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LECTURE-05

SHAPING & RELATED OPERATIONS

NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.


DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION
ENGINEERING
BUET BANGLADESH
Shaping and Planing

Shaping and Planing among the oldest techniques

 Shaping is where the workpiece is fed at right angles to the


cutting motion between successive strokes of the tool.
 Planing the workpiece is reciprocated and the tool is fed at
right angles to the cutting motion.

These process require skilled operators and for the most part
have been replaced by other processes

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Classification of Shapers

Horizontal-push cut
 Plain (Production work)
 Universal (Tool room work)

Horizontal-draw cut
Vertical
 Slotter
 Key seater

Special purpose-as for gear cutting

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Horizontal Push Cut Shaper

The shaper is a relatively simple machine. It is used fairly often in the


toolroom or for machining one or two pieces for prototype work. Tooling is
simple, and shapers do not always require operator attention while cutting.
The horizontal shaper is the most common type, and its principal
components are shown below, and described as follows:

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Ram: The ram slides back and forth in dovetail or square ways to transmit power
to the cutter. The starting point and the length of the stroke can be adjusted.
Toolhead: The toolhead is fastened to the ram on a circular plate so that it can
be rotated for making angular cuts. The toolhead can also be moved up or down
by its hand crank for precise depth adjustments.

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Clapper Box: The clapper box is needed because the cutter drags over the
work on the return stroke. The clapper box is hinged so that the cutting too] will
not dig in. Often this clapper box is automatically raised by mechanical, air, or
hydraulic action.
Table: The table is moved left and right, usually by hand, to position the work
under the cutter when setting up. Then, either by hand or more often
automatically, the table is moved sideways to feed the work under the cutter at
the end or beginning of each stroke.

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Saddle: The saddle moves up and down (Y axis), usually manually, to set the
rough position of the depth of cut. Final depth can be set by the hand crank on
the tool head.
Column: The column supports the ram and the rails for the saddle. The
mechanism for moving the ram and table is housed inside the column.

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Tool holders: Tool holders are the same as the ones used on at engine lathe,
though often larger in size. The cutter is sharperred with rake and clearance
angles similar to lathe tools though the angles are smaller because the work
surface is usually flat. These cutters are fastened into the tool holder. just as in
the lathe, but in a vertical plane.
Workholding: Workholding is frequently done in a vise. The vise is specially
designed for use in shapers and has long ways which allow the jaws to open up
to 14" or more, therefore quite large workpieces can be held. The vise may also
have a swivel base so that cuts may be made at an angle. Work that cannot be
held in the vise (due to size or shape) is clamped directly to the shaper table in
much the same way as parts are secured on milling machine tables.
Shaper Size: The size of a shaper is the maximum length of stroke which it can
take. Horizontal shapers are most often made with strokes from 16- to 24" long,
though some smaller and larger sizes are available. These shapers use from 2- to
5-hp motors to drive the head and the automatic feed.
Shaper Width: The maximum width which can be cut depends on the available
movement of the table. Most shapers have a width capacity equal to or greater
than the length of the stroke. The maximum vertical height available is about 12"
to 15".

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Types of Work

The tool post and the tool slide can be angled as seen below. This allows
the shaper to be used for different types of work

The tool post has been The top slide is slowly feed
The tool post is not angled so
turned at an angle so that into the material so that a
that the tool can be used to
side of the material can ‘rack’ can be machined for a
level a surface.
be machined rack and pinion gear system.

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Quick Return Mechanism
The shaping machine is used to machine flat metal surfaces especially where a large
amount of metal has to be removed. Other machines such as milling machines are
much more expensive and are more suited to removing smaller amounts of metal,
very accurately.
The reciprocating motion of the mechanism inside the shaping machine can be seen in
the diagram. As the disc rotates the top of the machine moves forwards and
backwards, pushing a cutting tool. The cutting tool removes the metal from work
which is carefully bolted down.

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Planing Machines

Planing is used for large workpieces too big for shapers


Planing machines have largely been replaced by planing mills
In planing, large workpieces and their support tables are slowly moved
against the tool head.

Figure: Schematic of
planers. (a) Double-
housing planer with
multiple tool heads
and a large
reciprocating table; (b)
single-housing or
open-sided planer.

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Common Shaping and Planing Geometry

Figure: Types of surfaces commonly machined by shaping and


planing.

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LECTURE-06
GRINDING & RELATED OPERATIONS

NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.


DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION
ENGINEERING
BUET
Grinding

The grinding process consists of removing material from the workpiece by the
use of a rotating wheel that has a surface composed of abrasive grains. Grinding
is considered to be the most accurate of the existing machining processes.
Grinding processes are used when high accuracies, close dimensional tolerances,
and a fine surface finishes are required. Grinding processes also allow for high
production rates. This allows for a lowered cost of production. Hard materials can
also be machined.
Grinding may be classified as non-precision or precision, according to purpose
and procedure.
 Non-precision grinding: The common forms are called, snagging and off-
hand grinding. Both are done primarily to remove stock that can not be taken
off as conveniently by other methods. The work is pressed hard against the
wheel or vice versa. The accuracy and surface finish are of secondary
importance.
 Precision grinding: Precision grinding is concerned with producing good
surface finishes and accurate dimensions. Three types of precision grinding
exists
External cylindrical grinding
Internal cylindrical grinding
Surface grinding
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Grinding Operations

Surface grinding is most common of the grinding operations. A


rotating wheel is used in the grinding of flat surfaces. Types of surface
grinding are vertical spindle and rotary tables.

Figure: Schematic illustration of surface-grinding operations. (a) Traverse grinding with a


horizontal-spindle surface grinder. (b) Plunge grinding with a horizontal-spindle surface
grinder, producing a groove in the workpiece. (c) Vertical-spindle rotary-table grinder
(also known as the Blanchard-type grinder).

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Cylindrical grinding is also called center-type grinding and is used in
the removing the cylindrical surfaces and shoulders of the workpiece.
Both the tool and the workpiece are rotated by separate motors and at
different speeds. The axes of rotation tool can be adjusted to produce a
variety of shapes.

Figure: Examples
of various cylindrical
grinding operations.
(a) Traverse
grinding, (b) plunge
grinding, and (c)
profile grinding.

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Internal grinding is used to grind the inside diameter of the
workpiece. Tapered holes can be ground with the use of internal
grinders that can swivel on the horizontal.

Figure: Schematic illustrations of internal-grinding operations.

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Centerless grinding is when the workpiece is supported by a blade
instead of by centers or chucks. Two wheels are used. The larger one is
used to grind the surface of the workpiece and the smaller wheel is used
to regulate the axial movement of the workpiece. Types of centerless
grinding include through-feed grinding, in-feed/plunge grinding, and
internal centerless grinding.

Figure: Schematic illustration of centerless-grinding operations.

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Creep-feed grinding is used for high rates of material removal.
Depths of cut of up to 6 mm are used along with low workpiece speed.
Surfaces with a softer-grade resin bond are used to keep workpiece
temperature low and an improved surface finish.

Figure: (a) Schematic illustration of the creep-feed grinding process. Note the large wheel depth of cut.
(b) A shaped groove produced on a flat surface in one pass by creep-feed grinding. Groove depth can be
on the order of a few mm. (c) An example of creep-feed grinding with a shaped wheel.

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Grinding Machines

Figure: Schematic illustration of a horizontal-spindle surface grinder

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Common Grinding Wheels

A grinding wheel is made of abrasive


grains held together by a bond.
These grains cut like teeth when the
wheel is revolved at high speed and
is brought to bear against a work
piece. The properties of a wheel that
determine how it acts are the kind
and size of abrasive, how closely the
grains are packed together and
amount of the bonding material.

Figure: Common types of grinding wheels made with


conventional abrasives

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Identifying Grinding Wheels

Standard Marking System for Aluminum-Oxide and Silicon-Carbide


Bonded Abrasives

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Standard Marking System for Cubic-Boron-Nitride and Diamond
Bonded Abrasives

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Chip Formation

Chip formation and plowing of the


workpiece surface by an abrasive Schematic illustration of chip formation
grain. by an abrasive grain. Note the
negative rake angle, the small shear
angle, and the wear flat on the grain.

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Mechanics of Grinding

Grinding is basically a chip removal process in which the cutting tool is


an individual abrasive grain. The mechanics of grinding and the
variables involved can be studied by analyzing the surface grinding
operation as shown in the following Figure.

Undeformed chip length, l = Dd

 4v   d 
Undeformed chip thickness, t =    
 VCr   D 
 v d 
Grain force ∝  
 VC D 
1/ 2
 VC 
Temperature rise ∝ D d 
1/ 4 3/ 4

 v 
D=Grinding wheel diameter Volume of material removed
Grinding ratio, G =
d= Wheel depth of cut Volume of wheel wear
V= Tangential velocity
v= Workpiece velocity C=0.1 per mm2 to 10 per mm2
t=Undeform thickness (grain depth of cut) r= 10 to 20 for most grinding operation

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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