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Selection Process

Steps in Selection Process

1. Reception of Application forms- The scrutiny of applications is essential to take out those applications which do not fill the requirements of posts. 2. Preliminary interview- Sorting process in which the prospective candidates are given the necessary information regarding the job. - Also called as courtesy interview and helps the department to screen out obvious misfits. - It saves the time and efforts of both the company and the candidate.

3. Blank application form-widely accepted device for getting information from a prospective applicant. - A way of getting written information about candidates particulars in his own handwriting - Information regarding a) Bio-data b) Educational qualifications c) Work experience d) curricular activities e) references f) Salary demanded - The information collected must be brief and to the point.

4. Selection tests- Applicants who pass the screening and preliminary interviews are called for tests. - A test provides a systematic basis for comparing the behavior, attitude and performance of two or more persons. - Tests are useful when the no. of applicants is large. - It helps in better matching of candidate and job

5. Selection interview- Oral examination conducted for the purpose of employment - It is a formal in depth conversation which evaluates the applicants acceptability. - Interview gives the interviewer an opportunity: a) To size up candidate's personality b) To ask questions which are not covered in tests c) To make judgment on candidates enthusiasm and intelligence d) To assess subjective aspects of the candidate's facial expressions, appearance, confidence, nervousness etc. Limitation- due to personal and subjective judgment, no two interviewers offer similar scoring to two candidates. This is because, few departments use standardized questions.

6. Checking References- The applicants are normally asked to name two or three persons who know about his experience, skill, ability etc. but should not be related to him. - The prospective employer normally makes an investigation on the references supplied by the candidates. 7. Final selection- selection decision 8. Physical examination- After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo physical fitness test.

9. Job offer- to all those who have crosses all the previous hurdles. - Job offer is made in the form of appointment letter. - Letter generally contains a date by which candidate must report for duty - Reasonable reporting time may be given

10. Contract of Employment- A contract for employment is executed between employer and candidate - Generally the following details are included in the contact: a) Job title b) Details of duties c) Date when the employments starts d) Remuneration and method of payment e) Hours of work f) Holiday arrangement and sickness leave rules g) Disciplinary procedure h) Terms of termination of employment i) Notification before leaving the job etc. Great care is taken in drafting the contacts Often services of law firms are obtained to get the contracts drafted and finalized.

11. Evaluation- process is effective if it will ensure the availability of competent and committed personnel. - The auditors generally do a thorough and intensive analysis of whole employment programme.

Selection Tests
Test- A systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more persons. - Also called as psychological tests. Types- 1) Ability Test- refers to the capacity of a person to do the job. - Combination of mental ability and physical ability - To measure ability following tests are employed a) Intelligence test- measure of general intellectual abilities including memory power, vocabulary, verbal fluency and thought fluency etc. b) Aptitude Test- To measure the specific mental abilities like reasoning, memory and numerical ability c) Achievement test- also called as proficiency tests used to evaluate the claims made by the candidate regarding his performance, skills and knowledge. eg. Typing test

2) Personality Test- personality is some total of characteristics which include introversion or extroversion, inter personal skills, motivation, skills, self-confidence, perception, attitude etc. Eg. Thematic appreciation test. 3) Interest test- Only mental and physical abilities are not sufficient to achieve desirable job performance. -apart from this person must have strong and inherent interest for that job. - A well designed questionnaire may be used to test the likes and dislikes.

4) Honesty or integrity test- organizations may feel a need to ascertain the honesty of the candidate to ensure that they have not furnished any false information in the application forms and also to safeguard themselves from fraud etc. - The questions are asked in such a way the actual behavior and attitude of the person can be found out.

5) Simulation tests and assessment centersSimulation- duplication of the actual job conditions Assessment centers- A small batch of applicants come to a separate room and their performance in situational exercises is observed. Typical exercises are- a) The in basket b)Leadership group discussion c) Individual presentations d) Objective test

6) Video based situational testing 7) Graphology tests 8) Polygraph tests

An interview is purposeful exchange of ideas, the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons.

Types of interviews
A. Classification according to the structure 1) Unstructured interview- Interviewer does not preplan the questions to be asked - In fact he decides the question as the interview proceeds. - The purpose of this method is to allow a free discussion. - The interview can take various directions. - The interviewer asks follow up questions based on his last statement. - lack of uniformity and objectivity is there.

2) Structured interview- Such interviews are standardized interviews as they are planned to high degree of accuracy and precision - pre-determined questions with little or no deviation - Provides easy comparison of candidates. For examplea) What plans do you have for self improvement in next one year? b) What does success mean to u? c) What do the people criticize about you the most d) How do you plan your work? e) What has been the heaviest pressure situation you faced in the last year? Describe the circumstances.

B) Classification according to the purpose of interview 1) Stress interview- The purpose is to find out how a candidate behaves in stressful conditions i.e. whether he loses temper, gets confused or frightened or feels frustrated. - The interviewers adopts a hostile behavior towards the candidate. - He deliberately annoys, embarrass or frustrate him - The interviewer asks questions rapidly, criticizes the answers, interrupts him frequently and keep silent for long times - Used for jobs where emotional balance is required or resistance to stress is required

2) Appraisal interview- Is a discussion following a performance appraisal between supervisor and the employee. 3) Exit interview- When an employee leaves the jobs for any reason usually a interview is conducted by HR department.

C) Classification according to content of the interview 1) Situational interview- The questions focus on the individuals ability to project his behavior in a given situation. 2) Job-Related interview- Job related questions are asked in order to draw conclusion about the candidates ability to handle the job. 3) Behavioral interview- A situation is described and he is asked how they have behaved in the past in such a situation. 4) Psychological interview- conducted by a psychologist to access the personal trait such as reliability or dependability.

D)Classification according to administering the interview1) One to One interview 2) Sequential interview- applicant is interviewed by many persons. - Each person base on his own point of view asks different questions. 3) Group interview- Topic for discussion is given - The candidates are carefully observed as who will lead the discussion, how they will react to each others views. 4) Panel interview- Candidate is interviewed simultaneously by a panel. - Collective judgment of panel