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# ECE590: Power Supply Circuits

## Bridge (full-wave) rectifier

Calculate the Ripple Factor

TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER

FILTER

SOLUTION
1. Vrms = Vp / (2)
Vrms : effective value of a sinusoidal signal Vp : peak value (amplitude) is the maximum value of a sinusoidal signal The secondary voltage: N2/N1 = V2/V1 N2/N1 is the secondary to primary number of coils.

2. For a transformer, 3. Peak bridge (full-wave) rectified voltage: Vp(rect) = Vp(sec) 2(0.7V)

## Located at the input of the filter (after rectification)

4. Ripple factor: approximate peak-to-peak RIPPLE VOLTAGE at the output/approximate DC VOLTAGE at the output
Ripple voltage: Vr(pp) = ILt/C = (Vp(rect)/RL)/fC VDC = Vp(rect) Vr(pp)/2 Ripple Factor = Vr(pp)/VDC

## Bridge (full-wave) rectifier

TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER

FILTER

Vp(sec) = 16.3V

Vp(rect) = 14.9V

Vr(pp) = 1.13V VDC = 14.3V Ripple Factor = 0.079 The % ripple = 7.9%

After rectifying & filtering will produce a DC voltage, but with some variation (ripple). Represented by the Ripple Factor.
Vi Vr(p-p)
Vm VDC

## June 2012 (Q1b)

REGULATORS

POWER SUPPLIES

VOLTAGE REGULATOR
A voltage regulator is used to maintain a constant output voltage. A voltage regulator also can use dc input to provide a dc voltage that not only has much less ripple voltage but remain the same dc value even the dc input voltage varies or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes.

## ZENER REGULATOR (ZENER DIODE)

The characteristic drops in almost vertical manner at reverse bias potential denoted as Vz. The current in zener diode has a direction opposite to what of forward bias diode. Zener is designed to work in reverse bias direction without harming the diode. Two things happen when reverse breakdown voltage is reached
Diode current increase drastically Reverse voltage across diode, VR remain constant.

A diode operated in this region will have relatively constant voltage across it, regardless the value of current through the device. A zener diode is used to operate in reverse region and maintain constant voltage regardless the variation current. This make zener diode a goood voltage regulator in the circuit.

## ZENER REGULATOR (ZENER DIODE)

Diode breakdown There are two types of diode brakdown 1. Zener breakdown 2. Avalance brakdown (1) Zener breakdown Occur at a much lower value of reverse voltage, VR than those the avalanhce breakdown. The heavily doping of the zener diode causes the device to have much narrow depletion layer. As a result it takes very little VR to cause the diode to go into breakdown. Typically 5V or less. Zener breakdown is a result of ionization of covalent bonds due to high intensity electric field that inherently exist increasing the potential across it. It will eventually yank valence electron out of their covalent bond, producing free electron or conduction electron. This additional carrier drift across the junction under the influence of reverse voltage causing reverse current to increase rapidly and bring about zener reverse breakdown.

## ZENER REGULATOR (ZENER DIODE)

(2) Avalanche Breakdown Avalanche breakdown is a result of the ionization of covalent bond by minority carriers accelerated across the reverse biased junction. This results in multiplication of carriers crossing the junction causing reverse current to increase rapidly with reverse voltage (VR). Reverse breakdown in a diode occurs at a voltage > 5V. Zener Equivalent circuit

rz

VZ

VZ

Zener diode

## Complete equivalent circuit

Approximate equivalent

## ZENER REGULATOR (ZENER DIODE)

R IR

The figure shows the simplest voltage regulator using zener diode. Three condition of input voltage, Vi and load resistance, RL are:

IZ Vi VZ PZM

IL + RL VL -

## 1. Vi and RL fixed 2. Vi fixed and RL variable 3. Vi variable and RL fixed

Voltage regulator using zener diode

## (1) Vi and RL fixed

R

R
IR

IR

IZ VZ Vi PZM

IL + RL VL -

IL + Vi VZ RL + VL -

a b The simplest of Zener diode networks appears in figure (a). The applied dc voltage is fixed, as is the load resistor. The analysis of the circuit can be solve by the following steps: 1. Determine the state of the zener diode by removing it from network as shown in figure (b) and calculating the voltage across the resulting open circuit. 2. Using voltage divider rule:

RLVi V VL RL R

## (1) Vi and RL fixed

3. 4. If VL VZ : Zener diode is ON If VL< VZ : Zener diode is OFF Substitute the appropriate equivalent circuit as shown in figure below and solve for the desired unknowns.
R

IR

IZ VZ Vi PZM

IL + RL VL -

Since the zener diode is parallel with load resistor, the voltage across parallel element must be the same, therefore VL = VZ

IZ = I R - IL

VL IL RL

VR Vi VL IR R R

## (1) Vi and RL fixed Example

Q : Determine VL, VR, IZ and PZ for the following zener diode network. Is the Zener Diode ON or OFF?
R IR

## 1k VZ = 10V PZM = 30mW Vi 16V

IZ

IL + 1.2k RL VL -

Solution: 1. Determine the state of the zener diode by removing it from network as shown in figure (next page) and calculating the voltage across the resulting open circuit. 2. Using voltage divider rule find VL

## (1) Vi and RL fixed Example

R IR 1k + V Vi 16V 1.2k RL + VL IZ IL

Voltage divider:

RLVi V VL RL R

1.2k (16V) 1k 1.2k Since V is less than VZ (8.73V < 10 V) diode is OFF. 8.73V
4. Substituting the open circuit equivalent circuit will result in the same network as above.
Where we find V = VL = 8.73V VR = Vi VL = 16 -8.73 =7.27V IZ = 0A PZ = IZVZ =VZ(0A)=0W

## (2) Vi fixed and RL varied

Due to the offset voltage VZ, there is a specific range of resistor values (and therefore load current) which will ensure that the zener is in the on state. Too small a load resistance RL will result in a voltage VL across the load resistor less than VZ and the zener device will be in the off state. To determine the minimum load resistance that will turn the Zener diode ON calculate the value of RL that will result in a load voltage VL = VZ. That is,

RLVi Vz VL RL R
Solving for RL, we have

RVZ RL min Vi VZ

## (2) Vi fixed and RL varied

Any load resistance value greater than RLmin, will ensure the diode to be in on state and the diode can be replaced by its VZ source equivalent. We need maximum IL in order to have a minimum load resistance. Therefore

VL VZ IL max RL RL min
Once the diode is in the on state, the voltage across R and current IR remains fixed at

VR Vi VZ VR IR R

## Since IR is constant, IZ will be minimum if IL maximum and IZ will be maximum if IL minimum.

Since IZ is limited to IZM, it does affect the range of RL and therefore IL. Substituting IZM for IZ established the minimum IL and the maximum loadI resistance as L m ax I R IZM

IL m in IR IZM VZ RL m a x

VZ RL m ax IL m in

## (2) Vi fixed and RL varied Example

R IR IZ IL

a) For the network shown, determine the range of RL and IL that will result in VR, being maintained at 10V. b) Determine the maximum wattage rating of the diode.
Solution:

1k

Vi=50V

VZ=10V IZM=32mA RL

a) To determine the value of RL that will turn the Zener diode on use the formula

## RVZ 1k (10V) 10k RL min 250 Vi VZ 50V 10V 40

The voltage across the resistor R is then determined by using KVL in the input loop.

## (2) Vi fixed and RL varied Example

The value of IR is:

IR

VR 40V 40mA R 1k

## IL min IR IZM 40mA 32mA 8mA

The maximum RL is then determine by

RL max
VL 10V

## VZ 10V 1.25k IL min 8mA

VL 10V

A plot of VL versus RL appear in figure (a) and for VL versus IL in figure (b)

0 250

(a)

1.25k

RL

0 8mA

(b)

40mA

IL

b)

## (2) Vi fixed and RL varied

Q: To determine the range of values of RL and IL that will ensure VL = VZ; i.e. Zener Diode in ON mode.
R + IR IZ IL 1k

Vi=50V

VZ=10V IZM=32mA RL

## (2) Vi fixed and RL varied

Why is there a range of values? This is because of : VL = RL x IL (Ohms Law) Thus, the range of values would be: i. RLmin x ILmax ii. RLmax x ILmin Therefore, the objective is to find the range: the maximum and minimum values of each RL and IL that will ensure VL = VZ.

## (2) Vi fixed and RL varied

i. RLmin x ILmax RLmin is obtained via Voltage Divider rule RLmin = (RxVz)/(Vi-Vz) = (1kx10v)/(50v-10v) = 250 ILmax = VL/RLmin = Vz/RLmin = (10v)/(250) = 40mA Since: IR = (ViVz)/R = (50v10v)/1k = 40mA The value of ILmax indicates that all of the current from IR will flow through RL, thus leaving IZ = 0A. Therefore, ILmax is said to be the maximum current value that could flow through resistor RL.

## (2) Vi fixed and RL varied

ii. RLmax x ILmin Since IZM is the maximum value of IZ that could pass through the Zener Diode, then: ILmin = IRIZM = 40mA32mA = 8mA RLmax = VL/ILmin = 10v/8mA = 1.25k

## (3) Vi varied and RL fixed

For fixed value of RL, the voltage Vi must be sufficiently large to turn the Zener diode on. The minimum turn on voltage Vi = Vimin is determined by

RLVi VL VZ RL R

where

Vi min

(RL R )VZ RL

The maximum value of Vi is limited by the maximum Zener current IZM. Since IZM = IR-IL

IR max IZM IL
Since IL is fixed at VZ/RL and IZM is the maximum value of IZ, the maximum Vi is defined by

## (3) Vi varied and RL fixed Example

Q: Determine the range of values of Vi that will maintain the Zener diode in the figure in the on state. R
IR + 220 IZ IL + Vi VZ=20V IZM=60mA RL 1.2k VL

Solution:

( RL R )VZ (1.2k 220)(20V) 23.67V RL 1.2k VL VZ 20V IL 16.67mA RL RL 1.2k IR m ax IZM IL 60mA 16.67mA 76.67mA Vi m ax IR m ax R VZ (76.67mA)(220) 20V 16.87V 20V 36.87V Vi m in

JAN 2013