Sie sind auf Seite 1von 203

Invertebrates Chordata Vertebrates

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata

Chordate evolution is a history of innovations that is built upon major invertebrate traits. They display many of the basic traits that first evolved in the invertebrates: bilateral symmetry, cephalization, segmentation, coelom, "gut" tube, etc. Chordate evolution is marked by physical and behavioral specializations For example the forelimb of mammals has a wide range of structural variation, specialized by natural selection

Evolutionary innovations and specializations led to adaptive radiations - the development of a variety of forms from a single ancestral group. Each kind of organismincluding humansis a mosaic of traits. Many traits are conserved from remote ancestors, and others are unique to its branch on the family tree. All groups are multicelled, bilateral, coelomate animals. Have four unique features that appear in their embryos and persist into adulthood.

2. 3.


A strong but flexible rod called notochord. A nerve cord parallels the notochord and gut which anterior ends develop into a brain Embryos have gill slits on the wall of pharynx functions in both feeding and respiration A tail that extends past the anus.

The chordates are a group of particular interest to us as we belong to it, being members of the subphylum Vertebrata. The chordates include all of the vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds), but also two non-vertebrate subphyla: the Urochordata and the Cephalochordata.

The chordates were in the 19th century considered to have been derived from protostome ancestors (the annelid, mollusc, arthropod group).
However, a better understanding of embryology shows that chordates are deuterostomes and the invertebrates they are most closely related to are the Echinodermata (sea stars, sand dollars, sea urchins) and the Hemichordata (acorn worms).

Chordates are: bilaterally symmetrical triploblastic have a well developed coelom have a complete digestive system

Endoderm: innermost germ layer of an embryo. Forms the gut, liver, pancreas.
Ectoderm: Outer layer of cells in early embryo. Surrounds the blastocoel. Forms outer epithelium of body and nervous system. Mesoderm: Third germ layer formed in gastrula between ectoderm and endoderm. The coelom forms in the mesoderm. Mesoderm gives rise to connective tissue, muscle, urogenital and vascular systems and peritoneum.

The coelom is a cavity entirely surrounded by mesoderm. A coelom provides a tube-within-a-tube arrangement which has many advantages:

In mammals the pericardial, peritoneal, and pleural cavities are formed from the coelom. Allows flexibility in arranging visceral organs Permits greater size and complexity of internal organs as there is space for them to grow Fluid-filled coelom can act as a hydrostatic skeleton Cushions organs against impact Allows organs to grow and move independently of your outer body wall.

Five distinctive characteristics separate the chordates from all other phyla: Notochord Single, dorsal, tubular nerve cord Pharyngeal pouches or slits Endostyle Postanal tail
Not all of these characteristics are apparent in adult organisms and may appear only in the embryonic or larval stages.

Notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits, blocks of muscle, postanal tail

Characteristics of the Chordates

The notochord All chordate embryos have a notochord, a stiff but flexible rod that provides internal support Remains throughout the life history of most invertebrate chordates; among, present only in the embryos of vertebrate chordates

Figure 23.01

In nonvertebrates and the jawless vertebrates the notochord is present throughout life.
However, in the jawed vertebrates it is replaced by the vertebral column; the remnants of the notochord being found in the intervertebral disks.
A notochord (most vertebrates only have a notochord during development becomes the backbone in vertebrates)

Characteristics of the Chordates cont.

Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord (=Spinal Cord) A fluid-filled tube of nerve tissue that runs the length of the animal, dorsal to the notochord Present in chordates throughout embryonic and adult life

In most invertebrates the nerve cord, if present, is ventral to the gut. In chordates, in contrast, the nerve cord is dorsal to the gut and notochord. The nerve cord passes through the neural arches of the vertebrae, which protect it. The nerve cord is enlarged in vertebrates into a brain, which is surrounded by a bony or cartilaginous cranium. A dorsal hollow nerve cord (spinal cord in vertebrates)

Characteristics of the Chordates cont.

Pharyngeal gill slits Pairs of opening through the pharynx Invertebrate chordates use them to filter food Juvenile fishes use them to them for breathing In adult fishes the gill sits develop into true gills In reptiles, birds, and mammals the gill slits are vestiges, occurring only in the embryo

Pharyngeal slits occur in aquatic chordates and lead from the pharyngeal cavity to the outside. The pharyngeal slits are used as a filter feeding device in protochordates (i.e., Urochordata (Tunicates)) and Cephalochordata (lancelets e.g. Amphioxus). Water containing food is drawn in through the mouth by cilia and exits via the pharyngeal slits where the particles are trapped in mucus. Pharyngeal Pouches (develop into gills in fish and amphibians)

In vertebrates the pharyngeal arches have been modified into gills by the addition of a rich blood supply and thin gas permeable walls. The contraction of muscles in the pharynx drive water through the gills. In amniotes an opening may not form and rather than slits only grooves called pharyngeal pouches develop. In tetrapods these pouches give rise during development to a variety of structures including the middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, and tonsils.

Chordate Metamerism
Body segmentation (i.e. metamerism) appears to have evolved in two lineages of the chordates: the Cephalochordates and the Vertebrates -probably occurred after divergence from the Urochordates However, segmentation in the chordates does not involve the coelom. The cephalochordates and the chordates movement is accomplished by contraction of muscle fibers that are arranged in segmented blocks - myotomes Presumably, segmentation of muscles developed as an adaptation for undulatory swimming and rapid burrowing

Characteristics of the Chordates cont.

Blocks of Muscle - Myotomes Surrounding the notochord and nerve cord are blocks of muscle

Postanal Tail The notochord, nerve cord, and the myotomes extend to the tail Found in all embryos, most retain as adults however some vertebrates do not

The endostyle is found in protochordates and in lamprey larvae. It is located on the floor of the pharynx and secretes mucus, which is used to trap food particles in pharyngeal cavity. The endostyle works with the pharyngeal slits in filter feeding. Some cells in the endostyle secrete iodinated proteins and are homologous with the iodinated-hormone secreting thyroid gland, which is found in adult lampreys and vertebrates.

The postanal tail, some musculataure and the notochord enable larval tunicates and amphioxus to swim. The postanal tail evolved to allow organisms to swim and its efficiency has been enhanced by the addition of fins. The postanal tail is present only in vestigial form in humans (the coccyx) although tails as a whole are widespread among vertebrates. Muscular Tail (disappears in humans)

Figure 23.09b


Sixth Chordate Feature

Ventral Heart heart located ventrally

Subphylum Cephalochordata Urochordata

There are three subphyla in the Chordata:

Subphylum Urochordata: tunicates Subphylum Cephalochordata: lancelets Subphylum Vertebrata: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, etc.

is composed of about 2 dozen blade-shaped animals known as lancelets. retain all characteristic throughout life. Fish-like in form

lancelets (amphioxus)

The cephalochordates are the lancelets, which are small (3-7 cm long) laterally compressed fishlike animals that inhabit sandy sediments of coastal waters. They lack a distinct head and have no cranium.
They are commonly referred to as Amphioxus as this was the original genus name. There are 29 species, five of which occur in North American coastal waters.

Lancelets: live in the ocean with their body buried in sand Have a definite mouth and no jaws Long pharynx with up to 100 gill slits Breathe through their body surface Have a simple digestive system, heart, and closed circulation Use paired muscles to move

SubPhylum Cephalochordata
Exclusively marine animals ; they are capable of swimming but usually are buried in the sand with only their anterior end being exposed

SubPhylum Cephalochordata cont.

All chordate characteristics are present throughout their life history They are filter feeders: inside of the oral hood is lined with cilia -wheel organ These cilia, plus cilia in the pharynx help generate a water current Water and suspended food particles pass through the oral hood, equipped with projections called cirri that strain larger particles Feed by secreting a mucous net across the gill slits to filter out food particles that are present in the water.

Amphioxus is a filter feeder.

Water enters the mouth and then passes through the pharyngeal slits, where food is trapped in mucus. Cilia then move the food to the gut.

Figure 23.09a


Amphioxus is interesting because it displays the basic chordate characteristics in a simple and obvious form because of its transparency.
Amphioxus is considered to be the closest living relative of the vertebrates because it shares several characteristics with vertebrates that Urochordates do not possess.

As well as possessing the chordate characteristics, amphioxus shares a number of traits with vertebrates including:
Segmented myomeres (muscle blocks) Dorsal and ventral aortas Branchial (gill) arches (blood vessels running over the gills).

Amphioxus however lacks several characteristics that biologists think the ancestor of vertebrates possessed. These include:
Tripartite brain (with forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain) protected by a cranium Chambered heart Muscular gut and pharynx List continues on next slide

Various special sensory organs (eyes, chemical and pressure receptors) Neural crest (ectodermal cells that are found on the embryonic neural tube and are engaged in the formation of the cranium, tooth dentine, some endocrine glands and Schwann cells, which provide myelin insulation to nerve cells).

Filter Feeders

Filter feed using a special pharynx similar to tunicates Slotted pharynx supported by skeletal bars similar to acorn worms


Separate sexes with gonads located in the atrial region Fertilization occurs in the water Developing young are free swimming propelled by cilia

The Urochordata (tunicates named for the tough tunic that surrounds the adult) look like most unpromising candidates to be chordates and relatives of the vertebrates.
The largest group, the ascidians or sea squirts (Class Ascidiacea) as adults are marine, sessile, filter feeding organisms that live either solitarily or in colonies.

is commonly known as tunicates ( sea squirts). Larva posses all chordate characteristics while adults exhibit only Pharyngeal pouches.

Defining characteristics Notochord and nerve cord are found only in the larval stage Most of the urochordates are filter feeders Have a non-living tunic Most chordate features found in the free living acidian larva Adults sessile filter feeders

Ciona intestinalis (a solitary sea squirt)


Synoicum pulmonaria a colonial sea squirt

Marine animals; some species are solitary, others are colonial. Sessile as adults, but motile during the larval stages Possess all 5 chordate characteristics as larvae Settle head first on hard substrates and undergo a dramatic metamorphosis (e.g., tail, notochord, muscle segments, and nerve cord disappear)

Adult ascidians lack a notochord and there is only a single ganglion in place of the dorsal nerve cord.
Of the five characteristics of chordates adults possess only two: pharyngeal gill slits and an endostyle, both of which they use in filter feeding.

The adult sea squirt draws water in through an incurrent siphon and pushes it back out an excurrent one.
Food particles are filtered out in the pharyngeal slits with mucus from the endostyle used to trap particles.

Figure 23.04


Cilia lining the slits in the branchial sac or pharynx Ascidian filter feeding process. Water is drawn through the animal by the beating of cilia. Branchial sac orpharynx scidian-filter-feeding-mechanism.html

Adult body is covered by an outer envelope or tunic; composed of fibers of tunicin embedded in a mucopolysaccharide matrix. Tunic encloses a basket-like pharynx, that is perforated by gill slits. Tunicates are filter feeders; plankton is trapped in a sheet of mucus and cilia later direct the food-laden mucus to the stomach. Water leaves the animal via an excurrent siphon.

Filter Feeding



Notochord , tail and nerve cord occurs only in a larval stage. During the adult stage, the pharynx with gill slits retain. e.g. sea squirts attached to piers and boats

All the four characteristic chordate traits are visible in the adult. Both the tunicates and lancelets filter food from water currents that pass through their gill slits.

Even though the adult ascidian hardly resembles a chordate its larva does. Larval ascidians are very small and tadpolelike and possess all five chordate characteristics previously outlined.

Young larval ascidian

The larval ascidians role is to disperse and to achieve this it is free swimming. However, it has only a short larval life (minutes to a couple of days) and does not feed during this time.
Instead it searches for a place to settle and then attaches and metamorphoses into an adult.

During metamorphosis the notochord disappears, the nerve cord is reduced to a single nerve ganglion and a couple of nerves.

Besides the ascidians there are two other classes of the Urochordata: the Larvacea and Thaliacea.
Both are small, transparent planktonic forms. Thaliaceans are cylindrical or spindle shaped whereas larvaceans are tadpolelike and resemble an ascidian larva.

In the 1920s it was proposed that the vertebrates were derived from an ancestral ascidian that retained its characteristics into adulthood (the process by which juvenile characteristics are retained into adulthood is referred to as paedomorphosis).

Figure 23.12

Garstangs hypothesis is supported by embryological evidence, but more recently molecular analyses have suggested that sessile ascidians are a derived form and that the free-living larvaceans are more likely to be the closest relatives of the chordates.

99% of chordates are vertebrates

Fish Amphibian Reptiles Birds Mammals 24,000 4,000 6,000 10,000 4,500 species species species species species

Superclass Agnatha - without jaws

Class Myxini hagfishes Class Cephalaspidomorphi lampreys Class Class Class Class Class Class Class

Superclass Gnathostomata with jaws

Chondrichthyes sharks, rays, chimaeras Actinopterygii ray-finned fishes Sarcopterygii lobe-fin fishes Amphibia frogs, salamanders Reptilia snakes, lizards, crocodiles Aves - birds Mammalia - mammals

All characteristics of chordates

Distinguishing characteristics
Vertebral column or spine Cranium or skull that protects the brain Endoskeleton composed of bone or cartilage

Bony or cartilaginous vertebrae surrounding spinal cord Notochord only in embryonic stages, persisting in some fishes Two superclasses according to presence of jaws

Subphylum Vertebrata Seven extant classes First 3 commonly called fishes Remaining 4 called tetrapods (4 feet) All possess some form of segmented vertebra

General Characteristics
Exhibit all 5 chordate characteristics at sometime in their life

history . Usually well cephalized, including a well developed brain and a number of anterior sensory structures. Brain is usually encased in a skull, made of hard bone or a cartilage. In most vertebrates, the embryonic notochord is replaced by a vertebral column. Possess a distinctive endoskeleton consisting of vertebral column, limb girdles, two pairs of jointed appendages, and a head skeleton. Muscles are attached to the skeleton to provide movement. Often have a muscular perforated pharynx. Closed circulatory system with a well developed muscular heart; blood is oxygenated as it flows through vascularized skin, gills or lungs.

Evolutionary Relationships of the Vertebrates

Earliest vertebrate fossils (jawless ostracoderm fishes;

500 mya) share many of the novel structures observed in the living vertebrates.

When and from where did these vertebrate characteristics evolve?

May have evolved from an invertebrate chordate lineage. This idea is supported by the discovery of a fossilized mid-Cambrain invertebrate chordate from the Burgess Shale formation Pikaia.


A ribbon shaped, somewhat fish-like creature about 5 cm in length. -It possessed a notochord and the V-shaped myomeres. -Resembles Amphioxus, and may very well be an early cephalochordate.

Evolutionary Relationships of the Vertebrates

Speculations regarding vertebrate ancestry have focused on living cephalochordates and tunicates. One hypothesis on the evolution of the vertebrates is Garstang's Hypothesis suggested that sessile tunicates were an ancestral stock that evolved a motile larval stage. Garstang speculated that at some point larvae failed to metamorphose into an adult, but developed gonads and reproduced in the larval stage. With continued larval evolution, a new group of free swimming animals evolved. Garstang called this process paedomorphosis, a term that describes the presence (or evolutionary retention) of juvenile or larval traits in the adult body.

Garstang's Hypothesis
called this process paedomorphosis, a term that describes the presence (or evolutionary retention) of juvenile or larval traits in the adult body

Include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Feature : a chamber of cartilage or bone that encloses the brain cranium. Vertebrates are craniates with a vertebral column (cartilaginous or bony segments). The first craniates arose 530 mya had fins, a notochord and segmented muscles active swimmer larvae of lampreys modern jawless fishes.

The earliest jawless fishes include the Ostraderms have armor-like plates act as protection but less effective compared to ones with jaws hinged bony feeding structure. The jawed craniates began their radiation which include the Placoderms have armor plates protected their heads and some evolved into huge predator due to their offensive and defensive body structures.

Vertebrates changed the course of the animal evolution. When vertebrae replaced the notochord with muscles promote maneuverability & more forceful contraction led to agile, fast moving fishes that began their dominance of the seas. When jaws becoming part of the related trend, complex sensory organs and nervous systems also started among the ancient fishes and continued among vertebrates on land.

Evolution of paired fleshy fins began as a starting point for all legs, arms and wings that evolved among amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Gills as respiratory organ also evolved as they do not work out of water forming two small outpouches that evolved into lungs. The ancestors of land vertebrates relied more on the paired lungs than on gills as the lungs are also accompanied by more efficient circulatory systems. Jaws, paired fins and lungs were key innovations that led to the adaptive radiation of vertebrates.

1. 2.

Fishes are worlds most dominant vertebrates as their numbers exceed other combined vertebrate groups and also most diverse. Two major groups: Skeleton of cartilage cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays) Skeleton of bone bony fishes (ray-finned fishes, lung fishes and lobe-finned fishes)

Fish were the first vertebrate to evolve Evolved about 540 mya
Were jawless and covered in armored plates

Devonian Period = Age of the Fishes

Fish developed both jaws and fins at this time

Fish feed in a variety of ways including parasites, carnivores, herbivores, etc. Most fish breathe using gills
Gills are feathery filaments containing a network of capillaries to increase surface area for CO2 and O2 exchange

Fish have closed circulation

Fish digestive systems are similar to that of humans Ammonia is excreted by diffusion of water through gills and by use of kidneys

Salt water fish conserve bodily fluids by having concentrated urine Fresh water fish have dilute urine Fish that move from fresh to salt water alter their kidney function to adapt to tonicity!

Fish exhibit cephalization Many fish have Chemoreceptors for an extraordinary sense of taste and smell Lateral Line System allows fish to sense movement and vibration

Swim Bladder adjust buoyancy

How does pulling a fish from 40 feet of water affect the size of its swim bladder?

Oviparous egg laying; includes both internal (some sharks) and external (most fishes) fertilization Ovoviviparous eggs develop inside mothers body and are nourished by egg yolk; young are born alive Viviparous the mothers body nourishes the developing young which are born alive

Class Class Class Class

Cephalospidomorphi lamprey Myxini hagfishes Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes Osteichthyes bony fishes

Commonly known as Jawless Fish Include hagfish & Lampreys Long, eel-like bodies Paired fins Lack paired appendages Lack bony skeleton/no bones Lack jaws/jawless fishes Usually have circular sucking mouthparts Have mouths of soft tissue and no true teeth Lampreys parasitize other fish Are the only vertebrates that do not have vertebral columns as adults

Are filter feeders as larvae and parasites that suck blood and tissues of fish as adults

Feed on dead and dying fish using a toothed tongue to scrape a hole in the fishes side Secrete large amounts of slime Have 6 hearts and an open circulatory system

Include sharks & skates, & rays Very successful class Called cartilagenous fishes because skeleton is cartilage not bone Approx. 750 species Have paired appendages Many have acute senses Sharks have a lateral-line system Allows shark to detect water pressure changes

All have skeleton of cartilage; 5-7 pairs of gill slits Shading and replacement of teeth which are modified scales. Sharks and rays.

Includes sharks, rays, skates, sawfishes, and chimaeras Chondros = Greek word for cartilage A typical shark has 3000 teeth arranged in 6 to 20 rows Not all are carnivores, the largest sharks are filter feeders Some have flat teeth for crushing mollusks and crustaceans


Class Chondrichthyes
Jaws Paired fins Skeleton of cartilage

Great White Shark Tiger Shark

Whale Shark

Bull Shark

Manta Ray

Southern Stingray


1. 2. 3.

Have a skeleton of boneheavier than cartilage. Have a gas-filled swim bladder or lung to maintain buoyancy. 400 mya, 3 main lineages emerged: Ray-finned fishes Lung fishes Lobe-finned fishes

Skeletons are made of calcified bone Includes fish we are most familiar with: Sunfish, Muskellunge, Northern Pike, Walleye, Smallmouth Bass, etc.

Some fish can live in both salt water and fresh water
Anadromous Fishes spend most of their life in the ocean but move to fresh water to breed Catadramous Fishes spend most of their life in fresh water but move to the ocean to breed

Called Bony fish Most diverse of all fish Have skeleton made of bone Jaws Have Cycloid Scales Have paired fins Allowed evolution of 4 limbed amphibians (tetrapods) Possess scales for protection Have bony flap called operculum Have Swim bladder
Allows water to be drawn over gills by fins
Gas content can be manipulated allowing for changes in bouyancy

Flexible fins supported by rays derived from skin rather than bone or cartilage. More than 21,000 sp. Diverse variety of colors and body shapes to adapt to different aquatic habitats. Elongated eels , flattened flounders on sandy bottoms and box-shaped fishes wedge among corals. Edible fishes such as salmon, trout, sardines, snapper, carp and cod.

Have fleshy ventral fins reinforced with skeletal parts. Large marine fish belonging to a group of primitive bony fishes. The only living fishes is the coelacanths, Latimeria sp.

Similar fins with the lobe-finned fishes. Have gills and one or two lunglike sacs. Inflates the sacs by gulping air. Some fishes total dependent on this gas exchange or else drown if kept underwater!

Lung Fishes - Sarcopterygii

South American Lungfish : a living species of Lepidosiren. look at the four slender "fins" of this fish, which are homologous to the four legs of terrestrial vertebrates.

Lung Fishes - Sarcopterygii

Protopterus annectens Slender African lungfish
Carnivorous fearless predator has two lungs which enables them to breath when the water has dried up; survive drought by "hibernation by digging itself into a mud hole and curls up in a chamber that is lined with mucus and breaths out of the mouth.

Walking probably originated in water during the Devonian era, which occurs to the aquatic tetrapods, the Acanthostega and the Ichthyostega where their skull, caudal tail and fins were fishlike but they also both had short neck and four limbs with digits. Proposed evolution indicate that the skeletal elements inside the fins may have evolved into limb bones of the early amphibians.

An extinct tetrapod genus, among the first vertebrates to have recognizable limbs which appeared in the Upper Devonian about 365 mya, and was anatomically intermediate between lobe-finned fishes and the first tetrapods fully capable of coming onto land.

An early tetrapod that lived in the Upper Devonian period, 367-362.5 mya. It was a labyrinthodont that represents an intermediate form between fish and amphibians. It possessed lungs and limbs that helped it navigate through shallow water in swamps.

A small genetic change could have transformed lobed fins into limbs. Even a single mutation in one master gene can lead to a big change in morphology. Vertebrates with four legs which were the first tetrapods on land. Their body plan and reproductive mode are somewhere in between the fishes and the reptiles. Most species are dependent on aquatic or moist habitats to complete their life cycle. Include frogs, toads and salamanders.

First vertebrates to inhabit land Most are 4 limbed (tetrapods) Include frogs, salamanders & caecilians Have 3 chambered heart Have more complicated gas exchange organs (often a combination of lungs, gills and skin) Amphibian means double life
As larvae they are typically aquatic filter feeders or herbivores breathing through gills As adults most species are terrestrial carnivores that breathe through their moist skin and have lungs

Included frogs, toads and salamanders Skin is moist and permeable to gases and water Most lay eggs in water Most have an aquatic larval stage

As the amphibians developed in the late Devonian Period 360 mya they needed to adapt to terrestrial life
Keep from drying out Breathe using lungs, not gills Bones in limbs allow movement Ribs to support and protect internal organs

Amphibians dominated the Carboniferous Period 345 to 285 mya

Amphibians have a well developed digestive system similar to that of humans As most amphibians develop lungs as adults, some are lung-less and only breathe through their skin They have closed circulation and a 3 chambered heart with a double loop system similar to that of a human Ammonia is disposed of in urine through the use of kidneys

Most amphibians lay their eggs in water; fertilization is external Some salamanders fertilize internally

In most cases of external fertilization, the male will attach itself to the female. Eggs and sperm are released simultaneously and encapsulated in a jelly that attaches to aquatic plants. The jelly nourishes the developing embryos Tadpoles hatch and metamorphose into adults

Most amphibians abandon their eggs once they lay them. Some care for both eggs and young Some incubate their eggs in unusual places: in their mouth, on their back, or in their stomach

Amphibians have a well developed brain and spinal cord similar to that of a fish Eyes are protected by a nictitating membrane A tympanic membrane, or eardrum, is located on either side of the head Many have a lateral line system similar to that of a fish

Leaf Green Tree Frog - Litoria phyllochroa

Fire salamender - Salamandra salamandra

Toad - Bufo marinus

Order Urodela: Salamanders and Newts

Order Anura: Frogs and Toads

Order Apoda: Caecilians

Urodela ("tailed ones" - Salamanders) More dependent on water Many species possess gills as adults

Have long bodies and tails Both adults and larvae are carnivores Most adults are terrestrial and live in damp forests Some salamanders, such as mud puppies, keep their gills and live in water all their lives

Have the ability to jump Frogs have longer legs and can jump farther than toads Frogs are closely tied to water; toads are more terrestrial

Have more developed lungs than salamanders

Most diverse and common of amphibians. Toads are the first amphibians to evolve keratinized skin. Toads must still return to water to lay eggs.
This waterproofs the skin preventing water loss

Lack a diaphragm & must swallow air

North American Toad

Green Frog


Poison Arrow Frog Leopard Frog Peepers

Least known of the amphibians Are legless and burrow in moist soil or sediment Feed on small invertebrates such as termites Some have scales

Most are a great meal for birds and reptiles Some have toxins to poison predators Some have bright colors to warn of their toxins Some mimic the bright colors of others and are harmless

Amphibian populations are declining worldwide due to several factors:

Global Warming Decreasing Habitat Depletion of the Ozone Water Pollution Introduced Aquatic Predators Fungal Infections Increasing human population!

Lack internal fertilization & amniotic eggs Reproduction must occur in H2O Most species undergo metamorphosis
Larval stage (tadpole) is usually an aquatic herbavore Lacks legs, respiration is through gills Develops into tetrapod adult (usually carnivorous)

Amniotes were the first vertebrates to adapt to dry land habitats, through modifications in their organ systems and eggs. The eggs have four membranes that conserve water and support the embryos development. Amniote skin is rich in protein keratin acts as waterproof. Have well developed kidneys to conserve water and the fertilization is internal.

1. 2.

Two major groups of amniotes: Synapsids existing mammals and extinct mammal-like Sauropsids reptiles and birds Reptiles is not a formal taxonomic group as it is not monophyletic as it also refers to several lineages which all share the basic animal features but not the derived traits that define birds or mammals.

Descendants of the surviving dinosaurs vanished 65 mya due to mass extinction. Include lizards (most diverse), lay eggs develop outside the body. Largest monitor lizard (komodo dragon) ancestral lizard snakes modern snakes are carnivores Most intelligent crocodilians (e.g. crocodiles, alligators) predators that have a four-chambered heart, lay eggs and show parental behavior.

The oldest reptile fossils date back to the early Carboniferous Period some 350 million years ago Dinosaurs of the Triassic and Jurassic Period ruled the earth until 65 million years ago

Includes lizards, snakes, turtles, and crocodilians Over 7000 species Possess several advanced features over amphibians Most adaptations towards independence from H2O Possess scales containing keratin Keratin is a waterproofing protein which prevents water loss in an organism Possess an amniotic egg. Combined with internal fertilization, allows reptiles to reproduce independently of water Reptiles are "cold blooded" or ectotherms
Cannot internally regulate body temperatures Reptiles can regulate body temperatures behaviorally (eg. Basking or swimming) Nutritional requirements are lower than warm blooded animals

Prevents water loss of embryo. Allows for eggs to be laid on dry land

Turtles, crocodiles, alligators, lizards and snakes Skin is dry and scaly Eggs that can be laid on land

Land vertebrates with a well developed skull, a backbone and tail, and four limbs
Exemptions: snakes have no legs, and turtles have a shell formed of fused vertebrae?
Can a turtle lose its shell?

Reptiles are ectotherms rely on interactions with the environment to control their body temperature Reptiles have well developed lungs, four chambered hearts, and a well developed brain and spinal cord Reptiles legs are rotated farther under their body than amphibians allowing them to carry weight and walk on land more efficiently

Internal Fertilization males have a penis to place sperm in the females cloaca Most are oviparous
Turtles leave their nests unattended while alligators protect their nest

Some snakes are ovoviviparous

Reptiles have amniotic eggs named after one of the four membranes around the developing embryo
Amnion: produces watery environment around embryo Yolk Sac: contains nutrient rich yolk that feeds embryo Chorion: allows gas exchange Allantois: stores waste

Order Chelonia (Turtles & Tortoises)

Inhabit aquatic and terrestrial environment. Are herbavores, carnivores, and omnivores Characterized by possessing a hard dorsal shell Made from bone, extensions of backbone and rib cage

Order Squamata: lizards and snakes Order Crocodilia: alligators, crocodiles, caimans, and gavials Order Chelonia: turtles, tortoises, terrapins Order Rhynchocephalia - tuataras

Order Squamata (Lizards & Snakes) Most numerous & diverse of the reptiles Most relatively small Although monitors and their relatives can grow to 6' in length Herbivores, carnivores & omnivores Most able to exhibit some form of hibernation

Most lizards have legs, clawed toes, external ears, and movable eyelids Some lizards do not have legs and look more like a snake

Komodo Dragon Eastern Fence Lizard

Leopard Gecko


Largest extant reptiles can grow to over 15 and weigh over a ton Primarily aquatic they are true reptiles Inhabit warm, tropical climates Order most closely related to the dinosaurs

Long broad snout and squat appearance Fierce carnivores Very protective of their nests Alligators and Caimans live only in fresh water and almost exclusively in North and South America Crocodiles live in both fresh and salt water and are native to Africa, India, and Southeast Asia





Turtles live in or near water Tortoises are terrestrial Terrapins live in brackish water
Carapace: Dorsal side of Shell Plastron: Ventral side of Shell

Tuataras are the only living member of the Order Rhynchocephalia Beak headed reptiles that live on a few small islands off the coast of New Zealand Differ from lizards as they lack external ears and retain primitive scales They have a legendary third eye which is part of a complex organs on top of the brain the function is unknown

Many are in danger due to loss of habitat Humans also hunt them for food, pets, and their skins (for bags and boots) Many conservation efforts are underway, but more are needed worldwide

Evolved from dinosaurs during Mezozoic era. Diverged from a lineage of theropod dinosaurs. Aminotic eggs and scales on legs reminants of reptilian origins Almost all adaptations of these animals are made for flight. Presence of feathers
Made of keratin Can be used for insulation and flight

Forelimbs developed into wings Honeycombed, light bone structure

Oldest known fossil is Archaeopteryx which lived during the Jurassic Period 150 mya.
Had teeth in its beak, a jointed tail, and toes and claws on its wings

Birds are very closely related to dinosaurs, but scientists disagree on whether birds evolved from dinosaurs or- birds and dinosaurs evolved from one common ancestor

Characteristics of most birds

Maintain a constant internal body temperature Covered in feathers Have two legs for walking and perching Front limbs are wings Most are adapted for flight

Have a cloaca Adapted for flight Feathers Hollow bones Unique respiratory system

Used for flight and warmth; several types

Contour Feathers: provide the lifting force and balance needed for flight Down Feathers: trap air close to the body and keep the bird warm Powder Down: found on ducks and other birds that live on or in water; release a fine powder that repels water

Endotherms: can generate their own body heat; warm-blooded Smaller birds must eat more in relation to its size due to Surface Area to Volume Ratio

They lack teeth and therefore do not chew Beaks are adapted to the types of food they eat Bird Digestion
Crop: enlargement of the esophagus used to store food Gizzard: has muscular walls and small bits of gravel used to grind food

Birds have very efficient lungs that provide oxygen rich blood during both inhalation and exhalation Inhaled air enters posterior and anterior air sacs it then travels through the lungs and is exhaled Therefore the air flows into the air sacs and out of the lungs in one single direction, always providing oxygen rich air

Two loop circulatory system, similar to that of humans Ammonia is removed by the kidneys, converted to high concentration uric acid and defecated (bird droppings); similar to reptiles

The brains of birds are very well developed

Birds can see color very well Birds can hear very well Smell or taste are not well developed

Most birds can fly. Others are adapted for swimming and running Bones are light, strong, and adapted for flight; many bones are fused to provide a study base for flight adaptations

Both male and female reproductive tracts open into the cloaca The sex organs, internal in both sexes, increase in size during mating season Birds rub their cloacas together during mating to transfer sperm

Reproduction is through hardened amniotic eggs Since birds are endothermic, these must be kept warm by parents This behavior called brooding

Eggs are amniotic but unlike reptile eggs have a hard outer shell Eggs must be incubated by the parents since they are endotherms Young must be cared for after hatching

Absence of some organs

Beak made of keratin

Females usually have 1 ovary Absence of teeth lighten head Replaced by gizzard in abdomen & beak

Proven very adaptable structure, having a variety of shapes for differing diets

There are nearly 30 different orders of birds 60% of all birds worldwide are perching birds Show many examples!

Over 8600 species & 20 orders of birds Classified into 2 general groups Flightless species including ostrich, emus, & kiwis are known as ratites Lack sternal keel on breastbone Lack strong breast muscles needed for flight

Ostrich: A ratite

Other species capable of supporting flight called carinates 60% are "perching birds" called passeriforms Possess a sternal keel on breastbone Support strong breast muscles required for flight

The sparrow: A passeriform carinate

Birds are very ecologically important

Many birds migrate by guidance of stars, Earths landmarks, and Earths magnetic field Birds are good indicators of environmental health; bird numbers dwindled with the use of DDT

Hummingbirds are involved in pollination Some birds eat seeds without digesting them and therefore spread the seeds Many birds keep insect populations in check

Approx. 4500 species of mammals Evolved from mammal-like reptiles called therapsids in the triassic period Diversified greatly following the extinction of dinosaurs Mammilian Characteristics
Have Hair
Made of keratin Aids in maintaining body temperature


Have efficient respiratory system including a diaphragm Efficient circulatory system with a 4-chambered heart Most possess placentas and give birth to live young Have mammary glands to produce milk for offspring All show parental care of offspring Have largest brains of all vertebrates Single jawbone and specialized teeth Have differentiated teeth

Maintain body temperature internally

Unlike earlier vertebrates, several different teeth can exist in mammal jaws Eg. The molars & incisors in the human jaw

The earliest mammals evolved about the same time as the early dinosaurs but remained in the shadows until the giant reptiles disappeared First ancestors of mammals appeared during the Permian Period about 290 to 250 mya First true mammals appeared during the Jurassic Period 210 mya

When the continents split about 60 mya, three groups of mammals were isolated from one another.

Animals have hair to help insulate their bodies. They also have subcutaneous fat to keep them warm and many have sweat glands to cool them off. Smaller mammals have higher metabolism than larger ones in order to create enough body heat to keep warm. Mammals eat about 10 times as much food as a reptile in order to stay warm.

When comparing the bones and bone structures of all vertebrates - birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals you can see many of the same bones with very similar functions Refer to Figure 32-7 in the text (Page 826)

Internal Fertilization occurs in mammals Mammals are divided into three groups based on methods of development and birth
Oviparous: egg-laying mammals are called monotremes Viviparous: includes both placental mammals and marsupials

All newborn mammals feed on their mothers milk Some newborns are helpless at birth and must be cared for Others are able to see and walk within minutes after birth

Early branch from reptilian line Include platypuses & echidnas (spiny anteaters) Only group to lay eggs (reptilian in structure) Have mammary glands to feed young

Duck Billed Platypus


Monotremes are the egg laying mammals They share two notable characteristics with reptiles Both the reproductive and urinary systems open into a cloaca Monotreme means single opening Most primitive of mammals Only three species of monotremes exist today: they are found in Australia and New Guinea Duckbill Platypus and two species of Spiny Anteaters

Monotremes lay eggs that are incubated outside the body They hatch into young animals in about 10 days The young are nourished by their mothers milk that they lick from pores on the mother's abdomen

250 species The U.S. has only one species the Virginia opossum Marsupials give birth to live young that complete their development in an external pouch Examples include kangaroos, wombats, koalas, and Tasmanian devils A short time after internal fertilization a small embryo leaves the mothers body, crawls across the fur, and enters the marsupium (pouch) where it attaches to a nipple to nurse Young develop in a pouch




Diverse group composed of at least 18 orders 95% of mammals are placental They live on land, in water and the air Complete embryonic development in uterus Joined to parent by organ called placenta

Only "disposable" mammal organ Discarded following birth Exchanges gasses, nutrients & waste between mother and fetus

Placental Mammals are those that are most familiar to us. Placenta organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother Gestation the time it takes from conception to birth in mammals (can vary from 2 weeks to 2 years depending on the mammal)

There are 12 orders of placental mammals They are classified based on several criteria including
Feeding Teeth and Jaw Structure Foot Structure Brain Development