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By: Engr. Julius Victor F. Cabreros Engr.

Margaret Bacani

Block Diagram

Switching Signal
1. Frequency should be set between 0 - 500

kHz. 2. Should turn on the mosfets based off of the PWM signal and Vgs should be 10v or greater. 3. Should control both the lower and upper mosfets, and delay the mosfets from turning on simultaneously.

Stepped_Down_Rectified_Voltage
1. Steps down voltage to 30 Vrms to 40 Vrms

@ 60 Hz . 2. Vout*Iout = required 250 VA to 500 VA. 3. Output will be 30 to 40 Vrms rectified to Approx. 30 Vrms*0.9 = 27 VDC to 50 VDC. 4. Capacitors to smooth ripple to DC. 5. Rectifier will be able to source 16 amps and 50 volts. 6. Input of DC-DC Converter is connected to output of bridge rectifier.

Output_Current
1. Current should be feedback to micro-

controller via current sensor. 2. Output current should be 10 A plus or minus 10%. 3. Output current is measurable via DMM.

Output_Voltage
1. Voltage should be limited between

0-25V plus or minus 10%. 2. Output voltage should be measurable via DMM.

simulation circuit with snubbers and a transistor setup to model my design.

Buck Converter Operation

The buck chopper circuit contains semiconductor switches (think transistors and diodes) that will enable us to chop up a given voltage to create a waveform with a new and controllable average value.
consider the circuit shown in Figure 1.2 where we have two ideal (zero voltage drop)switches S1 and S 2 .

The circuit is controlled in a periodic fashion as shown in Figure1.3 where Tsw is called the switching period. Part of a switching cycle switch S1 is closed while S2 is open ( V s2=Vin ); the remainder of the cycle S2 is closed while S1 is open ( Vs2 = 0V ).

MODES:
Two modes: Continuous mode Discontinuous mode

Continuous mode
A buck converter operates in continuous

mode if the current through the inductor (IL) never falls to zero during the commutation cycle.

Discontinuous mode
In some cases, the amount of energy required by

the load is small enough to be transferred in a time lower than the whole commutation period. In this case, the current through the inductor falls to zero during part of the period. The only difference in the principle described a while ago is that the inductor is completely discharged at the end of the commutation cycle

From discontinuous to continuous mode (and vice versa)


The converter operates in discontinuous mode when

low current is drawn by the load, and in continuous mode at higher load current levels. The limit between discontinuous and continuous modes is reached when the inductor current falls to zero exactly at the end of the commutation cycle.