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INFT 13-312 / 73-312 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION & OPERATING SYSTEMS

Presented by: Erica Santosaputri-- 12606283 YiQian Wang--12621927 (Jackie) Qi Zhang --11090869

Why dual-systems
But Linux is faster, cheaper, more efficient, more stable Some application software are not available
For Linux (eg. Quicken , TurboTax , Adobe Acrobat, Atomica ) For Windows

Windows problems (next slide)

Problems with Windows OS


Most factory-installed Windows installations take up all the space on your hard drive, leaving no room for installing Linux. Therefore, we must clear some space where Linux can be installed. Linux needs to have partitions of its own, but Windows does not have the ability to resize partitions. Ordinarily, this would mean you would have to delete your existing partition to make room on the drive and create partitions of smaller sizes and reinstall.

How to install dual-OS systems


Install two hard disks, one for Windows, one for Linux. Partition one hard disk, so it has multi operating system upon it, which can be DOS, Win95, Win98, Win NT, or Win2K with Linux.

In Two Hard Disks


One hard disk install the dos/windows, another one install Linux. When turn on the computer, go to CMOS to choose which hard disk (operating system) should be used to boot.

Partition in One Hard Disk


Why partition---Different file system. The Linux use native partition and swap partition. But Linux can not use either FAT or NTFS yet. Linux and other operating system must be installed in different partition.

How to Partition One Hard Disk


Use Fdisk to divide a hard disk, which does not have any operating system. A hard disk with windows system already, use FIPS to RESIZE the hard disk.(defragment the hard disk before use FIPS, back up system recommended) A hard disk with Linux system already. Boot Linux by Bootdisk, then re-run Lilo to overwrite the windows boot program.

About FIPS
Linux distributions come with a special tool to allow you to resize or divide hard drive partitions. FIPS, the First (non-destructive) Interactive Partition Splitter, normally found on your Linux CD in a directory called /dosutils. You will also need a blank, formatted floppy disk to use as a boot disk.

Installation
Linux First

Windows First

Installing Linux First


A hard disk with Linux system already. Boot Linux by Bootdisk, then re-run Lilo to overwrite the windows boot program

Installing Windows first


Install the windows system in one partition first(except the last partition). Linux system should install in the last partition. Boot with windows system, then the Linux partition can not be seen.

Installing Windows first(Cont)


Make a Bootdisk when installing Linux. When installed the Linux, the system will ask user choose the Lilo installation.

Installing Windows first(cont)


Master Boot Record. First Sector of Boot Partition.

Installing Windows first(cont)


The master boot record will go to Lilo. The user can choose operating system by use the tab.

Installing Windows first(cont)


The First Sector of Boot Partition will use the Bootdisk to boot computer into Linux. Normally the computer will boot with c:. The WinNT/Win2K OS loader can be used to choose different OS.(MS-DOS, Window9x).

How to Dual Boot?


Using LILO Using OS loader Using a third software as emulator or communicator

Boot with Lilo


LInux LOader Most Linux can detect the windows partition. However, sometimes need to edit the /ect/lilo.conf as root user

Edit /ect/lilo.conf
boot=/dev/hda root=/dev/hda2 install=/boot/boot.b map=/boot/map image=/boot/vmlinuz label=Linux re ad-only other=/dev/hda1 label=windows tabl e=/dev/hda

Edit /ect/lilo.conf(cont)
The section labeled "other" may need to add by hand. /dev/hda1 is the first partition on an IDE disk (C:, in Windows). The second partition (D:, in Linux) would be /dev/hda2

Boot with Lilo(cont)


LILO accomplishes start system by reading a configuration file (/etc/lilo.conf)
After modifications to lilo.conf, must run a program (/sbin/lilo) to actually write those changes to the boot sector of the hard drive.

Boot with Lilo(cont)


If the windows system is win95 or win98 it should work. If the windows system is winNT or win2K, the change should make in the windows side.

Boot with OS loader


The NT OS loader likes to have the boot sector from the other operating systems available as a file. It reads this file and starts the operating system selected, i.e. either Windows NT in different Modes or any other OS.

Boot with OS loader(cont)


In the win NT side, edit the file c:\\boot.ini. Remove the read-only-attribute before modify with following: C:\attrib -s -r c:\boot.ini Add C:\BOOTSECT.LNX="Linux" in the file.

Boot with OS loader(cont)


Restore the attributes after you have saved boot.ini with: C:\attrib +s +r c:\boot.ini Restart

Boot with OS loader(cont)


What you can see now: OS Loader V4.00 Please select the operating system to start: Windows NT Workstation Version 4.0 Windows NT Workstation Version 4.0 [VGA mode] Linux Select Linux and see LILO loading zImage ....

Third software
Wine Win4Lin VMware Bochs

Third software (cont)


Partition magic Boot magic GRUB Boot Part Disk Drake

Wine
Feature
It is not an emulator one of the oldest examples of such software Open source package Implements the Windows 3.1 and Win32 APIs directly under Linux and X

Wine
Advantages
Cost effective Easy to install Can run either with or without partition

Wine
Disadvantages:
Supporting not many application software Cannot be run on a kernel an unhandled exception and hung.

Wine
Hardware Requirements
requires an Intel or compatible processor

Wine
When to use
Just need to run Windows programs occasionally

Wine
Installation
http://www.la-sorciere.de/wine/index.html

Win4Lin
Features
Version 3.0 running Windows applications on Linux Installation of it actually installs Windows for you

Win4Lin
Advantages
Relatively fast installation process Cost efficiency

Win4Lin
Disadvantages
Complicate installation

Win4Lin
When to use
Need to run a large range of Windows programs Need a more faithful Windows environment but can live with Windows 9x Do not need to use Windows NT or Windows 2000

Win4Lin
Hardware & Software Requirements
Intel Pentium-class or compatible processor recommended 32MB of memory (64 MB recommended) CD-ROM drive Floppy drive (if your Windows installation CD is not bootable) 20 MB disk space for Win4Lin 40 MB - 135 MB additional disk space for Windows system files Additional disk space required for applications. Sound cards that are Open Sound System (OSS) compatible

Win4Lin
Software Requirements:
Linux kernel 2.2.X or 2.4.X Microsoft Windows 95/98 (one license per user) Microsoft Windows 95/98 full installation CD and boot floppy disk if CD is not bootable X Window System (16-bit color recommended) Root user access

Win4Lin
Supporting Linux
Red Hat Linux - 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 7.0, 7.1 CalderaTM OpenLinux - 2.3 Caldera eDesktop - 2.4, 3.1 SuSETM Linux - 6.4, 7.0, 7.1 Linux-MandrakeTM - 7.1, 7.2, 8.0

Supporting Windows
Microsoft Windows 95/98

Win4Lin
Installation
Install the custom kernel Install Win4Lin
run install-win4lin.sh Install RPM (perform that step as root)

Install Windows on your system


using the winsetup command (perform that step as root) Set up a personal copy of Windows 9x again, using the winsetup command

VMware
Features
Provides a very complete virtual machine environment that emulates an Intel x86-based computer, Runs under either Linux or Windows NT as the host operating system

VMware
When to use
Need to run Windows NT or Windows 2000 Need Windows applications that require Microsoft Windows Networking

VMware
Advantages
VMware provides much extra functionality

VMware
Disadvantages
Expensive

VMware
Hardware Requirements
Standard x86-based host machine 266MHz or faster processor that supports the Pentium instruction set, include Intel: Pentium Pro, Celeron, Pentium II, Pentium III AMD: K6-2, K6-III, Athlon (K7) Multiprocessor systems supported RAM memory Minimum: 96MB; recommended: 128MB

Video adapter supported by the XFree86 Server (to take advantage of the Workstation full-screen option)

VMware
Special requirement when having Windows OS first
Greater than 256 color (8 bit depth) display adapter required Optional Ethernet adapter (required for bridged mode networking)

VMware (for Linux)


Installation (Cont)
1. Install the Workstation software and license. 2. Configure a new virtual machine using the Configuration Wizard. 3. Install a guest operating system in the new virtual machine. 4. Install the VMware Tools package inside your virtual machine for enhanced performance. 5. Start using your virtual machine.

VMware (for Windows NT and 2000)


Installation
1. Install the Workstation software and license. 2. Configure a new virtual machine using the Configuration Wizard. 3. Install a guest operating system in the new virtual machine. 4. Install the VMware Tools package inside your virtual machine for enhanced performance. 5. Start using your virtual machine.

Bochs
Features
Bochs 1.2.1 (released on June 12, 2001) dual hard drive support, multiple processor emulation (SMP), and VNC remote viewer mode. a highly portable open source x86 PC emulator. It includes emulation of the Intel x86 CPU, common IO devices, and a custom BIOS

Bochs
When to use
Need to run Windows on a platform such as Alpha, Power PC, or Sparc

Bochs
Advantages
High development potential
MandrakeSoft has bought Bochs, and committed it to open source (LGPL) in order to help the development of the Plex86 project (an open source PC virtualization software program which will allow users to run multiple operating systems concurrently on the same machine)

Bochs
Disadvantages
Bug report
http://bochs.sourceforge.net/cgibin/topper.pl?name=Report+a+Bug&url=http://sourceforg e.net/tracker/qmrkgroup_ideq12580ampatideq112580

Bochs
Hardware Requirements
400MHz processor At least 64MB of RAM

Bochs
Installation
Boot
# cd /usr/ports/emulators/bochs && make install clean

Change to VGA fonts, If you have a recent FreeBSD 4.X source tree (after June 30, 2000), the font is included with the source, and you just have to do the following before running Bochs:
% xset fp+ /usr/libdata/doscmd/fonts

Bochs
Installation (Cont)
If you don't have a source tree from after June 30, 2000, you'll have to do the following: 1. Fetch this file. 2. Run the following commands as root:
# uudecode cp437-8x16.pcf.gz.uu > cp4378x16.pcf.gz # cp cp437-8x16.pcf.gz /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/ # mkfontdir /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/ # xset fp rehash

Bochs
Configuration
create a "virtual hard drive" image file. The image size depends on the CHS number (Cylinders, Heads, Sectors) of the virtual hard drive. configure ~/.bochsrc file More details:
http://www.freebsdzine.org/200104/bochs.php3

Partition Magic
Partition Magic is a hard-drive partitioning software for desktop systems, allows you to safely and easily create, resize and merge partitions on your hard drive without destroying data. Partition Magic helps organize and protect your data, run multiple operating systems, convert file system types and fix partition table errors.
http://www.powerquest.com/partitionmagic/index.html

Why Partition Magic?


Safely manage multiple operating systems Organize and protect the information on your hard drive Includes easy step-by-step wizards to create partitioning tasks Ability to view pending operations before implementing them Flexibility to convert from one file system or partition type to another Includes support for FAT, FAT32, Linux ext 2, Linux SWAP, NTFS, and HPFS partitions

Partition Magic
Advantages
Split Partitions Undelete Partitions Windows Tree and Multiple Disk View Drag and Drop Password Protected Boot Disk Builder

System Requirements
Minimum Requirements
486DX Processor 16MB RAM 12MB Hard-Disk Free Space Windows 3.1/95/98/NT 4.0 or DOS 5.0 or above OS VGA Monitor

Recommended Requirements
586 or above Processor 32MB RAM (additional required for FAT32 support on hard drives larger than 4 GB) 12MB Hard-Disk Free Space (8MB additional required for BootMagic) Windows 3.1/95/98/ME/2000/NT 4.0 or DOS 5.0 or above OS Super-VGA Monitor Microsoft mouse (or compatible pointing device)

Boot Magic
Boot Magic is a software that enables you to switch between multiple operating systems in safe and easy way.

Boot Magic
Advantages
Safely run multiple Operating Systems on the same PC Graphical interface - Manage multiple operating systems in a comfortable, easy-to-use environment Mouse and keyboard support - utilize either mouse or keyboard operation for maximum flexibility Native DOS and Windows configuration - change menu items and start up options for all your OSs while in DOS, Windows 95/98 or NT

Boot Magic (cont)


Advantages
Integrated with partitioning software - combine PartitionMagic for a complete hard-drive solution Hide/Unhide partitions - automatically hide partitions not being used by the OS you select at boot time Enable/Disable boot mode - have the option of automatically booting to default at start up Emergency bootable floppy - added security of an emergency disk for hard-drive conflicts and crashes

Supported Operating Systems


Windows 95/98, NT3.51/4.0 (server and workstation) Windows 3.x (must be installed with DOS 5 or later) MS-DOS 5.0 or later PC-DOS 6.1 or later Open DOS OS/2 3.0 or later Linux BeOS Most other versions of DOS and PC-compatible OSs

PartitionMagic and BootMagic


Disadvantages
It is not very well recommended to use PartitionMagic and BootMagic for partition and boot management in a Linux-Windows dual-boot system. Both softwares provide subsequent partition management operation. However, after these additional partition management operations, the Linux boot no longer worked. That strongly suggests that the partition management operations did something that messed up the Linux boot.

GRUB
Enable you to boot all operating systems without having to go through multiple menus. GRUB can hide primary partitions so that the other operating systems will not see it. You can use 3 partitions to install Windows OS and Linux, and the 4th partition is extended partition.

GRUB How To
Preparing Boot Floppies Installing Linux Installing GRUB Installing Windows 2000 Installing DOS The final touch

Preparing Boot Floppies


You need 3 floppy disks. First one is DOS bootable disk. Copy fdisk.exe and sys.exe onto this disk. Use command:
FORMAT /S A: COPY FDISK.EXE A: COPY SYS.EXE A:

Use your second floppy disk to make a Windows 98 emergency disk and third floppy for GRUB.

Installing Linux
Install Linux Mandrake 7.2 but you need to use fdisk to partition your hard disk. Make sure you know how much disk space will each of the OS systems will take.

Sample of Partition Table


Device Boot Start /dev/hda1 1 /dev/hda2 7 /dev/hda3 594 /dev/hda4 594 /dev/hda5 849 /dev/hda6 2124 /dev/hda7 2141 End Blocks 6 48163+ 19 104422+ 3737 25254180 848 2048256 2123 10241406 2140 136521 2523 3076416 Id 16 16 5 6 7 82 83 System Hidden FAT16 Hidden FAT16 Extended FAT16 HPFS/NTFS Linux swap Linux

Whats next?
First partition is for Windows 2000 (around 10MG) . This partition contains the file necessary to boot NT such as boot.ini, ntldr, ntdetect.com, etc... NT will reside in partition 6 in my example. This partition is Hidden FAT16. The second partition is for DOS (around 100M). This is FAT16 too. Third partition is extended partition for the remaining of your hard disk.

Whats next? (cont)


Create a 2GB partition. This partitions is used to share data between all operating systems. Make sure that all the sum of all above partitions are less than 8GB. This is a DOS limitation. Next create your Windows 2000 partition, gave it 10G. If you demand speed, make it HPFS/NTFS partition. Next add your swap partition and Linux partition. Make sure you do not have a separate partition for /boot. Things look better in GRUB if you keep /boot in the root partition.

Whats next? (cont)


After you have installed linux go ahead and format the fat16 partitions:
mkdosfs /dev/hda1 mkdosfs /dev/hda2 mkdosfs /dev/hda5

Installing GRUB
Install GRUB on floppy not on hard disk because Windows 2000 will overwrite it.
grub-install '(fd0)

Create the menu.lst for GRUB. This file lives in /boot/grub.


http://linux.com/howto/mini/Multiboot-with-GRUB-2.html#ss2.1

Installing Windows 2000


Initialize the first partition before installing Windows 2000. Insert the DOS startup disk and reboot your computer. Once you get to the DOS prompt do the followings:
FDISK /MBR SYS C:

Install Windows 2000 as usual. At some point Windows 2000 will prompt you for the partition on which you want to install. The partition you created with fdisk should show up as damaged or unformatted partition.

Installing DOS
Insert the GRUB disk. When you see the menu insert the DOS boot disk. Select partition 2 (floppy) from the menu. This will boot the floppy disk and hide partition 1 and 3. Run FDISK and check that the C: drive is partition 2. Next install DOS:
SYS C:

Final Touch
Test that everything is working from GRUB You should be able to boot from all 3 operating systems from the GRUB floppy disk. If everything looks right you can go ahead and install GRUB on your hard disk. From linux type:
grub-install /dev/hda

Boot Part
Allow to add partitions in the Windows NT/2K/XP Multi-boot menu. Add partition on the menu. Can add OS/2 Multiboot, or Linux Partition (with LiLo) in the menu. Have FAT16 primary partition as active partition on first hard disk. This can be a small partition.

Boot Part Features (cont)


BOOTPART creates a 512 bytes file which contains an image of a boot sector that loads the boot sector of the partition. This file is declared in C:\BOOT.INI (a text file used by Windows NT boot menu). The boot sector comes from FDFormat and WinImage. Can easily add both MS-Dos 6.22 and Windows95 in boot menu, support FAT32 and disk over 4GB.

Boot Part Installation


Windows2000 installs boot sector that launches NTLDR and displays Windows NT boot menu. BootPart can restore it. Boot under MS-Dos then enter the command:
BOOTPART WINNT BOOT:C:

If you want to remove Win2000 boot sector, replace it with command:


BOOTPART DOS622 BOOT:C:

Boot Part Installation (cont)


For Linux, you must install Lilo at the beginning of the Linux partition (as with OS/2 boot manager) and then add the Linux partition with BootPart: When you install Linux or run liloconfig, select "Superblock of the root linux partition" as location of Lilo. In my sample, this adds the line "boot=/dev/sdb4" on the file /etc/lilo.conf

Disk Drake
The purpose of the DiskDrake project is to make easier the hard disk partitionning. It is graphical, simple and powerful. Different skill levels will be available (newbie, advanced user, expert). It's written entirely in Perl and Perl/Gtk. It uses resize_fat which is a perl rewrite of the work of Andrew Clausen (libresize). DiskDrake is a project from MandrakeSoft, the company behind the popular LinuxMandrake operating-system.

Disk Drake - Features


in expert you can precise if you want an primary or an extended partition for standalone use, the partition table can be saved on a raw floppy undo is on its way moving partitions is on its way (still buggy!) comestic changes some bugs removed

Disk Drake Usage


Create, delete and change type of partitions Format partitions Assign a mount point Mount partitions Resize fat partitions Resize partitions (when not caring loosing its data) Clear partition table Auto allocation (usefull for install) Write fstab

Disk Drake

Disk Drake

Reference
http://www.itworld.com/Net/4158/lw-10-legacy/ VMware http://www.vmware.com http://www.vmware.com/support/desktop/ http://www.twcny.rr.com/technofile/texts/tec1003 99.html Win4Lin http://www.netraverse.com

Reference
Wine http://www.winehq.com Wine HOWTO http://www.la-sorciere.de/wine/index.html Bochs http://www.bochs.com

Reference
http://www.camlug.org.uk/members/richards/install_for_newcom ers.html http://yklinux.myrice.com/qita/zlk/1/01.htm http://yklinux.myrice.com/qita/zlk/1/06.htm http://member.netease.com/~con/minihowto/Linu x+DOS+Win95.txt

Reference
http://linux.com/learn/newsitem.phtml?sid=60&ai d=9166 http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Linux+NTLoader-2.html http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Linux+NTLoader-3.html

Reference
http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Linux+NTLoader-5.html http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Linux+NTLoader-6.html http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Linux+NTLoader-7.html

References
http://www.icc3.com/ec/linux/linux8.html http://www.mozillaquest.com/stories_01/DualBoot_PqM agic-01/MQ-Mag_01_DualBoot_Story-01_01.html http://www.linuxgazette.com/issue38/veselosky.html http://classes.monterey.edu/CST/CST43401/world/DualBoot.html http://www.google.com http://www.askjeeves.com http://linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Partition/intro.html