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The New Seven

Management Tools
Planning Tools
By Pandiarajan.N
What are the
New Seven Management Tools
0 Affinity Diagrams
O Inter Relationship Digragph
O Tree Diagrams
O Prioritization Matrix
OMatrix Diagram
O Process Decision Program Charts
O Activity Network Diagram
History of the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
O Committee of J.U.S.E. - 1972
O Aim was to develop more QC
techniques with design approach
O Work in conjunction with original Basic
Seven Tools
O New set of methods (N7) - 1977
Slide 1 0f 2
History of the
New Seven Q.C. Tools
O Developed to organize verbal data
diagrammatically.
O Basic 7 tools effective for data analysis,
process control, and quality
improvement (numerical data)
O Used together increases TQM
effectiveness
Slide 2 0f 2
What are the
Basic Seven Q.C. Tools?
0 Flow Charts
O Run Charts
O Histograms
O Pareto Diagrams
O Cause and Effect Diagrams
O Scatter Diagrams
O Control Charts
Relation Between New Seven
Q.C. Tools and Basic Seven
Tools
FACTS
Data
Numerical Data Verbal Data
Organize
The Seven New Tools
Information
The Basic Seven Tools
Generate Ideas

Formulate plans
Analytical approach
Define problem after
collecting numerical data
Define problem before
collecting numerical data
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
Enhanced Capabilities
O Generate ideas
O Improve planning
O Eliminate errors and omissions
O Explain problems intelligibly
O Secure full cooperation
O Persuade powerfully
Benefits of Incorporating
New Seven Mgt Tools
0 Organize verbal data
Slide 1 0f 4
Enhanced Keys to Organizational Reform
O Clarify the desired situation
O Prioritize tasks effectively
O Proceed systematically
O Anticipate future events
O Change proactively
O Get things right the first time
Benefits of Incorporating
New Seven Q.C. Tools
0 Assess situations from various angles
Slide 2 0f 4
Five Objectives of Organizational Reform
which will establish a Culture that:
O Gives importance to planning
O Stresses the importance of the process
O Prioritizes tasks
O Encourages everyone to think
systematically
Benefits of Incorporating
New Seven Q.C. Tools
Slide 3 0f 4
0 Identifies problems
Benefits of Incorporating
New Seven Mgt Tools
Unstructured Problem [must be put into solvable form]
Problem is mapped
Problem becomes
obvious to all
Problem is in solvable form
Slide 4 0f 4
The Seven New Tools
Thoughts are
easily organized
Things go well
People understand
problem
Cooperation is
obtained
Countermeasures
are on target
Problem becomes
obvious to all
Nub of problem
is identified
Problem can be
clearly articulated
Plans are
easily laid
Nothing is
omitted
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Affinity Diagrams
For Pinpointing the Problem in a Chaotic
Situation and Generating Solution Strategies
O Gathers large amounts of intertwined
verbal data (ideas, opinions, issues)
O Organizes the data into groups based
on natural relationship
O Makes it feasible for further analysis
and to find a solution to the problem.
Slide 1 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Advantages of Affinity Diagrams
O Facilitates breakthrough thinking and
stimulate fresh ideas
O Permits the problem to be pinned down
accurately
O Ensures everyone clearly recognizes the
problem
O Incorporates opinions of entire group
Slide 2 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.)
O Fosters team spirit
O Raises everyones level of awareness
O Spurs to the group into action
Slide 3 0f 7
Topic
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
New Seven Mgt Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Constructing an Affinity Diagram
Group Method Approach
Slide 4 0f 7
0 Select a topic
O Collect verbal data by brainstorming
O Discuss info collected until everyone
understands it thoroughly
O Write each item on separate data card
O Spread out all cards on table
New Seven Mgt Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Constructing an Affinity Diagram
Group Method Approach (cont.)
Slide 5 0f 7
O Move data cards into groups of similar
themes (natural affinity for each other)
O Combine statements on data cards to
new Affinity statement
O Make new card with Affinity statement
O Continue to combine until less than 5
groups
New Seven Mgt Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Constructing an Affinity Diagram
Group Method Approach (cont.)
Slide 6 0f 7
C Lay the groups outs, keeping the affinity
clusters together
Next, complete the diagram

New Seven Mgt Tools
Affinity Diagrams
Completing an Affinity Diagram

Slide 7 0f 7
Topic
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card
Affinity Statement
Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
Data Card Data Card
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Relations Diagrams
For Finding Solutions Strategies by Clarifying
Relationships with Complex Interrelated Causes
O Resolves tangled issues by unraveling
the logical connection
O Allows for Multi-directional thinking
rather than linear
O Also known as Interrelationship
diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Relations Diagrams
Advantages of Relations Diagrams
O Useful at planning stage for obtaining
perspective on overall situation
O Facilitates consensus among team
O Assists to develop and change peoples
thinking
O Enables priorities to be identified
accurately
Slide 2 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Relations Diagrams
Advantages of Relations Diagrams (cont.)
O Makes the problem recognizable by
clarifying the relationships among causes
Slide 3 0f 7
Why doesnt
X happen?
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
Tertiary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Tertiary
Cause
4th level
Cause
Tertiary
Cause
Tertiary
Cause
4th level
Cause
5th level
Cause
6th level
Cause
Tertiary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
New Seven Mgt Tools
Relations Diagrams
Constructing a Relations Diagram
Group Method Approach
Slide 4 0f 7
0 Express the problem in form of Why
isnt something happening?
O Each member lists 5 causes affecting
problem
O Discuss info collected until everyone
understands it thoroughly
O Write each item on a card
New Seven Mgt Tools
Relations Diagrams
Constructing a Relations Diagram
Group Method Approach (cont.)
Slide 5 0f 7
O Move cards into similar groups
O Asking why, explore the cause-effect
relationships, and divide the cards into
primary, secondary and tertiary causes
O Connect all cards by these relationships
O Further discuss until all possible causes
have been identified
New Seven Mgt Tools
Relations Diagrams
Constructing a Relations Diagram
Group Method Approach (cont.)
Slide 6 0f 7
C Connect all related groups
Next, complete the diagram
O Review whole diagram looking for
relationships among causes
New Seven Mgt Tools
Relations Diagrams
Completing a Relations Diagram
Slide 7 0f 7
Why doesnt
X happen?
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
Primary Cause
Tertiary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Tertiary
Cause
4th level
Cause
Tertiary
Cause
Tertiary
Cause
4th level
Cause
5th level
Cause
6th level
Cause
Tertiary
Cause
Secondary
Cause
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Tree Diagrams
For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategies
for Attaining an Objective
O Develops a succession of strategies for
achieving objectives
O Reveals methods to achieve the results.
O Also known as Systematic diagrams or
Dendrograms
Slide 1 0f 5
New Seven Mgt Tools
Tree Diagrams
Advantages of Tree Diagrams
O Systematic and logical approach is less
likely that items are omitted
O Facilitates agreement among team
O Are extremely convincing with strategies
Slide 2 0f 5
To
Accomplish
Primary means
Constraints
Secondary means
Secondary means
3rd means
3rd means
3rd means
3rd means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
O Discuss means of achieving objective
(primary means, first level strategy)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Tree Diagrams
Constructing a Tree Diagram
Group Method Approach
Slide 3 0f 5
0 Write Relations Diagram topic (Objective
card)
O Identify constraints on how objective
can be achieved
O Take each primary mean, write ob-
jective for achieving it (secondary means)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Tree Diagrams
Constructing an Tree Diagram
Group Method Approach (cont.)
Slide 4 0f 5
O Continue to expand to the fourth level
O Review each system of means in both
directions (from objective to means and means to
objective)
O Add more cards if needed
O Connect all levels
Next, complete the diagram
New Seven Mgt Tools
Tree Diagrams
Completing a Tree Diagram
Slide 5 0f 5
To
Accomplish
3rd means
3rd means
Primary means
3rd means
3rd means
Constraints
Primary means
Secondary means
Secondary means
Secondary means
Secondary means
3rd means
3rd means
3rd means
3rd means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Diagrams
For Clarifying Problems by Thinking
Multidimensionally
O Consists of a two-dimensional array to
determine location and nature of
problem
O Discovers key ideas by relationships
represented by the cells in matrix.

Slide 1 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Advantages of Matrix Diagrams
O Enable data on ideas based on extensive
experience
O Clarifies relationships among different
elements
O Makes overall structure of problem
immediately obvious
O Combined from two to four types of
diagrams, location of problem is clearer.
Slide 2 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.)
O 5 types: L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, X-
shaped, and C-shaped
Slide 3 0f 7
O O =1 O =4 Principal
O =2 O X =5 O Subsidiary
=3 X =6
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4th level means
from Tree diagram
O O 1 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O O 1 O
Hold 4 times/month
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O 3 O
At every meeting
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O 2 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O X 5 O
At least 3 times/year/person
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O O 1 O O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
4 O
Evaluation Responsibilities
Remarks
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Constructing a Matrix Diagram
Slide 4 0f 7
0 Write final-level means from Tree
diagram forming vertical axis
O Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy,
practicability, and rank) on horizontal axis.
O Write names along horizontal axis
O Examine final-level means to identify
whom will implement them
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)
Slide 5 0f 7
O Label group of columns as Responsibilities
O Label right-hand end of horizontal axis
as Remarks
O Examine each cell and insert the
appropriate symbol:
Efficacy: O=good, =satisfactory, X=none
Practicability: O=good,=satisfactory, X=none
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)
Slide 6 0f 7
C Fill out remarks column and record
meanings of symbol
Next, complete the diagram
O Examine cells under Responsibility
Columns, insert double-circle for
Principal and single-circle for Subsidiary
O Determine score for each combination
of symbols, record in rank column
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Diagrams
Completing a Matrix Diagram
Slide 7 0f 7
O O =1 O =4 Principal
O =2 O X =5 O Subsidiary
=3 X =6
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4th level means
from Tree diagram
O O 1 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O O 1 O
Hold 4 times/month
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O 3 O
At every meeting
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O 2 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O X 5 O
At least 3 times/year/person
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O O 1 O O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
4 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O 2 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O O 1 O
4th level means
from Tree diagram
O O 1 O
Evaluation Responsibilities
Remarks
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Arrow Diagrams
For Working Out Optimal Schedules and
Controlling Them Effectively
O Shows relationships among tasks
needed to implement a plan
O Network technique using nodes for
events and arrows for activities
O Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review
Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method)
Slide 1 0f 7
New Seven MgtTools
Arrow Diagrams
Advantages of Arrow Diagrams
O Allows overall task to viewed and potential
snags to be identified before work starts
O Leads to discovery of possible
improvements
O Makes it easy to monitor progress of work
O Deals promptly with changes to plan
O Improves communication among team
Slide 2 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.)
O Promotes understanding and agreement
among group
Slide 3 0f 7
Strategy
1
Constraints
Activity
2
4
3 5 9
6 8
7
10 13
12
11
New Seven Mgt Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Constructing an Arrow Diagram
Slide 4 0f 7
0 From strategies on Tree diagram, select
one (Objective of Arrow Diagram)
O Identify constraints to Objective
O Write all essential activities on separate
cards
O List all activities necessary to achieving
Objective
New Seven MgtTools
Arrow Diagrams
Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)
Slide 5 0f 7
O Organize cards in sequential order of
activities
O Remove any duplicate activities
O Review order of activities, find
sequence with greatest amount of
activities
O Arrange parallel activities
New Seven Mgt Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)
Slide 6 0f 7
C Record names and other necessary
information
Next, complete the diagram
O Examine path, number nodes in
sequence from left to right
New Seven Mgt Tools
Arrow Diagrams
Completing an Arrow Diagram
Slide 7 0f 7
Strategy
1
Constraints
Activity
2
4
3 5 9
6 8
7
10 13
12
11
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
For Producing the Desired Result from Many
Possible Outcomes
O Used to plan various contingencies
O Used for getting activities back on track
O Steers events in required direction if
unanticipated problems occur
O Finds feasible counter measures to
overcome problems
Slide 1 0f 7
Advantages of Process Decisions Program
Charts (PDPCs)
O Facilitates forecasting
O Uses past to anticipate contingencies
O Enables problems to pinpointed
O Illustrates how events will be directed to
successful conclusion
O Enables those involved to understand
decision-makers intentions
Slide 2 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Advantages of PDPCs (cont.)
O Fosters cooperation and communication in
group
O Easily modified and easily understood
Slide 3 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Start
GOAL
YES YES
NO NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
Constructing a PDPC
Slide 4 0f 7
0 Select a highly effective, but difficult
strategy from the Tree diagram
O Decide on a goal (most desirable outcome)
O Identify constraints of objective
O Identify existing situation (Starting point)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
O List activities to reach goal and potential
problems with each activity
Constructing an PDPC (cont.)
Slide 5 0f 7
O Review list. Add extra activities or
problems not thought of previously
O Prepare contingency plan for each step
and review what action is needed if
step is not achieved
O Examine carefully to check for
inconsistencies and all important factors
are included
New Seven MgtTools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Constructing an PDPC (cont.)
Slide 6 0f 7
Next, complete the diagram
O Examine to make sure all contingency
plans are adequate
New Seven Mgt Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Completing a PDPC
Slide 7 0f 7
New Seven Mgt Tools
Process Decisions Program
Charts
Start
GOAL
YES YES
NO NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
New Seven MgtTools
Matrix Data Analysis
Principal Component Analysis
O Technique quantifies and arranges data
presented in Matrix
O Based solely on numerical data
O Finds indicators that differentiate and
attempt to clarify large amount of
information
Slide 1 0f 6
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Advantages of Principal Component Analysis
O Can be used in various fields (market surveys,
new product planning, process analysis)
O Can be when used when Matrix diagram
does not give sufficient information
O Useful as Prioritization Grid
Slide 2 0f 6
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Constructing a Prioritization Grid
Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
Slide 3 0f 6
0 Determine your goal, your alternatives,
and criteria for decision
O Place selection in order of importance
O Sum individual ratings to establish
overall ranking (Divide by number of options
for average ranking)
O Apply percentage weight to each option
(all weights should add up to 1)
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)
Slide 4 0f 6
O Rank order each option with respect to
criterion (Average the rankings and apply a
completed ranking)
O Multiply weight by associated rank in
Matrix (in example, 4 is best, 1 is worst)
O Result is Importance Score
O Add up Importance Scores for each
option
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)
Slide 5 0f 6
See completed the diagram
O Rank order the alternatives according to
importance
Completing a Prioritization Grid
Slide 6 0f 6
New Seven Mgt Tools
Matrix Data Analysis
Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
Cost Reliability
Options
Design A
.30 .20
3 3
.90 .60 3.2 1 (tie)
Design B
.40 .10
4 1
1.6 .10 3.0 2
Design C
.25 .25
2 4
.50 1 2.5 3
Design D
.10 .20
1 3
.10 .60 3.2 1 (tie)
1.05 .75
.26 .19
2 4
Importance
Sum Score
Option
Ranking (least important)
Strength
Importance score
Rank
Percentage weight
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score
Sum of weights
Average weight
Criterion Ranking
Customer Acceptance
(most important)
.40
4
1.6
.30
3
.90
.25
1
.25
0.3
3
.90
1.25
2
.40
.25
.75
.10
1
.10
.20
.95
.24
3
Criteria
.40
4
3
1.6
.31
1
Review
New Seven Mgt Tools
0 Affinity Diagrams
O Inter Relationship Digraph
O Tree Diagrams
O Priorization Matrix
OMatrix Diagrams
O Process Decision Program Charts
O Activity Network Diagram
Mental Attitudes
- Keen awareness to the actual problem
- Eagerness to solve problem
- Be highly motivated for the challenge
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 1 0f 5
Four Specific Keys
0 Understand the problem
O Select the right tool for the job
O Obtain appropriate verbal data
O Interpret analytical results
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 2 0f 5
0 Understand the problem
Stage 1 - problem is unclear and not obvious
what exact issue should be addressed
Stage 2 - problem is obvious, but causes unknown
explore causes and single out valid ones
Stage 3 - problem and causes are known
required action is unknown
strategies and plan must be developed
4 Specific Keys
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 3 0f 5
O Selecting Right tool for the Job
Stage 1 - Collect verbal information on events
(Affinity Diagram)
Stage 2 - Choose tool to identify causes
(Relations Diagram / Matrix Diagram)
Stage 3 - List strategies and activities
(Tree Diagram / Relations Diagram)
Plan actual activities
(Arrow Diagram / PDPC Chart)
4 Specific Keys (cont.)
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 4 0f 5
O Obtaining appropriate verbal data
Three types of verbal data:
- Facts; factual observations expressed in words
- Opinions; factual information colored by opinion
- Ideas; New concepts created by analyzing facts

.Group Discussions:
- Ensures common understanding
- All data should be without bias or distortion
- Data should fit objective of the analysis
4 Specific Keys (cont.)
Keys to Successfully Using the
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 5 0f 5
O Interpreting Analytical Results
Information must be obtained for accomplishing
objectives from:
- Completed diagrams; or
- Process of completing diagrams

Analyze actual information obtained:
- Prepare summarized report with findings,
conclusions, and processes used
- Check if necessary data has been obtained, if not
- Discover the cause and take appropriate action
4 Specific Keys (cont.)
Practical Application of
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 1 0f 5
Complete the following Relations Diagram
- Review notes for clarity
- Get in groups of 4-5 per table (work as a team!)
- Topic - Using the New Seven QC Tools skillfully
- Cause cards- will be provided (not categorized)
- Arrange cards to complete diagram
(some hints have been provided)
Example; Relations Diagram
Abilities Required for Applying New Seven MgtTools
Practical Application of
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 2 0f 5
Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools
Use N7
Skillfully
Primary
Cause
Primary
Cause
Primary
Cause
Primary
Cause
Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
Practical Application of
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 3 0f 5
Abilities Required for Applying New Seven Mgt Tools
Cause Statements (hints are in yellow)
A Interpret data clearly N Understand seriousness of problem
B Select appropriate tool O Think flexibly from various standpoints
C Think systematically P Obtain appropriate verbal data
D Give opinions Q Expose core of problem
E Know what the problem is R Communicate well
F Extract necessary information S Accurately understand real problem
G Collect reliable verbal data T Have excellent intuition
H Think multidimensionally U See to heart of problem
I Obtain facts V Select appropriate type of verbal data
J Interpret analytical results W Think in terms of word-based diagram
K Generate ideas X Express genuine thoughts
L Know that distorted data is useless Y Hear and respect other's opinions
M Grasp overall pictured Z Generate highly accurate verbal data
Practical Application of
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 4 0f 5
Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools
Use N7
Skillfully
Primary
Cause
Primary
Cause
Primary
Cause
B
T
R
Y
F
I
L
Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
Practical Application of
New Seven Mgt Tools
Slide 5 0f 5
Solution for Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools
Use N7
Skillfully
E
W J
P
B
T
H R
C
Z
Y
O
A
M
F S U
N
V
K
D
I Q
L X
G
Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)
Summary
New Seven Mgt Tools

1- Provide Training in Thinking
2- Raise Peoples Problem Solving Confidence
3- Increase Peoples Ability to Predict Future Events
Benefits of New Seven Mgt Tools

1- Express verbal data diagrammatically
2- Make information visible
3- Organize information intelligibly
4- Clarify overall picture and fine details
5- Get more people involved
Roles of New Seven Mgt Tools
Bibliography
Foster, Thomas. Managing Quality. An Integrative Approach.
Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall, 2001.

Nayatani, Yoshingobu, Eiga, Toru, Futami, Ryoji, Miyagawa,
Hiroyuki, and Loftus, John. The Seven New QC Tools: Practical
Applications for Managers. Tokyo : 3A Corporation, 1994.

TQM: The 9 TQM Tools. Internet
http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm.