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Alignment of Strategic Plan with

Organization’s Strategic P
Mission, Vision, Goals, Strategie
Critical to
Unit’s Strategic involve all
levels of
Plan management
Mission, Vision, Goals,
Strategies Job Descriptio
Critical to involve all Tasks, KSAs

Individual and Team Performance

Results, Behaviors, Developmental Plan
An Introduction to Appraising Performance
 Why appraise performance?
 Appraisals play an integral role in the
employer’s performance management process.
 Appraisals help in planning for correcting
deficiencies and reinforce things done correctly.
 Appraisals, in identifying employee strengths
and weaknesses, are useful for career planning
 Appraisals affect the employer’s salary raise
Comparing Performance Appraisal and
Performance Management

 Performance appraisal
 Evaluatingan employee’s current and/or past
performance relative to his or her
performance standards.
 Performance management
 The process employers use to make sure
employees are working toward organizational
Performance Appraisal Roles

 Supervisors
 Usually do the actual appraising.
 Must be familiar with basic appraisal
 Must understand and avoid problems that can
cripple appraisals.
 Must know how to conduct appraisals fairly.
Performance Appraisal Roles (cont’d)
 HR department
 Serves a policy-making and advisory role.
 Provides advice and assistance regarding the
appraisal tool to use.
 Prepares forms and procedures and insists that
all departments use them.
 Responsible for training supervisors to improve
their appraisal skills.
 Responsible for monitoring the system to
ensure that appraisal formats and criteria
comply with laws and are up to date.
Methods Of Performance Appraisal

Objective Method
• Production: quantity
• Personnel data: absenteeism (excused or
unexcused), tardiness, accidents

Subjective (judgmental) Method

• Graphic rating scales = rating scale (e.g., 5
• Comparison Method
Graphic rating scales
 Presentsappraisers with a list of traits assumed to be
necessary to successful job performance.
 Examples—cooperativeness, adaptability, maturity,
A five- or seven-point rating scale accompanies each
 Points on the scale are defined by numbers and/or
descriptive words or phrases that indicate level of
Employee comparison systems

 Employee performance is evaluated relative to other

employees’ performances.
 Rankings are used rather than ratings.
 Ranking formats:
 Simple rankings
 Require raters to rank-order their employees from best to
worst, according to their job performance
 Paired comparison
 A rater compares each possible pair of employees.
 Employee comparison systems

 Strengths  Weaknesses
 Low cost  Accuracy
 Practical  Fairness
 Take very little time and  Does not specify what a
effort worker must do to receive
 Eliminates some rating a good rating
errors  Cannot compare the
 Employment decisions performance of people
become much easier to from different
make departments
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)

 Similar to graphic rating scale

 Requires appraisers to rate employees on their behaviors.

 Typical BARS include “dimensions”

 Each anchored by a three, five, seven- or nine-point scale

 BARS anchors each with examples of specific job behaviors

that reflect varying levels of performance.

- Behavioral checklists
• Critical incidents = behaviors that are critical for
success on the job
• Weighted checklist = critical incidents that are
rated so that worker's behavior can be scored
Graphic rating scales:
BARS improvement
 Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales
 Use critical incidents as anchors
 Involves multiple groups of employees in
 Identify important job elements
 Describe critical incidents at various levels of

 Check for inter-rater reliability
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
= Has behavior anchors
1. List critical incidents
2.Critical incidents retranslated to
3.Cluster Dimensions
4. Critical incidents rated on 5,7, 9 (?) point scale
5. Critical incidents worded as expectations
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales

 Identifying the roles or the categories

 Constitute peer groups of appraisers of these roles.
 Group identify and list qualities or characteristics that are
important for roles.
 Selecting the dimensions, critical incidents could be used.
 Group formulates examples of behavior description for
each dimensions in form of expectations.
 Presenting the final selected behaviors in vertical scale
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)

 Strengths  Weaknesses
 Ability to direct and monitor  Not found to be
behavior substantially superior than
 Lets employees know other rating scales
what types of behaviors are  Selecting one behavior that
expected is most indicative of the
employee’s performance
 Time consuming to develop
 Requires a lot of effort to
 Management-by-objectives (MBO)
 A management system designed to achieve
organizational effectiveness by steering each
employee’s behavior toward organization’s mission.

 MBO process includes:

 Goal setting

 Planning

 Evaluation
 Goal setting: Starts at the top of the organization with
the establishment of the organization’s mission
statement and strategic goals
 It then cascades down through the organizational hierarchy
to the level of the individual employee.
 Planning: Employees and supervisors work together
to identify potential obstacles to reaching goals and
devise strategies to overcome these obstacles.
 Evaluation: In the final phase, the employee’s
success at meeting goals is evaluated against the
agreed-on performance standards.
Assignment/ Exercise
Students are required to conduct team projects. A
description of these ‘job” duties is a following

Work with team members to deliver project

outcomes on time and according to
specifications. Complete all individual
assignments to the highest quality, completing
necessary background research, preparing final
documents. Foster a good working environment
Do the following?
 1. Generate list of competencies for the position
 2. Identify list of critical behaviour indicators for
each competency.
 Generate critical incidents anchors ( high,
average , poor performance) for each behaviour
 Create graphical rating scale using BARS to
measure each competency.
360 Degree
Methods of Performance Appraisal
Past oriented Future Oriented
 Essay  BARS
 Graphical Rating  360 degree
Scale  Balanced Scorecard
 Forced choice Rating  Assessments Centers
 Checklist method  MBO
 Ranking method
 Work standards
Common Rating Errors
 Halo effect
 Horn effect
 Central tendency
 Strict rating
 Lenient rating
 Spillover effect
 Stereotyping
 Latest behavior
 Same as me/ Projection
 Time and Resource Constraint
 Wide variations in standards and Ratings
 personal Values and Bias
 Lack of communication
 Negative feedback