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Samet Deniz

PHONETICS
Phonetics is the scientific study of speech

and is concerned with defining and classifying speech sounds according to how they are produced. Our speech chain consists of three stages: the production of the message, the transmission of the message and the reception of the message.

Generally, the study of phonetics is

composed of three separate fields: articulatory phonetics acoustic phonetics auditory phonetics .

Articulatory

phonetics deals with the identification and classification of individual sounds. It attempts to provide a framework of the nature of speech sounds and how they are produced. When describing individual sound segments, phoneticians and linguists often employ two parameters to examine how sounds are articulated: manner of articulation place of articulation Acoustic phonetics focuses on the analysis and measurement of sound waves. Auditory phonetics is concerned with the perception of speech

PHONOLOGY
Phonology is the study of the sound patterns in human language.
Each word differs from the other words in both

form and meaning.


Each lexical entry includes, along with information about the semantic and syntactic

nature of the representation.

morpheme,

an

underlying

The underlying representation contains that information about the pronunciation of a morpheme that is not predictable on the basis of general rules. The segments of an underlying representation are called phonemes. Phoneme is the minimum phonemic unit that is not further analyzable into smaller units susceptible of concomitant occurrence.

Allophone: the phonetic variants of a phoneme


Minimal Pair: a pair of phonemes is also known as a

minimal pair
Distinctive Features: Every language has a limited number

of phonological oppositions. In order to find out these oppositions, distinctive features can be used to distinguish one phoneme from another or one group of sounds from another group. Distinctive features are often shown in the form of a binary opposition. The features can be shown either present [+] or absent [-].

Sequential Constraints: the clusters of sounds that we are allowed to use when making words happen Complementary Distribution: When two or more sounds never occur in an identical phonemic context or environment, they are said to be in complementary distribution. That is to say, complementary distribution refers to the case in which one of two or more sounds occur in a

context to the exclusion of other sound(s)

Syllable: Structurally, the syllable may be divided into three parts: the onset, the peak, and the coda.

Stress: Stress is generally defined as syllable prominence. In other words, a syllable that is more prominent than the other syllables in a word or phrase is said to be stressed.

Pitch: Pitch is a suprasegmental quality which

extends over individual segments and longer stretches of speech. Pitch is the perceived frequency of a sound wave. Perceived pitch is largely determined by the frequency of vibration of the vocal folds, and to some extent by the intensity of the sound Intonation: Intonations refer to the pitch differences that extend over phonetic units larger than the syllable. By means of intonation, syllables are grouped into phrases, and phrases into sentences.

Tone: Tone refers to pitch variations. In some languages, the same sequence of segments may

have different meanings if uttered at different relative pitches.