlet in the hoistway.

Machine Parts
Any or all moving parts of a machine.

Moving Walk
A type of horizontal passenger-carrying device on which passengers stand or walk, with its surface remaining parallel to its direction of motion and is uninterrupted.

3.4.2 Guarding of Moving and Dangerous Parts


All prime movers, machines and machine parts, power transmission equipment shall be so guarded, shielded, fenced or enclosed to protect any person against exposure to or accidental contact with dangerous moving parts.

Power Transmission Machinery


A shaft, wheel, drum, pulley, system of fast and loose pulleys, coupling, clutch, driving belt, V-belt sheaves and belts, chains and sprockets, gearing, torque connectors, conveyors, hydraulic couplings, magnetic couplings, speed reducers or increasers or any device by which the motion of an engine is transmitted to or received by another machine.

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4. A gong or other effective warning device shall be mounted on each cage or cab. 5. Temporary crane operation without warning device may be allowed provided there is a flagman whose sole duty is to warn those in the path of the crane or its load. 6. The maximum rated load of all cranes shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane. If the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have marked on it or its load block, its rated capacity clearly legible from the ground or floor.

3.4.3 Cranes
3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

1. Access to the case or machine house shall be by means of a conveniently placed stationary ladder, stairs or platforms requiring a step-over that no gap exceeding 300 mm is allowed. 2. Adequate means shall be provided for cranes having revolving cables or machine houses, to permit the operator to enter or leave the crane cab and reach the ground safely, irrespective of its position. 3. Cages, cabs or machine houses on cranes shall be enclosed to protect operator during inclement weather.

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5. Each electric hoist motor shall be provided with an electrically or mechanically operated brake so arranged that the brake will be applied automatically when the power is cut off from the hoist.

3.4.4 Hoists
3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

1. Operating control shall be plainly marked to indicate the direction of travel. 2. Each cage controlled hoist shall be equipped with an effective warning device. 3. Each hoist designed to lift its load vertically shall have its rated load legibly marked on the hoist or load block or at some easily visible space. 4. A stop, which shall operate automatically, shall be provided at each switch, dead end rail or turntable to prevent the trolley running off when the switch is open.

3.4.5 Elevators
1. Hoistways for elevators shall be substantially enclosed throughout their height, with no openings allowed except for necessary doors, windows or skylights. 2. Ropes, wires or pipes shall not be installed in hoistways, except when necessary for the operation of the elevators.

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3. Hoistway pits shall be of such depth that when the car rests on the fully compressed buffers, a clearance of not less than 600 mm remains between the underside of the car and the bottom of the pit. 4. When four or more elevators serve all or the same portion of a building, they shall be located in not less than two (2) hoistways and in no case shall more than four (4) elevators be located in any one hoistway. 5. Where a machine room or penthouse is provided at the top of a hoistway, it shall be constructed with sufficient room for repair and inspection. Access shall be by means of an iron ladder or stairs when the room is more than 600 mm above the adjacent floor or roof

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surface. The angle of inclination of such ladder or stairs shall not exceed 60 from the horizontal. This room shall not be used as living quarters or depository of other materials and shall be provided with adequate ventilation. 6. Minimum number of hoisting ropes shall be three (3) for traction elevators and two (2) for drum. 7. The minimum diameter of hoisting and counterweight ropes shall be 30 mm. 8. Elevators shall be provided with overload relay and reverse polarity relay. 9. In high rise apartments or residential condominiums of more than five (5) stories, at least one passenger elevator shall be kept on 24 hour constant service.

3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

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5. The rated speed, measured along the angle of inclination, shall be not more than 38 mpm. 6. Starting switches shall be key operated and located within sight of escalator steps. 7. Emergency buttons shall be conspicuously and accessibly located at or near the top and bottom landings but protected from accidental contact.

3.4.6 Escalators
3.1 Elevators & Dumbwaiters 3.2 Escalators & Conveyors 3.3 Chutes 3.4 Provisions in the NBC Concerning Transportation Systems

1. The angle of inclination of an escalator shall not exceed 35 from the horizontal. 2. The width between balustrades shall not be less than 558 mm nor more than 1.20 m. This width shall not exceed the width of the steps by more than 330 mm. 3. Solid balustrades of incombustible material shall be provided on each side of the moving steps. If made of glass, it shall be of tempered type glass. 4. Each balustrade shall be provided with a handrail moving in the same direction and at the same speed as the steps.

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TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

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