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Diffusion

Mass Transfer for Senior-1 Year


PPC
Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University
Ficks Law of Diffusion
gases for
liquids for
dx
dP
RT
D
F
dx
dC
D F
dx
dC
F
i
i
i
i
i
i
=
=
o
Diffusivity
The diffusivity, or diffusion coefficient, D is
dependent upon temperature, Pressure (for
gases), and nature of components.
The customary units are: cm
2
/s, or ft
2
/s

cm cm
gmol
s
cm
s cm
gmol
3
2
2
=
ft ft
lbmol
s
ft
s ft
lbmol
3
2
2
=
Diffusivity contd
Diffusivity varies strongly with the nature of
the system:
- typical values for gases are in the range of
10
-1
-10
0
cm
2
/s
- typical values for liquids are in the range of
10
-4
-10
-5
cm
2
/s
- typical values for solids are in the range of
10
-8
-10
-9
cm
2
/s
Diffusivity Correlations
For gases (Gilliland correlation):

s D
gmol v
P
T
M M v v P
T
D
B A B A
AB
/ cm in y diffusivit is
/ cm in me molar volu is
atm in pressure is
K in re temperatu is
where,
1 1
) ( *
* 00435 . 0
2
3
2 3 1 3 1
5 . 1
+
+
=
Diffusivity Correlations contd
The most important note about Gilliland
correlation is:

5 . 1
2
1
1
2
2
1
5 . 1
) (
1
T
T
P
P
D
D
T
P
D
=
o
Diffusivity Correlations contd
For liquids:






For solids: no equation

s D
gmol v
where
v v
T
D
B A
AB
/ cm in y diffusivit is
/ cm in me molar volu is
poise in viscosity is
,
) ( *
10 * 7 . 7
2
3
3 1 3 1
10


=

Diffusivity Correlations contd
For mixtures:

...
1
+ +

AC
C
AB
B
A
mix A
D
y
D
y
y
D
Steady-State Molecular Diffusion
Steady-State
Molecular
Diffusion
Equimolar Unidirectional
Unidirectional Molecular Diffusion
1 2
1
2
) ln(
* *
x x
P P
P P
P
RT
D
F
P P
P
dx
dP
RT
D
F
A
A
A
A
A
A

=
Problem 4, Sheet 1
T = 298 K, P = 1 atm, x = 5 cm, D = 0.1 cm
2
/s
y
1
=0.2, y
2
=0.001




R=82 atm.cm
3
/gmol.K
P
1
=y
1
P= 0.2*1=0.2 atm, P
2
=0.001 atm


1 2
1
2
) ln(
x x
P P
P P
P
RT
D
F

=
Problem 4, Sheet 1 contd
cm
atm
K K gmol cm atm
s cm
F
5
)
2 . 0 1
001 . 0 1
ln(
* 1 *
298 * ) . /( . 82
/ 1 . 0
3
2

=
s cm gmol F . / 10 * 818 . 1
2 7
=
Equimolar Molecular Diffusion
) (
) (
1 2
2 1
1 2
2 1
x x
C C
D F
x x
P P
RT
D
F
dP
RT
D
dx F
A A
A
A A
A
A A

=
=
} }
Problem 5, Sheet 1
T=365 K, x= 0.2 mm = 0.02 cm,
D=0.051 cm
2
/s, P=1 atm


At 365 K, P
0
= 0.568 atm




67 . 53
52 . 3096
0137 . 16 ln
0

=
T
P
1 2
2 1
x x
P P
RT
D
F
T T
T

=
Problem 5, Sheet 1 contd
P
T1
= 0.3*1=0.3 atm
P
T2
=0.4P
T
0
Raoults law

s cm gmol F
T
2 6
/ 10 * 2195 . 6
02 . 0
227 . 0 3 . 0
*
365 * 82
051 . 0

=

=
Problem 6, Sheet 1
Diffusion in porous solids is governed by the
following equation:

A
x x
C C D
F
1 2
2 1

=
t
c