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What creates conflict? How can peace be achieved?

Chapter 13: Conflict and Peacemaking


SAMSON, SANTIAGO, SILVESTRE, SUCALDITO TENEFRANCIA & YU 2PSY4

Chapter 13 Overview
Guide questions we can analyze interactively
Social Dilemmas Competition Perceived Justice Misperception

What social situations feed conflict? What are the processes that enable the achievement of peace?

Contact Cooperation Communication Conciliation

Conflict

A perceived incompatibility of actions and goals.


What causes conflict?
Social Dilemmas Competition Perceived Justice Misperception

Conflict:

Social Dilemmas
Social traps: when two groups or persons in opposition are found in a scenario where each has the potential to be destructive in behavior due to pursuing self-interests.
Two laboratory games that are each an example of a social trap:

The Prisoners Dilemma The Tragedy of Commons

The Prisoners Dilemma


Two suspects are being questioned by the district attorney who creates an incentive for each to confess privately.

Most people would choose to confess to be granted immunity. Self-interest would be seen in the confession. You can think of it as a win-win situation. If the other does not confess, you go free. However, if he/she does, then he/she does not get the immunity

The Tragedy of Commons

The Tragedy of Commons


This phenomenon occurs when people take in more than their fair share of the commons that lead to its collapse or tragedy due to lack of regulation or fear that others might diminish the commons Everybodys business becomes nobodys business.

Similarities between the two social traps


The Fundamental Attribution of Error Both tempts you to think and explain why you acted that way and also explain the behavior of your partner Evolving Motives Motives often change Outcomes Need Not Sum to Zero Non-zero-sum Games

Resolving Social Dilemmas


Regulation
we come up with rules to protect the common good

Small is Beautiful
Make groups small

Communication
Experiment of Robyn Dawes

Changing the Payoffs


More incentive to the preferred behavior

Appealing to Altruistic Norms


Knowing what is good doesnt always lead to doing it

Conflict:

Competition
Social traps: when two groups or persons in opposition are found in a scenario where each has the potential to be destructive in behavior due to pursuing self-interests.
Two laboratory games that are each an example of a social trap:

The Prisoners Dilemma The Tragedy of Commons

Conflict:

Perceived Justice
People perceive justice as:

Equity

Equality

Equity
People perceived justice as equity the distribution of rewards in proportion to individual contributions (Walster & others, 1978).

If one contributes more and benefits less than the other, he will feel exploited and irritated while the other one will feel exploitative and guilty (Greenberg, 1986; Messick & Sentis, 1979).

Western Capitalist nations Individualistic cultures

Equality
Some non-capitalist cultures define culture not as equity but as a equality or even fulfillment of need. From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs (Karl Marx).
Collectivist cultures

Conflict:

Misperception
Aside from truly incompatible goals, misperceptions of others motives and goals came to be another source of conflict. Seeds of such misperceptions:
Self-serving bias Self-justify Fundamental attribution error Group polarization Groupthink Ingroup bias Negative stereotypes

Three types of misperceptions:

Mirror-Image Perceptions Simplistic Thinking Shifting Perceptions

Reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.

Mirror-Image Perceptions

If A expects B to be hostile, A may treat B in such a way that B fulfills As expectations, thus beginning a vicious circle (Kennedy & Pronin, 2008). Opposing sides tend to have a bias blind spot in which they see their own understandings as not biased by their liking or disliking for others; but those who disagree with them seem unfair and biased (Frantz, 2006).

Simplistic Thinking

When tension rises, rational thinking becomes more difficult (Janis, 1989). View become more simplistic and stereotyped and seat-ofthe-pants judgments become more likely (Carnevale & Probst, 1998) Inflexible thinking

Images of our enemies change with amazing ease.

Shifting Perceptions

When in conflict, do not assume that the other fails to share your values and morality. Rather, compare perceptions, assuming that the other is likely perceiving the situation differently (Myers, 2013).

Peace
A condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships.

How can peace be achieved?


Contact Cooperation Communication Conciliation

Peace:

Contact
When tensions run high, contact may fuel a fight.
Two laboratory games that are each an example of a social trap:

The Prisoners Dilemma The Tragedy of Commons