Sie sind auf Seite 1von 54

Synchronous Machines

Generator

Exciter
View of a two-pole round rotor generator and exciter.

Synchronous Machines
Stator with laminated iron core

B
Slots with phase winding

A CA+
+

+
+

N
Rotor with dc winding
-

B+

S
-

B-

A-

C+ C

Major components of a round rotor two-pole generator

Synchronous Machines

Cross-section of a large turbo generator.

(Courtesy Westinghouse)

Synchronous Machines
Metal frame

Laminated iron core with slots

Insulated copper bars are placed in the slots to form the three-phase winding

Details of a generator stator.

Synchronous Machines

Rotor block of a large generator. (Courtesy Westinghouse)

Synchronous Machines

Generator rotor with conductors placed in the slots.

Synchronous Machines
Steel retaining ring Shaft Shaft

Wedges DCcurrent current DC terminals terminals

Large generator rotor completely assembled. (Courtesy Westinghouse)

Salient pole generator

Synchronous Machines
CN A+
Rotor with dc winding
+ + + + +

B+

Stator with laminated iron core

ASlots with phase winding

S BC+

Two-pole salient pole generator concept.

Synchronous Machines
B+ C-

AC+ N
+ +
+ +

BS

A+

S A+ CB+
+ +

BC+

+ +

N A-

Four-pole salient pole generator concept.

Synchronous Machines

Stator of a large salient pole hydro generator; inset shows the insulated conductors and spacers.

Synchronous Machines

Large hydro generator rotor with view of the vertical poles.

Synchronous Machines
Slip rings

Pole

Fan

DC excitation winding

Rotor of a four-pole salient pole generator.

Synchronous Machines
Exciter rotor Exciter stator Rotating rectifier Generator

Idc

Field winding

Phase windings

Stationary Rotates

Concept of the brushless exciter system

Operating Concept

Synchronous Machines
Flux f nsy CB+

N
-

+ + + + + -

A-

A+

S
C+

B-

Operating concept of a synchronous generator

Synchronous Machines
Maximum flux linkage with phase A No flux linkage with phase A

C+

B+
N

C+

B+

A+

A-

A+

S
+ +

A-

S
+

B-

C+

B-

C+

(a) Flux is perpendicular to phase A (b) Flux is parallel to phase A Rotation produced flux linkage variation.

Synchronous Machines
rot
t

link
nsy
CB+

N
A+
-

+ + +
30

+ +

A-

S
C+

B-

Rotating flux linkage to phase A.

Synchronous Machines
Main rotating flux
f n sy p 2 2 n sy
link (t ) rot cos( t )

Es (t ) N sta rot sin( t ) N sta rot cos( t 90)


E sta N sta rot 2

E s (t ) N sta

d link (t ) dt

The rotating flux generates the induced voltage

Synchronous Machines
nsy
CB+
+ + + 30

N
-

Field flux f

+ +

AArmature flux ar C+

A+

B-

Field (f) and load generated (ar) rotating fluxes.

Synchronous Machines
Armature flux
I arm (t ) 2 I sta cos( t)
Load current generates a rotating flux reducing the main flux and induced voltage

arm (t ) ar cos( t )
E ar (t ) N sta
E arm

d arm (t ) N sta ar sin ( t ) dt


2

N sta ar

Vt E sta E arm

Synchronous Machines
Armature flux
E ar (t ) Larm dI
arm

(t )

dt Larm 2 I sta X arm

Larm

d dt sin( t )

2 I sta cos( t )

2 I sta sin( t )

X arm

N sta ar 2 I sta

X syn X arm X leakage

Synchronous Machines
Single phase equivalent circuit
E arm syn I sta ( j X syn )

Vt E sta E arm syn E sta I sta j X syn

Xsyn Flux Esta DC Ista

Rsta Vt

Single-phase equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator.

Synchronous Machines
The DC excitation current in the rotor generates a flux. The turbine drives the rotor and produces a rotating flux The rotation cause flux changes in the windings The rotating flux induce a ac three phase voltage in the stator winding. This is the rotor induced voltage in the stator.

Synchronous Machines
The generator is loaded The load current produces a rotating flux This rotating flux induces a ac three phase voltage in the stator winding. This voltage is
subtracted from the induced voltage. represented by a voltage drop on the synchronous reactance

The equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator is a voltage source and a reactance connected in series

Synchronous Machines
Generator Application
Power angle: Angle between the dc excitation current generated induced voltage and the terminal voltage
Xsyn Flux Esta DC Ista Vt Rsta

Synchronous Machines
Generator Application

Loading: power is less than angle 90 deg


All generators in the system are connected in parallel All generators rotates with the synchronous speed The load can be increased by increasing the input mechanical power by regulating the turbine impute power The speed does not change, the power angle increases Maximum power angle is 90 degree, beyond that operation is unstable

Reactive power regulation When the excitation is:


Increased, the generator reactive power also increases; Decreased, the generator reactive power also decreases

Synchronous Machines
Synchronization
Verify that the phase sequences of the two systems are the same. Adjust the machine speed with the turbine that drives the generator until the generator voltage frequency is nearly the same as the frequency of the network voltage. Adjust the terminal voltage of the generator by changing the dc field (rotor) current until the generator terminal voltage is almost equal to the network voltage. Acceptable limit is 5%.

Adjust the phase angle of the generator terminal voltage by regulating the input power until it is nearly equal with the phase angle of the network voltage. Acceptable limits are about 15.

Synchronous Machines
Static stability
Generator
Sgen 150kV A Vgen 12.47kV xgen 128%

Transmission line

Lline 48mi

ZL ( 0.5 j 0.67) mi

Network
Vnet 12.47kV Inet _short 2kA

Synchronous Machines
Generator Distribution line Network

One-line diagram of a simple power system


Xsyn Isyt Zline Xnet Vnet_ln

Esta

Single-phase equivalent circuit of the network in Figure 6.19 .

System Data
The system data are: Generator Netw ork Distribution line

Sgen 150kV A Vnet 12.47kV Lline 48mi

Vgen 12.47kV Inet _short 2kA ZL ( 0.5 j 0.67) mi

xgen 128%

The f irst step of the study is to calculate the impedances. The generator snchronous reactance is :

Xsyn xgen

Vgen

Sgen

Xsyn 1.3269 k

The line impedance is :

Zline ZL Lline

Zline 24 32.16j

The netw ork line -to-netral voltage and reactance is:

Vnet _ln

Vnet 3

Vnet _ln 7.2 kV

Xnet

Vnet _ln Inet _short

Xnet 3.6

The generator induc ed voltage is :

1 Esta ( 60deg) 7.2 12.47j kV

Esta 2 Vnet _ln e

The equivalent circuit show s that the current in this sytem is the voltage dif f erence divided by the total sy stem impedanc e

Isyt

Esta Vnet _ln j Xsyn Zline j Xnet

Isyt ( 60deg) 9.148 0.161jA

The complex pow er of the generator and netw ork is

Sg 3 Esta Isyt Snet 3 Vnet _ln Isyt

Sg ( 60deg) 203.614 338.751j kV A Snet ( 60deg) 197.587 3.48j kV A

The pow er of the generator and netw ork is

Pg Re Sg Pnet Re Snet
The generator terminal voltage is:

Pg ( 60deg) 203.614 kW Pnet ( 60deg) 197.587 kW

Vt Esta jXsyn Isyt Vt _ll 3 Vt Vt _ll Vnet Vnet

Vt ( 60deg) 7.413 0.331j kV Vt _ll( 60deg) 12.853 kV

Reg

Reg ( 60deg) 3.072 %

The generator and network power vs power angle


0deg 1deg 180deg
250

Pg kW Pnet kW 110

200

150

Stable operati on

Maxim um power Operatio n point

Unsta ble operati on

100

50

30

60

90 deg

120

150

180

Maximum power transmitted


60deg max M aximize Pg Pg_max Pg max 110kW root Pg 110kW max 91.009 deg Pg_max 236.226 kW

110kW 27.55 deg

Induced Voltage Synchronous Reactance Calculation

Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage and Synchronous Reactance Calculation

E sta

0 N sta N rot

sta rot If gap

X syn

0 N

2 sta

sta rot If gap

Synchronous Machines
Lgap Lstator 0

C+

B+
N

(Drotor/2) d

-/2

A+
Lgap

Lrotor

/2

A-

Lstator

S
+

B-

C+

Rotor-generated magnetic field in the simplified generator.

Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
Amperes circuital law for this magnetic loop yields

2 Hgap Lgap Hrotor Lrotor Hstator Lstator

Idc_rotor Nrotor

2 Hgap Lgap

Idc_rotor Nrotor

If iron core is neglected

Hgap Idc_rotor

Idc_rotor Nrotor 2 Lgap

Bgap Idc_roto r o Hgap Idc_roto r

Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
Bbase Bbase_ max cos
2

Rotor generated flux density distribution along the rotor surface

Brotor Idc_rotor T 0 Bbase ( ) T

90

60

30

30

60

90 120 150 180 210 240 270 deg

Square wave flux equation

Brot or Idc_roto r if 90 deg Bgap Idc_roto r Bgap Idc_roto r

Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
The base component is calculated using the Fourier series
3

2 1 Bbase_ max Brot or Idc_roto r cos d

Bgap Idc_roto r

Bbase_ max Idc_roto r

Bgap Idc_roto r

Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
Substitution of current and flux density results in:
Bbase_max Idc_rotor

Idc_rotor Nrotor 2 Lgap

2 Drot or rot or Idc_roto r Bbase Lstat or d 2

Flux integral

rot or Idc_rot or Bbase_ max Drot or Lstat or

Synchronous Machines
Induced Voltage
Substitution of current and flux density results in:

A Idc_rotor t rot or Idc_rotor cos t


Flux integral
Idc_rotor Nrotor rotor Idc_rotor o Drotor Lstator 2 Lgap

Rotating Flux Generation

Synchronous Machines
Lgap Lstator 0

C+
N

B-

(Drotor/2) d

-/2

ALgap

d Lrotor

/2

A+

Lstator

S
B+

C-

Arrangement for calculation of load current generated flux.

Synchronous Machines
A_ac(t)
C+ B0.7 0.5 0.3

A-

A+

A_ac(t) 0.1 0 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7

B+

C-

60

120

180 t deg

240

300

360

Phase A load current generated ac flux.

Synchronous Machines
B ( t) ABC(t) A ( t) C ( t)

B ( t)

C+
+

B-

C (t )

A-

A+

B+

C-

AC flux generated by the phase currents.

Synchronous Machines
0.7 A_ac ( t ) 0.5 Wb B_ac ( t ) Wb C_ac ( t ) 0.1 Wb 0 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.1

60

120

180 t deg

240

300

360

t = 0 t = 45
C(t) B(t) ABC(0) B(t) A(t) A(t) C(t) ABC(t)

Rotating flux generated by the phase currents

B(t)

C+
+

B-

C(t)

C+ A-

B+ -

C(t)

AB+
+

A+

A+

B(t)
-

C-

B+

C-

Synchronous Machines
t 0ms 0.1ms
1 ABC ( t ) 0.75 Wb AA ( t ) Wb BA ( t ) Wb CA ( t ) Wb 0 0.75 1 0.25 0.5 0.25 0 0.5

1 60

60

120

180 t deg

240

300

360

Flux linkages with phase A.

Synchronous Machines
Transformer Transmission line Network

Generator
Xsy Eg_ln Ig Vg_ln Xtr Vtrs_ln Isy ZLine Vnet_ln

One-line diagram of synchronous generator network Single-phase equivalent circuit of synchronous generator network.
Simplified singlephase equivalent circuit of synchronous generator network.

Xsy_s Eg_s

Xtr Isy

ZLine Vnet_ln

Synchronous Machines
0deg 1deg 180deg
600 500 Pnet M W Pnetwork MW 400 300 200 100 0 0 30 60 90 deg 120 150 180

Power delivered to the network as a function of power angle.