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Planning What is required on a project?

Introduction
Main Management functions

Planning Organising

Staffing

Leading

Controlling

Fundamentals
What is Planning ?
a plan is a detailed scheme, method etc., for attaining an objective

Objectives of planning - general


To make sure that: o all the work gets done o in the correct order o at the right time o as economically as possible o with due regard to quality, safety and the environment

Note: Planning requires communication

Fundamentals 2 - The who, what, when & how of planning


Who should plan?

Everybody involved in a project should plan

Client (owner)

Consultant engineer (designer)

Contractor

Fundamentals 3
What should be planned?
Everybody involved in a project should plan whatever work they are responsible for or actually carry out themselves

When should they plan?


They should plan continuously

Who should plan what Some ideas.


Client / Owner
The overall project (construction is usually only part of a project) Need a plan to ensure everything fits together physical, financial Needs to set targets both for themselves and for the others involved

Who should plan what Some ideas.


The designer(s)
When they will require the various bits of information When the designs will be available Their own work who will do the design and when will they do it (Resource planning) How they integrate with other designers

Who should plan what Some ideas.


The contractor
Who should do what When they should do it How they should do it When, where and how many resources are required (labour, plant, materials,) A safe way of working How to produce work to the right quality

Steps in planning
Understand the project
Decide on an outline method of doing the work Break the project into activities (smaller bits)

Plan the activities (smaller bits) Put the activities (smaller bits) together
Check the plan Work

1. Understand the project


Before planning we must know
What is to be built What the constraints are
Time Cost Quality etc.

2. Decide on outline method of work


The plan will be made for the method of work We must decide on the major methods The method will be chosen from consideration of alternatives, experience, etc. and should take account of the constraints recognised earlier

3. Break the project into smaller bits


These bits are usually called activities but can also be called operations, tasks, jobs, work items

If the activities are not chosen well the plan stands very little chance of being good.

3. Break the project into smaller bits 2 size of activities


The size of an activity can be measured in many ways. e.g.
Duration Cost

In general, the smaller the activity, the greater the level of detail and the more activities there are.

3. Break the project into smaller bits 2a size of activities


Too many activities is as bad as too few activities The higher the level of management, the less the detail required in the plan The higher the level of management, the fewer the number of activities expected for any given piece of work

3. Break the project into smaller bits 2b size of activities


No matter how the size of an activity is measured, it is good practice to have them all similar sizes in any plan The activities will be larger and more complex, the earlier in the life cycle of a project they are made

3. Break the project into smaller bits 3 choosing activities


When choosing activities, try to keep
similar types of work together different types of work apart work in the same geographical area together work in different geographical areas apart work on the same structure together work on different structures apart

3. Break the project into smaller bits 3a choosing activities


When choosing activities, try to keep
work on the same structural element together work on different structural elements apart work requiring the same resources together work requiring different resources apart work managed by the same manager together work managed by different managers apart

3. Break the project into smaller bits 3a choosing activities


Remember:
The bigger the activity, the more complex it is likely to be The bigger the activity, the greater the uncertainty associated with it The smaller the activities, the greater the chance of missing something Give activities descriptive names

4. Planning the activities


The results of this stage will be, for each activity:
The duration/ cost The resources required A method of work

4. Planning the activities 2


When the activity is simple, it will be possible to obtain the duration, resource requirement, etc. quite simply from the amount of work in the activity and the productivities of the resources

4. Planning the activities 3 Durations


Duration=Work Content / (Productivity of 1 resource * Number of resources) We need to know the productivity of 1 resource at the work in question (records, published figures) We need to know the work content (drawings, bill of quantities, etc) We can calculate either the duration or the number of resources required

5. Putting the activities together


This stage actually produces the plan It is here that, to some extent, we ensure that the activities are done
In the correct order At the right time As economically as possible With due regard to quality, safety and the environment

5. Putting the activities together 2


To ensure all these, it is necessary to consider resources Activities were planned to make the best use of resources on each activity but this may not be the best use on a project or company basis

5. Putting the activities together 3


The form of the plan will depend on the project being done and the use to which it will be put. The common forms of plans include:
Lists Bar charts (Gantt charts) Networks

5. Putting activities together 4 bar charts


Usually Gantt charts (activities / time) Could be others (e.g. resources / time very good for short-term planning) Too many activities cause confusion Only show sequence by implication (but can add connections) Can show things other than bars Good for communication Very widely used

5. Putting activities together 5 - networks


Commonly used Commonly misused Should show necessary logic Can be confusing

6. Check the plan


A plan should be checked for:
Completeness The sequence of the work The timing of the work The financial implications The use of resources The quality, safety and environmental implications Progress check

Iteration is to be encouraged whilst maintaining

the general procedure.