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Control Systems

--System (controlled) modeling --Controller design --System analysis -stability -transient -steady state -frequency response

Sisil Kumarawadu, PhD Professor in Electrical Engineering University of Moratuwa

Feedback (closed-loop) control Systems

Reference I/P
+ Measured O/P Controller
Is a signal or information Processing device

Controlled system

Feedback element

Block diagram of a standard error feedback control system

Plant (controlled system): is the process to be controlled FB Element: Sensor(s) that feeds the plant O/P back to the I/P side Controller: Takes the error (difference between I/P and the FB O/P) into account to create a control signal in a way the error is minimized Input (reference): is the desired O/P

Open-loop Vs Closed-loop Control

I/P Controller Plant O/P

Block diagram of a open-loop control system ** O/P quantity has no influence in the I/P quantity (and hence in the controller) and hence there is no feedback in the system.

Eg: Bread Toaster: The setting of the darkness knob or timer represents the I/P, and the degree of darkness or crispness of the toasted bread is the O/P. If the degree of darkness is not satisfactory (may be coz type of breads different), there is no way to automatically alter the length of time the heat is supplied

Analog Control (traditional)

Controllers are implemented with analog components (eg: resisters, capacitors, operational
Explosive growth and expanding efficiency Of digital technology

Today, controllers are typically implemented as programmable digital hardware (digital computers) Digital Control

A Digital Control System

(computer-based/sampled-data control systems)


Microcontroller/ DSP/PLD (digital computer)

O/P DAC Plant


Sensor (s)

To be usable by digital computers, analog signals need to be sampled and converted to digital form by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Digital signals from the digital computer needs to be converted back to analog by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC)

DSP/PLC Solutions (Digital) as compared with traditional analog controllers

The control strategy can be changed easily without new hardware. The system is smaller, lighter, required less power, and costs less The system is more reliable, maintainable, and testable The system is more immune to noise Complex control algorithms for higher control performance can be implemented

ADC, DAC Sensors (analog) Plant (analog) Controller (digital)

Sampled-data control systems (Digital Ctrl Sys)

Sensors (analog) Plant (analog) Controller (analog)

Analog control systems

Essence of Transforms in Engineering

Laplace transform method is extensively used ordinary constant coefficient (Linear-time-invariant or LTI) differential equations. Fourier transform techniques

Laplace-transform Vs Z-transform
Analog (Continuous)
Linear differential equations (represents linear systems)

Digital (Discrete)
Linear difference equations


Algebraic equations
Inverse Laplace-transform

Algebraic equations
Inverse Z-transform

Signals (Solutions of the differential Equations)

Signals (Solutions of the difference Equations)

Analog Control Vs Digital Control

I/P + O/P

R( s )

GC ( s )

GP ( s )

GP ( s )

C ( s)

H ( s)
GC ( s)GP ( s) E ( s) C ( s) GC ( s)GP ( s) C ( s) M ( s) R( s) 1 GC ( s)GP ( s) H ( s)
Closed-loop Transfer function (T/F)

GC ( s ) GP ( s )

Controller T/F Plant T/F FB element T/F Laplace transform of the O/P Laplace transform of the I/P

H ( s) C ( s)
R( s )

Analog Control Vs Digital Control

I/P + O/P

R( z )

GC ( z )

GP ( z )

GP ( s )

C( z)

H ( z)
GC ( z )GP ( z ) E ( z ) C ( z ) GC ( z )GP ( z ) C ( z) M ( z) R( z ) 1 GC ( z )GP ( z ) H ( z )
Closed-loop Digital transfer function (T/F)

GC ( z ) GP ( z )

Controller T/F Plant T/F FB element T/F Z-transform of the I/P Z-transform of the O/P

H ( z) C( z)
R( z )

usually a programmed in a micro-controller or a single-chip DSP. DACs and ADCs are assumed part of the blocks H(z) and GC ( z ) . **There still are several similarities between digital and analog control design and analysis techniques. Particularly, when T (sampling time) is small, design and analysis techniques in the analog domain can be used in sampled-data control systems as well.
GC ( z ) is

Remarks (cont..):
**But T can be significantly large in certain practical situations, for instance -- Remote control (data communication delay) -- Delays in sensor information processing (eg: image processing when cameras are used as a sensor) In such situations, control is inherently digital and digital control theories (eg: z-transform techniques instead of Laplace-transform) may be necessary to improve control performance.

Sampled-data Systems (controller is a digital computer)

Analog control theories are applicable if the effects of finite sampling is negligible (T is small: How small is case dependent and hence can not be generalized)

Digital control theories may be necessary if the effects of finite sampling is not negligible (T is significantly large)

Note: Control theories refer to: System (plant) modeling, control theories (control laws/Control algorithms), performance and stability analysis etc..

Example 1: A temperature control system Feed-water valve Feed-water

Thermocouple Signal
(Voltage signal)

High-level Sensor (5.5ft)

(either High OR Low)

User valve
Low-level Sensor (0.5ft) Burner valve

Hot water
The Plant

I/P (reference): desired water temp Measurable O/P: temperature and water level Control I/P: Burner valve position

The control engineers task is to design a controller (either analog or digital) that Processes the temperature and water level to produce control I/P (valve position) to Maintain the water temperature at the desired level

This type of control system can be modeled and a controller can be designed using computer assisted engineering (CAE) software packages. Eg: MATRIX, SIMULINK
-- Modeling, design, and analysis tools

Example 2: Robot arm Plant: Robot manipulators I/P: Desired trajectory Desired position O/P: Joint angle position and velocity Relative position between the end-effecter and the target point Sensors: Optical encoders, tacho-generators Stereo cameras Controller: Numerous different methods are being used Eg: PID Actuators: Motors

ON-OFF Mode of FB Control

This is the simplest mode of FB control. An On-Off controller operates on the controlled variable only when it crosses the set-point (reference) The controller output has only two states, namely, fully On and fully OFF. Take a temperature control problem, for instance. Actual temperature can be kept around the set-point (reference point or the desired value) by turning off the heating element when the measured temp is anywhere above the set point. Likewise, the heater is turned on when the actual temperature tries to drop below the set-point

ON-OFF Temperature Control Action




ON-OFF Mode of FB Control

The process temperature is continually cycling. Peak-to-peak and cycling period will depend on the process characteristics and the controller has no control over them. The ideal ON-OFF controller is not practical as sensor noise and other electrical interferences may cause the output to cycle rapidly when the measured value is around the set-point (reference value). This could be detrimental to the devices such as contactors and valves. To prevent this, a hysteresis can be added to the controller as follows. This will prevent the output from chattering if the peak-to-peak noise is less than the hysteresis.

ON-OFF Temperature Control Action with Hysteresis





(a) Without hysteresis

Transfer Curves


OFF Temp (b) With hysteresis


OFF Set-point E C D Temp

Tolerance Band Control (Hysteresis Ctrl)

(sinusoidal, for instance)

2 ia* 1 sA


3 TA-

1: Hysteresis comparator 2, 3: Drive circuits (of the switches)

Tolerance Band Control

Tolerance band (hysteresis) is a parameter that can be preset in the comparator. If the actual current, i , tries to go beyond the upper limit of the tolerance band, T is turned on (T is turned off ). T is turned off if i tries to go below the lower limit. The load back-emf and the load resistance determine how fast the current changes between the upper and lower limits. Switching frequency depends on this and also varies along the current waveform.




Mathematical Models of Systems

Transfer function, stability, roots of Characteristics Equation, Rouths Criterion State variable methods
State space design and analysis (MIMO Systems)

Airplane Attitude Control

Transfer Function Block Diagram

Consider the 3rd order aircraft attitude control system (unity FB) with OLTF

1.5 10 K G( s) 2 s( s 3408.3 s 1,204,000)


For this system, it can be proved that when K=181.17, the max. overshoot is 78.88% Now change the control law as follows

K K ( K P K D s) where K 181 .17 , K P 1

With the new controller, Cha.Eq. of the closedloop systems is

s 3 3408 .3 s 2 (1,204 ,000 2.718 10 9 K D ) s 2.718 10 9 0

To apply Root Locus Method, rewrite the above equation as (to draw root loci, open-loop TF should take form G(s)H(s) = K N(s)/D(s))

2.718109 K D s 1 Geq ( s) 1 3 0 2 9 s 3408.3 s 1,204,000s 2.71810


2.718109 K D s Geq ( s) ( s 3293.3)( s 57.49 j906.6)( s 57.49 j906.6)

The Root-Loci

When KD increases, one root moves from t-3293.3 towards the origin while the two complex roots move left and approach the asymptotes. Too large values of KD results in two complex roots having reduced damping and increased natural frequency of the system. To that end, it appears that the ideal location for the two complex roots is near the bend of the root locus

Time domain parameters

0 0.05 0.127 0.157 0.200 0.5 1.0 5.0 78.88 41.31 17.31 14.05 11.37 17.97 31.14 61.80 0.125 0.120 0.100 0.091 0.080 0.042 0.026 0.010 4.95 1.06 0.40 0.34 0.26 0.13 0.09 0.144 -3293.3, -57.49+_ j906.6 -2843.07, -282.62+_j936.02 -152.11, -942.60+_j946.58 -805.33, -1301.5 +_j1296.6 -531.89, -1438.2+_j1744.0 -191.71, -1608.29+_3404.52 -96.85, 1655.72+_j5032 -19.83, -1694.3+_j11583

Unit step response for different values of KD

y (t )

Time (sec)

Minimum of maximum overshoot occurs at

K D 0.002 .

Rise time is improved with the increase of K D . Too high a value of KD increases the maximum overshoot and the settling time. This is due to lowering of damping as KD is increased indefinitely. A derivative control action can improve the transient response of the system!!

Conclusions continued
Derivative control action.. Increases BW Amplifies any noise in the error signal and may require filtering in the implementation (For instance, When sensor measurements are corrupted by noise) Improves GM and PM
See the Bode diagram

Phase (Deg.)

|G(jw)| (dB)