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INTRODUCTION:There are two approaches for structural-level retrofitting: (1). Conventional methods -based on increasing the structure seismic resistance of existing

Ex: shear walls, braced frames or moment resistant frames.

(2). Non-conventional methods

-based on reduction of seismic demands

Ex:- base isolation, dampers.

An Isolation system is defined as the collection of
isolation units, isolation components and all other structural elements that transfers force between the foundation/substructure and superstructure. An Isolation unit is defined as a device that provides all

the necessary characteristics of the system in an integral

device. An Isolation component is defined as a device that

provides some of the necessary characteristics of the

system (i,e, flexibility or damping) in a single device.

During a Richter 8.0 Earthquake a seismically isolated building will behave as if it were experiencing a 5.5 earthquake. Application of base isolation:1st application in New Zealand in 1974.

1st US application in 1984.

1st Japanese application in 1985.

Conventional Structure The deformation pattern of a conventional structure during an earthquake. Accelerations of the ground are amplified on the higher floors, and the contents are damaged.

` Seismically Isolated Structure The deformation pattern of an isolated structure during an earthquake. Movement takes place at the level of the isolators. Floor accelerations are low. The building, its occupants and contents are safe.

Suitability of seismic isolation

Earthquake protection of structures using base isolation technique is generally suitable if the following conditions are fulfilled:

The subsoil does not produce a predominance of long period ground

motion. The structure is fairly squat with sufficiently high column load. The site permits horizontal displacements at the base of the order of 200 mm or more.

Lateral loads due to wind are less than approximately 10% of the
weight of the structure.


A practical seismically isolated structure should meet the fallowing three requirements Sufficient horizontal flexibility to increase the structural period and spectral demands, except for very soft soil sites. Sufficient energy dissipation capacity to limit the

displacements across the isolators to a practical level. Adequate rigidity to make the isolated building no different from a fixed-base building under general service loading.

APPLICABILITY OF BASE ISOLATION SYSTEMS Most effective - Structure on Stiff Soil - Structure with Low Fundamental Period (Low-Rise Building) Least effective - Structure on Soft Soil - Structure with High Fundamental Period (High-Rise Building)

Concept of base isolation

The concept of base isolation is explained through an example building resting on frictionless rollers (Figure a). When the ground shakes, the

rollers freely roll, but the building above does not move. Thus, no force
is transferred to the building due to shaking of the ground; simply, the building does not experience the earthquake.

Now, if the same building is rested on flexible pads that offer resistance
against lateral movements (Figure b), then some effect of the ground shaking will be transferred to the building above. If the flexible pads are properly chosen, the forces induced by ground shaking can be a few times smaller than that experienced by the building built directly on

ground, namely a fixed base building (Figure c).

Types of Seismic Isolation Bearings

Elastomeric Based systems

Low-Damping Natural or Synthetic Rubber Bearing

High-Damping Natural Rubber Bearing

Lead-Rubber Bearing
(Low damping natural rubber with lead core) Isolation systems based on Sliding Isolator without recentering capacity (Flat Sliding Bearing) Isolator with recentering capacity (Spherical Sliding


Elastomeric systems are alternative layers of steel and

elastomers, generally bonded together under high heat and pressure, to form an integral bearing that is free of joints. The laminated bearing provides the vertical stiffness, lateral flexibility and damping characteristics

necessary for seismic isolation.

Sliding systems use two dissimilar materials to form an interface that permits relative movement between the two surfaces. Friction acts between the materials and serves to dissipate energy upon sliding.

Geometry of Elastomeric Bearings

Major Components:

Rubber Layers: Provide lateral flexibility

Steel Shims: Provide vertical stiffness to support building

weight while limiting lateral bulging of rubber

Lead plug: Provides source of energy dissipation

Low Damping Natural or Synthetic Rubber Bearings

Linear behaviour in shear for shear strains up to and exceeding 100%. Damping ratio = 2 to 3% Advantages: - Simple to manufacture - Easy to model - Response not strongly sensitive to rate of loading, history of loading, temperature, and aging. Disadvantage: -Need supplemental damping system

High-Damping Natural Rubber Bearings

Maximum shear strain = 200 to 350% Damping increased by adding extra fine carbon black, oils or resins, and other proprietary fillers Damping ratio = 10 to 20% at shear strains of 100% Shear modulus = 50 to 200 psi

Effective Stiffness and Damping depend on: Elastomer and fillers Contact pressure Velocity of loading Load history (scragging)


Lead-Rubber Bearings
Invented in 1975 in New Zealand and used
extensively in New Zealand, Japan, and the United States.

Low damping rubber combined with central lead

core. Shear modulus = 85 to 100 psi at 100% shear strain Maximum shear strain = 125 to 200% (since max. shear strain is typically less than 200%, variations

in properties are not as significant as for highdamping rubber bearings) Solid lead cylinder is press-fitted into central hole

of elastomeric bearing


The other approach for increasing flexibility in a structure is to provide a
sliding or friction surface between the foundation and the base of the structure. Sliding bearings consist of an upper and lower bearing plate and an interposed spherical sliding part. This type of bearing transmits vertical loads to the sliding surface, obtaining the horizontal displacement. The friction coefficient between sliding part and bearing plate determines the dissipation, which results from the relative displacements of the structure to the subsoil. The co-efficient of friction is usually kept as low as practically. However, it must be sufficiently high to provide a friction force that can sustain strong winds and minor earthquakes without sliding.




recentering capacity (SI)

Sliding isolators type SI (= sliding isolator) without recentering

capacity consist of a horizontal sliding surface, allowing a

displacement and thus dissipating

energy by means of defined friction between both sliding

components and stainless steel.

One particular problem with a sliding structure is the residual


displacements that occur after

major earthquakes.

Sliding isolator with recentering capacity:Compared with sliding isolators, sliding isolation

pendula (SIPs) with recentering capacity have a

concave sliding plate. Due to geometry, each horizontal displacement results in a vertical movement of the isolator. Thus a part of kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy. The potential energy, stored by the superstructure, which has been pushed to the

top, automatically results in recentering the

bearing into neutral position. The sliding

isolation pendula are excellently suited to isolate the structure from the subsoil. They remain horizontally flexible, dissipate energy and


recenter the superstructure into neutral position.

Sliding isolation systems have been successfully used for nuclear power plants, emergency fire water tanks , and other important structures.

Sliding bearing limits the transmission of seismic force to

level that is function of friction coefficient of sliding interface. This behaviour is interesting for protection of non-ductile and non-structural components against

earthquake when expected acceleration is more than their strength level. However there are some negative aspects in seismic behavior of sliding bearings like lack of restoring

force and transmission of high frequencies. Transmission of

high frequency excitation causes damage in sensitive equipments.

To avoid these undesirable features, sliding bearings are typically

used in combination with a restoring spring. When spring and slider are used in series (Fig. 1), sliding does not occur for seismic excitation below a certain threshold, and the isolated structure responds only in elastic part. This behavior can filter direct and

indirect excitation of high frequency due to stick-slip. However in

strong excitation, this system may result in residual displacement. When spring and slider are in parallel combination, i.e., Resilient Sliding Isolation System (Fig. 2) transmission force to equipment is equal to restoring force of spring plus friction force at sliding interface. This combination can reduce both transmission of indirect high frequency excitation and residual displacement.

Fig(1) slider and spring in series

Fig(2) slider and spring in parallel


-Isolates Building from ground motion.

- Minimal repair of superstructure -Building can remain serviceable throughout construction. -Does not involve major intrusion upon existing superstructure. Disadvantages -Costly, Is challenging to implement in an efficient manner. -Costly to connect utilities to building (flexible connections).

-Must allow for building displacements