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Educational expansion in Kerala has done little to promote development. Discuss.

Session plan:
Background info Introduction to key concepts Reading 1: Human Development Report (2005) Reading 2: John Simister: Assessing the Kerala model Reading 3: Joseph Tharamangalam: The Perils of Social Development about Economic Growth - Kerala Debate Opinion Conclusion Discussion Dance from Joe

Kerala is a state in South-West India Population = 31.84 million (2001) Highest HDI in India Exports include pepper and natural rubber

Key concepts
Kerala has often been heralded as a model for development Cited as very unique among other Indian states It has high levels of social development (education, health, low mortality rates) BUT it is not doing as well economically as it should be This is the Kerala paradox Also, education hypothesis Keralas success is a result of its education system

TFR fell from 1960s (50s = 5.6 per woman -> 90s = 1.8) Life Expectancy (1993-97): 70.4 M; 75.9 F Literacy rate (2011): 93.99% India-= 74.04%

Infant Mortality Rate: 14/1000 with Indian average = 71/1000 high Morbidity rate: 71/1000 acute morbidity; 83/1000 chronic morbidity High rates of alcohol consumption + high suicide rates (30/? 3x national average of 11) EDUCATION WOMEN

education hypothesis = idea that Kerala is so unique among the other states due to its education system Article tests this hypothesis using data from the DHS (Demographic Health Survey) Data seems to correspond with the hypothesis(eg. underweight children and educated mothers + gender equality + GBV) However: women empowerment is not as advanced as it would seem. women do not enjoy the kind of freedom that one would expect them to have given the high levels of human or gender development (Mukhopadhyay 2007) High education levels does not correlate to high rates of female employment or equal earning power + women do 20x more housework + wives still expected to be subservient 69% of graduates believe wife should obey husband Education is necessary but not sufficient for development

Social development has been accompanied by economic stagnation Kerala cannot sustain its progress Why? 3 fold economic crisis worsening fiscal situation (no revenue); economic stagnation; inability to generate employment Means government is unable to fund programs like health care and pension payments Stagnation in productive sectors of economy eg. decline in agricultural output Rising unemployment (with less than 4% of Indias population, has 16% of the countrys unemployed) Keralas gains have been largely due to government intervention, but this has meant that politics is over -emphasized tradition of self help has disappeared, culture of dependency Bureaucratic mess lack of accountability Interested parties circumvent potential reforms, eg. teachers unions post-secondary education is stagnant, Kerala has the worst record of educated unemployed in the country Quality of education is also failing students ill-equpped to compete in national entrance exams + necessary skills not being taught State intervention in issues of civil society is bad, restrains them States contribution to econ growth is so little it is hardly existent a no growth state Work ethic has eroded desire to innovate and entrepreneurship has disappered Dogmatic belief in the socialist state has meant people are unwilling to turn to alternative theories despite the descrepancies between expectations and realisties

Debate: educational expansion in Kerala has done little to promote development.

Neo-liberal: development as economic growth, therefore, there is little benefit in educational policies if there is no corresponding GDP growth However: the progress in social development should not be underestimated because ummmm the benefits might not be economically tangible but they shouldnt be dismissed Educational expansion has done good things (Simister article)

Clearly, Kerala is no utopia, but to dismiss the progress it has made completely is folly Can still be seen as an example but I like trains