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(Unified Modeling Language)
Concepts in UML
1. Introduction to UML
2. Basic Structural Modeling
3. Advanced Structural Modeling
4. Class & Object
5. Basic Behavioral Modeling - I
6. Basic Behavioral Modeling - II
7. Advanced Behavioral Modeling
8. Architectural Modeling
Introduction to UML:
ØHistory of UML
ØImportance of Modeling
ØPrinciples of Modeling
ØObject Oriented Modeling
ØConceptual Model of UML
ØSoftware Development Life Cycle
Basic Structural Modeling:
ØCommon Mechanisms
Advanced Structural Modeling:
ØAdvanced Classes
ØAdvanced Relationships
ØTypes and Roles
Class & Object Diagrams:
ØModeling Techniques for
Class & Object Diagrams
Basic Behavioral Modeling – I:
ØInteraction Diagrams
Behavioral Modeling – II:
ØUse Cases
ØUse Case Diagrams
ØActivity Diagrams
Advanced Behavioral Modeling:
ØEvents and Signals
ØState Machines
ØProcess and Threads
ØTime and Space
ØState Chart Diagrams
Architectural Modeling:
ØComponent Diagrams and
Deployment Diagrams
Introduction to
Why only UML?
The UML enables system builders to create “blueprints” that
capture their visions in a standard , easy-to-understand way and
communicate them to others.

What is UML:-
UML stands for Unified Modeling Language is a standard language
for writing software blueprints used to specify, visualize, construct &
document the artifacts of an object-oriented s/w intensive system under
History of
vGrady Booch, James Rumbaugh and Ivar Jacobson are the “Three Amigos” who
this UML in :-
the ending of 1996.

vThese gentlemen worked in separate organizations through the ‘80s and early ‘90s
each devising his own methodology for Object-Oriented analysis and design.

vIn 1994, Rumbaugh joined Rational Software Corporation, where Booch was
already working. Jacobson enlisted at Rational a year later.

vUML is a merged technique which is merged from the concepts of Booch Methods,
Object Modeling Techniques & Object-Oriented Software Engineering(OOSE).

vUML combines the best practices from Data Modeling concepts such as Entity
Relationship diagrams, Data Flow, Work Flow diagrams, Object Modeling &
Component Modeling.

vThe UML consists a number of graphical elements that combine to form diagrams.
The purpose of the diagrams is to present multiple views of a system, and this set of
multiple views is called a “Model”.

vIn 1997, the UML consortium produced version 1.0 of the UML and submitted it to
the Object Management Group(OMG) for a standard modeling language.
Versions of
üUML 1.0 in 1996
üUML 1.1 in 1997
üUML 1.2 in 1999
üUML 1.3 in 2000
üUML 1.4 in 2001
üUML 1.5 in 2003
üUML 2.0 in 2005
üUML 2.1.1 in 2007
üUML 2.1.2 in 2007
Importance of Modeling:-
•Modeling is a proven and well-accepted engineering technique.
•A Model is a simplification of reality.
•A Model provides the blue prints of a system.
•We build Models so that we can better understand the system we
are developing.
•Models helps us to visualize a system as it is or as we want it to be.
•Models permits us to specify the structure or behavior of a system.
•Models document the decisions we have made.
•Models gives us a template that guides us in constructing a system.
•We build Models of complex systems because we cannot
comprehend such a system in its entirety.
•Finally, we build Model to control the system.
Principles Of Modeling:-
I. The choice of what models to create has a profound influence on how a
problem is and how a solution is shaped.
II. Every model may be expressed at different levels of
III. The best models are connected to reality.
IV. No Single model is sufficient, Every nontrivial system is best approached
through a small set of nearly independent models.

Object-Oriented Modeling:-
üIn Object-Oriented Modeling approach, the main building block of all
software system is the “ Object “ or “ Class “.
üSimply put, an Object is a “ Thing “.
üA Class is description of a set of common objects.
üEvery object has identity, state, and behavior.
üVisualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting object-oriented systems
is exactly the purpose of the Unified Modeling Language.
Overview of UML:-
ØUML as a Language:
A Language provides a vocabulary & the rules for
communication that focus on physical & conceptual representation of a system, UML tells
you how to create & read well-formed models, but they don’t tell you what models you
should create and when to create.

ØUML for Specification:

UML address the specification of all the important analysis, design &
implementation decisions that must be made in developing and deploying a software
intensive system.

ØUML for Visualizing:

UML is such a graphical language that some “ Things “ can be modeled
textually and some are best modeled graphically.

ØUML for Construction:

UML is not only a visual programming language but its models can be
directly connected to a variety of programming languages.

ØUML for Documentation:

UML addresses the documentation of a system architecture and its details,
requirements, activities of project planning & release management.
Conceptual Model of
To understand UML, learners need to
know about the Conceptual Model of this language
and this requires learning three major elements.
They are,
1)Basic Building Blocks
2) Rules
3) Common Mechanisms
§Basic Building Blocks:
The Vocabulary of UML encompasses
three kinds of building blocks. They are,
1. Things
2. Relationships
3. Diagrams
• “ Things “ form the vocabulary(Nouns) of a system
and they are the abstractions of a particular model,
“ Relationships “ tie the things together, “ Diagrams “
group related things together.
Things in UML:-
There are four kinds of “ Things “ in UML. They are,
1) Structural Things:- Structural things are the “ Nouns “
and are the static parts of an UML model.
2) Behavioral Things:- Behavioral things are the “ Verbs ” and
are the dynamic parts of an UML model.
3) Grouping Things:- Grouping things are the Organizational
parts of an UML model.
4) Annotational Things:- Annotational things are the
Explanatory parts of an UML model.
Structural things are classified into 7 types.
Behavioral things are classified into 2 types.
Grouping things are classified into 1 type.
Annotatational things are classified into 1 type.
üStructural Things are of 7 types, they are,
1. Class:- A Class is a description of a set of objects that share the same
attributes, operations, relationships & semantics, class may implement one or
more interfaces. Graphically, a class is rendered as a “ Rectangle ” with three
compartments for Name of the class, Attributes, Operations as shown below.

Name of the Class



2. Interface:- An Interface is a collection of operations that specify “ what to

do “. Graphically, an interface is rendered as a “ Circle ” with it’s name as
shown below.

Interface name
3. Collaboration:- A Collaboration defines an interaction & it is a set of roles
and responsibilities. Generally, a collaboration is realized by a “ Use Case ”.
Graphically, a collaboration is rendered as an “ Ellipse with Dashed Lines “ as
shown below.


4. Use Case:- A Use Case is a description of a set of sequence of actions that a

system performs with a particular actor. A use case is graphically rendered as
an “ Ellipse with Solid Line ” as shown below.

Action Name

5. Active Class:- An Active Class is a class where objects own one or more
processes or threads to initiate a control activity. Graphically, an active class is
rendered like a “ Class but with Thick Lines “ as shown below.
6. Component:- A Component is a physical and replaceable part of a system
which provides the realization of Interfaces. Graphically, a component is
rendered as a “ Rectangle with Tabs “ as shown below.

7. Node:- A Node is a physical element that exists at runtime & represents a

computational resource like memory. Graphically, a node is rendered as a
“Cube“ including the name.


üBehavioral Things are of 2 types, they are,

1) Interaction:- An Interaction is a behavior that comprises a set of messages
exchanged among a set of objects. Graphically, an interaction message is
rendered as a “ Directed Arrow Line ” including the name of the operation as
shown below.
Operation Name
2) State Machine:- A State Machine is a behavior that specifies the sequences
of states. Graphically, a state is rendered as a “ Rounded Rectangle “ with it’s
name and also it’s state as shown below.

State Name

üGrouping Things are of 1 type, it is,

i. Package:- A Package is a general purpose mechanism for organizing elements
into groups. Graphically, a package is rendered as a “ Tabbed Folder ” as

Package Name

üAnnotational Things are of 1 type, it is,

I. Note:- A Note is a special kind of graphical symbol used to specify comments
or constraints. Graphically, a note is rendered as a “ Rectangle with a dog-eared
corner “ as shown below.

Relationships in UML:-
There are four types of “ Relationships “ in UML. They are,
i. Dependency:- A Dependency is a Semantic relationship between two things
in which a change to one thing may affect the semantics of the other thing.
Graphically, a dependency is rendered as a “ Dashed Arrow “ as shown below.

ii. Association:- A Association is a Structural relationship that describes a set

links that connected among Objects. Aggregation is a special kind of
representing a structural relationship b/w a whole and its parts. Graphically,
iii. Generalization:- A Generalization is a Specialization / Generalization
relationship in which Objects of the specialized elements are substitutable for
objects of the generalized element. Graphically, a generalization relationship
rendered as a “ Solid Line with a Hallow Triangle Arrow Head ” as shown
iv. Realization:- A Realization is graphically rendered as a ” Dashed Line with
a Hallow Triangle Arrow Head “ as shown below.
Diagrams in UML:-
There are two kinds of “ Diagrams “ in UML. They are,
I. Static (or) Structural Diagrams
II. Dynamic (or) Behavioral Diagrams
In UML, a total of 9 diagrams are available that are
classified either into Static or Dynamic. They are,
1. Class Diagram:- Class shows the entities in a system or a domain and
how these entities relate to one another.
2. Object Diagram:- Object shows instances of the classes and their inter-
3. Use Case Diagram:- Use Case shows system usage, this appears with
an actor or stick figure.
4. Sequence Diagram:- Sequences visualizes how the Objects in a system
interact with one another over time.
5. Collaboration Diagram:-Collaboration is another way of visualizing
how Objects work together overtime.
6. State Chart Diagram:- State Captures the state of an Object during a
specific time period.
7. Activity Diagram:- Activity shows the steps and decision points that
occur within the behavior of an Object, or within a business process.
8. Component Diagram:- Component models the software components
of a system.
9. Deployment Diagram:- Deployment represents the physical
architecture of a computer-based system.

The UML has various semantic rules for,
i. Names
ii. Scope
iii. Visibility
iv. Integrity
v. Execution
§Common Mechanisms in UML:
There are four types of mechanisms available in UML. They are,
1. Specifications Mechanism:- UML is a language which is not
only meant for visualizing the system but also used for specifying
the various artifacts of an intensive system.
2. Adornments Mechanism:- In UML , some of the vocabulary
of the system are elided(hided) because of the rules . In order to
expose some of the facts, UML has a mechanism often known as
“ Adornments ” which may be in the form of graphical or textual.
3. Common Divisions Mechanism:-The Common divisions are,
Class & Object
Interface & Implementation
4. Extensibility Mechanism:- UML provides a mechanism to
extend the various naunces(issues) such as vocabulary, properties,
& semantics using three extensibility mechanisms known as
Stereotypes, Tagged values & Constraints.
Architecture of UML:- In UML, the architecture of a s/w intensive
system can be best described by the following 4+1 architecture view.
Design Implementation
View View

Use Case

Process Deployment
View View

An Architecture is a set of significant decisions about,

2. The Organization of the system.
3. The selection of structure elements and their interfaces.
4. Their behavior and collaborations among other elements.
5. The composition of structural and behavioral elements.
6. The architecture style that guides the organization.

I. Use Case View:- A Use Case View of a system encompasses the use cases
that describe the behavior of the system. In UML, “ Static “ aspects of this view
are captured in Use Case diagrams, the “ Dynamic “ aspects of this view are
captured in Interaction, State Chart and Activity diagrams.
II. Design View:- The Design View of a system encompasses the classes,
interfaces and collaboration that form the vocabulary of the system. In UML,
the “ Static ” aspects are captured using Class diagrams and Object diagrams,
the “ Dynamic “ aspects are captured using Interaction, State Chart & Activity

III. Process View:- The Process View of a system encompasses threads and
processes that form the system. The same type of diagrams used for Design
View are used for this view but Classes are replaced with Active Class .

IV. Implementation View:- The Implementation View of a system encom-

passes the components and files are used to assemble and release the
physical system. The “ Static “ aspects of this view are captured using
Component diagrams, the “ Dynamic “ aspects of this view are captured using
Interaction, State Chart and Activity diagrams.

V. Deployment View:- The Deployment View of a system encompasses the

nodes that from the systems hard-ware topology. The “ Static “ aspects of this
view are captured using Deployment diagrams whereas the “ Dynamic “ aspects of
this view using Interactive, State Chart and Activity diagrams.
Software Development Life Cycle(SDLC):-
UML is lastly based on the topic “ process independent “. However,
to get the most benefits from UML we should consider a process which is,
i. Use-Case driven
ii. Architecture-Centric
iii. Interactive
iv. Incremental
üUse Case driven means that use cases are used as a primary artifact for
establishing the desired behavior of the system, for verifying and validating the
systems architecture, for testing and communicating among the stakeholders of
the project.
üArchitecture-Centric means that a system’s architecture is used as a primary
artifact for conceptualizing, constructing, managing and evolving the system
under development.
üAn Interactive process is one that involves managing a stream of executable
üAn Incremental process is one that involves the continuous integration of the
systems architecture to produce the releases. Together, an interactive &
incremental process is risk-driven, meaning that each new release is focused on
attacking and reducing the most significant risks to the success of the project.
Overview of Conceptual Model in UML

Basic Building Common

Rules Mechanisms

üThings ØNames vSpecifications

üRelationships ØScope vAdornments
üDiagrams ØVisibility vCommon Divisions
ØIntegrity vExtensibility

Structural Behavioral Grouping Annotational

Things Things Things Things


Package Note
Use Case
Active Class
Component Machine



Class Diagram
Object Diagram
Use Case Diagram
Sequence Diagram
Diagrams Collaboration Diagram
State Chart Diagram
Activity Diagram
Component Diagram
Deployment Diagram

Name Scope Visibility Integrity Execution


Common Mechanisms
Common Divisions