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PRESENTATION ON LATHE MACHINE

PRINCIPLE OF LATHE
Lathe is a machine, which is used to remove

metal from the workpiece to required shape and size.

COMPONENTS OF LATHE

TYPES OF LATHES
Speed Lathe :

It is the simplest type lathe. It is mainly used for metal


spinning, polishing etc. Bench Lathe : It is small sized engine lathe mounted on bench. It is used for turning small and light weight workpiece.

Tool Room Lathe :


It is used for production of small tools, gauges, fixtures and accurate parts in tool room.

Turret Lathe : These lathes are used in mass production and for

heavy duty workpieces.


Capsten Lathe : These lathes are used in mass production used for light duty workpieces. Special Purpose Lathe :

These lathes are modification of engine lathes


developed for machining special types of workpices.

Automatic Lathe Engine Lathe Tracer Lathe Computer Controlled lathe Swiss Type Automatic Lathe Duplicating Lathe

COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED LATHE


Computer Numerical Controls (CNC)

Equipped with one or more turrets


Each turret is equipped with a variety of tools Performs several operations on different surfaces of the workpiece

TURRET LATHE
Capable of performing multiple cutting operations on the same workpiece Turning Boring Drilling Thread cutting Facing Turret lathes are very versatile Types of turret lathes Ram-type: ram slides in a separate base on the saddle Saddle type: more heavily constructed Used to machine large workpeiceces

ENGINE LATHE

BENCH LATHE

AUTOMATIC LATHE

PARTS OF LATHE
Bed : Supports all major components
Carriage: Slides along the ways and consists of the cross-slide, tool post, apron

Headstock : Holds the jaws for the work piece, supplies power to
the jaws and has various drive speeds Tailstock : Supports the other end of the workpiece

Feed Rod and Lead Screw : Feed rod is powered by a set of


gears from the headstock

LATHE BED
Heavy, rugged casting Made to support working parts of lathe On top section are machined ways Guide and align major parts of lathe

HEADSTOCK
Clamped on left-hand end

of bed
Headstock spindle Hollow cylindrical shaft

supported by bearings
Provides drive through

gears to work-holding
devices

CARRIAGE
Used to move cutting

tool along lathe bed


Consists of three

main parts
Saddle Cross-slide Apron

APRON

TAILSTOCK

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ACCESSORIES
Chucks : Three jaw chuck Four jaw chuck Collet chuck Centres: Live centre Mandrels : Plain mandrel Stepped mandrel Collared mandrel Screwed mandrel

Dead centre
Tipped centre Ball centre

ACCESSORIES
Chucks :

Three Jaw Chuck (Self Centering Chuck) : This chuck is used to hold circular

workpiece and is available in sizes from

100mm to 600 mm.


Four Jaw Chuck (Independent Chuck) :

It is used to hold rectangular, sqare and irregular shaped workpieces .

Collet Chuck : Pull poerating rod

Push poerating rod

It is ideal for holding tube and thin walled workpieces.

Centres:
Live Centre Dead Centre Ball Centre

Pipe Centre
Half Centre Tipped Centre

Mandrels :
Plain Mandrel Collared Mandrel Screwed Mnadrel

Stepped Mandrel

LATHE OPERATIONS

LATHE OPERATIONS
Turing Facing Boring Grooving Forming Reaming

Drilling
Taper Camfering

Undercutting
Thread cutting Knurling

BORING

Boring produces circular internal profiles in hollow workpieces Boring mills are used for large workpieces Holes can be bored up to 20M if needed See fig. 22.20 Machines are available with a variety of features Horizontal boring machines Jig borers

TURNING
Forces in turning
Cutting force: acts downward on the tool tip Thrust force: acts in the longitudinal direction Radial force: acts in the radial direction

Roughing and Finishing Cuts


Rough cut: high speed cut with little regard for dimensional

tolerance Finishing cut: lower feed rate and depth of cut Tool Materials, Feeds, and Cutting Speeds Cutting Fluids

CONCEPT OF SPEED, FEED AND DEPTH OF CUT


Cutting speed=dn mm/min 1000 Feed : It is expressed in mm/rev Depth of cut : t=D-d mm 2

SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL GEOMETRY


Clearance
Rake End cutting edge angle Side cutting edge angle