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# Chapter 4

Chemical
Quantities and
Aqueous
Reactions
2008, Prentice Hall
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1
st
Ed.
Nivaldo Tro
Roy Kennedy
Massachusetts Bay Community College
Wellesley Hills, MA

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2
Reaction Stoichiometry
the numerical relationships between chemical amounts
in a reaction is called stoichiometry
the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation
specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the
substances involved in the reaction
2 C
8
H
18
(l) + 25 O
2
(g) 16 CO
2
(g) + 18 H
2
O(g)
2 molecules of C
8
H
18
react with 25 molecules of O
2

to form 16 molecules of CO
2
and 18 molecules of H
2
O
2 moles of C
8
H
18
react with 25 moles of O
2
to form 16 moles of CO
2
and 18 moles of H
2
O
2 mol C
8
H
18
: 25 mol O
2
: 16 mol CO
2
: 18 mol H
2
O
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3
Predicting Amounts from Stoichiometry
the amounts of any other substance in a chemical
reaction can be determined from the amount of
just one substance
How much CO
2
can be made from 22.0 moles of
C
8
H
18
in the combustion of C
8
H
18
?
2 C
8
H
18
(l) + 25 O
2
(g) 16 CO
2
(g) + 18 H
2
O(g)
2 moles C
8
H
18
: 16 moles CO
2

2
18 8
2
18 8
CO moles 176
H C mol 2
CO mol 16
H C moles 22.0 =
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 4
Example Estimate the mass of CO
2
produced in
2004 by the combustion of 3.4 x 10
15
g gasoline
assuming that gasoline is octane, C
8
H
18
, the equation
for the reaction is:
2 C
8
H
18
(l) + 25 O
2
(g) 16 CO
2
(g) + 18 H
2
O(g)
the equation for the reaction gives the mole relationship
between amount of C
8
H
18
and CO
2
, but we need to
know the mass relationship, so the Concept Plan will
be:
g C
8
H
18
mol CO
2
g CO
2
mol C
8
H
18

Example Estimate the mass of CO
2
produced in
2004 by the combustion of 3.4 x 10
15
g gasoline
since 8x moles of CO
2
as C
8
H
18
, but the molar mass of C
8
H
18
is
3x CO
2
, the number makes sense

1 mol C
8
H
18
= 114.22g, 1 mol CO
2
= 44.01g, 2 mol C
8
H
18
= 16 mol CO
2

3.4 x 10
15
g C
8
H
18

g CO
2

Check:
Solution:
Concept Plan:

Relationships:
Given:
Find:
g 114.22
mol 1
2
16
2
2
18 8
2
18 8
18 8
18 8
15
CO g 10 1.0
CO mol 1
CO g 44.01
H C mol 2
CO mol 16
H C g 114.22
H C mol 1
H C g 10 .4 3
=

18 8
2
H C mol 2
CO mol 6 1
g C
8
H
18
mol CO
2
g CO
2
mol C
8
H
18

mol 1
g 44.01
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6
Practice
According to the following equation, how
many milliliters of water are made in the
combustion of 9.0 g of glucose?
C
6
H
12
O
6
(s) + 6 O
2
(g) 6 CO
2
(g) + 6 H
2
O(l)
1. convert 9.0 g of glucose into moles (MM 180)
2. convert moles of glucose into moles of water
3. convert moles of water into grams (MM 18.02)
4. convert grams of water into mL
a) How? what is the relationship between mass and
volume?
density of water = 1.00 g/mL
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 7
Practice
O H mL 5.4

O H g 1.00
O H mL 1
x
O H mole 1
O H g 18.0
x
O H C mole 1
O H mole 6
x
g 10 x 80 . 1
O H C mole 1
x O H C g 0 . 9
2
2
2
2
2
6 12 6
2
2
6 12 6
6 12 6
=
According to the following equation, how many
milliliters of water are made in the combustion of
9.0 g of glucose?
C
6
H
12
O
6
(s) + 6 O
2
(g) 6 CO
2
(g) + 6 H
2
O(l)

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 8
Limiting Reactant
for reactions with multiple reactants, it is likely that
one of the reactants will be completely used before the
others
when this reactant is used up, the reaction stops and no
more product is made
the reactant that limits the amount of product is called
the limiting reactant
sometimes called the limiting reagent
the limiting reactant gets completely consumed
reactants not completely consumed are called excess
reactants
the amount of product that can be made from the
limiting reactant is called the theoretical yield

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 9
Things Dont Always Go as Planned!
many things can happen during the course of an
experiment that cause the loss of product
the amount of product that is made in a reaction
is called the actual yield
generally less than the theoretical yield, never more!
the efficiency of product recovery is generally
given as the percent yield
% 100
yield l theoretica
yield actual
Yield Percent =
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10
Limiting and Excess Reactants in the
Combustion of Methane
CH
4
(g) + 2 O
2
(g) CO
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O(g)
Our balanced equation for the combustion of methane
implies that every 1 molecule of CH
4
reacts with 2
molecules of O
2

H
H
C
H
H
+
O
O
C +
O O
O O
+
O
H H
O
H H
+
11
Limiting and Excess Reactants in the
Combustion of Methane
If we have 5 molecules of CH
4
and 8 molecules
of O
2
, which is the limiting reactant?
H
H
C
H
H
+
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
?
H
H
C
H
H
H
H
C
H
H
H
H
C
H
H H
H
C
H
H
CH
4
(g) + 2 O
2
(g) CO
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O(g)
12
Limiting and Excess Reactants in the
Combustion of Methane
H
H
C
H
H
H
H
C
H
H
+
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
O O
H
H
C
H
H
H
H
C
H
H
H
H
C
H
H
2
4
2
4
CO molecules 16
CH molecules 1
CO molecules 2
CH molecules 8 =
CH
4
(g) + 2 O
2
(g) CO
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O(g)
2
2
2
2
CO molecules 10
O molecules 2
CO molecules 2
O molecules 10 =
since less CO
2

can be made
from the O
2
than
the CH
4
, the O
2

is the limiting
reactant
Example 4.4
Finding Limiting Reactant,
Theoretical Yield, and
Percent Yield
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 14
Example:
When 28.6 kg of C are allowed to react with 88.2 kg of
TiO
2
in the reaction below, 42.8 kg of Ti are obtained.
Find the Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and
Percent Yield.

(g) (s) (s) (s) CO 2 Ti C 2 TiO
2
+ +
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 15
Example:
When 28.6 kg of C reacts with 88.2
kg of TiO
2
, 42.8 kg of Ti are
obtained. Find the Limiting
Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and
Percent Yield.
TiO
2
(s) + 2 C(s) Ti(s) + 2 CO(g)
Write down the given quantity and its units.
Given: 28.6 kg C
88.2 kg TiO
2

42.8 kg Ti produced

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 16
Write down the quantity to find and/or its units.
Find: limiting reactant
theoretical yield
percent yield

Example:
Find the Limiting
Reactant, Theoretical
Yield, and Percent Yield.
TiO
2
(s) + 2 C(s)
Ti(s) + 2 CO(g)
Information
Given: 28.6 kg C, 88.2 kg TiO
2
, 42.8 kg Ti
17
Write a Concept Plan:

Information
Given: 28.6 kg C, 88.2 kg TiO
2
, 42.8 kg Ti
Find: Lim. Rct., Theor. Yld., % Yld.

Example:
Find the Limiting
Reactant, Theoretical
Yield, and Percent Yield.
TiO
2
(s) + 2 C(s)
Ti(s) + 2 CO(g)
kg
TiO
2

kg
C
2
2
TiO g 9.87 7
TiO mol 1
C g .01 12
C mol 1
mol
C
mol
TiO
2

mol
Ti

mol
Ti

2
TiO mol 1
Ti mol 1
C mol 2
Ti mol 1
}
smallest
amount is
from
limiting
reactant
g
TiO
2

g
C
kg 1
g 1000
kg 1
g 1000
smallest
mol Ti
g Ti
Ti mol 1
g 87 . 47
% Yield
yield theor.
yield act.
yield % =
kg Ti
T.Y.
g 000 1
kg 1
18
Collect Needed Relationships:
1000 g = 1 kg
Molar Mass TiO
2
= 79.87 g/mol
Molar Mass Ti = 47.87 g/mol
Molar Mass C = 12.01 g/mol
1 mole TiO
2
: 1 mol Ti (from the chem. equation)
2 mole C 1 mol Ti (from the chem. equation)

Information
Given: 28.6 kg C, 88.2 kg TiO
2
, 42.8 kg Ti
Find: Lim. Rct., Theor. Yld., % Yld.
CP: kg rct g rct mol rct mol Ti
pick smallest mol Ti TY kg Ti %Y Ti

Example:
Find the Limiting
Reactant, Theoretical
Yield, and Percent Yield.
TiO
2
(s) + 2 C(s)
Ti(s) + 2 CO(g)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 19
Ti mol 10 43 0 1 . 1
TiO mol 1
Ti mol 1
TiO g 79.87
TiO mole 1
kg 1
g 000 1
TiO kg 8.2 8
3
2 2
2
2
=
Apply the Concept Plan:

Information
Given: 28.6 kg C, 88.2 kg TiO
2
, 42.8 kg Ti
Find: Lim. Rct., Theor. Yld., % Yld.
CP: kg rct g rct mol rct mol Ti
pick smallest mol Ti TY kg Ti %Y Ti
Rel: 1 mol C=12.01g; 1 mol Ti =47.87g;
1 mol TiO
2
= 79.87g; 1000g = 1 kg;
1 mol TiO
2
: 1 mol Ti; 2 mol C : 1 mol Ti
Example:
Find the Limiting
Reactant, Theoretical
Yield, and Percent
Yield.
TiO
2
(s) + 2 C(s)
Ti(s) + 2 CO(g)
Ti mol 10 07 9 1 . 1
C mol 2
Ti mol 1
C g 12.01
C mole 1
kg 1
g 000 1
C kg 8.6 2
3
=
smallest moles of Ti
Limiting Reactant
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 20
Apply the Concept Plan:

Ti kg 52.9
g 1000
kg 1
mol 1
Ti g 47.87
Ti mol 10 43 0 1.1
3
=
Theoretical Yield
Information
Given: 28.6 kg C, 88.2 kg TiO
2
, 42.8 kg Ti
Find: Lim. Rct., Theor. Yld., % Yld.
CP: kg rct g rct mol rct mol Ti
pick smallest mol Ti TY kg Ti %Y Ti
Rel: 1 mol C=12.01g; 1 mol Ti =47.87g;
1 mol TiO
2
= 79.87g; 1000g = 1 kg;
1 mol TiO
2
: 1 mol Ti; 2 mol C : 1 mol Ti
Example:
Find the Limiting
Reactant, Theoretical
Yield, and Percent
Yield.
TiO
2
(s) + 2 C(s)
Ti(s) + 2 CO(g)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 21
Apply the Concept Plan:

Yield Percent 100
Yield l Theoretica
Yield Actual
= %
% 9 . 0 8 % 100
Ti kg 52.9
Ti kg 42.8
=
Information
Given: 28.6 kg C, 88.2 kg TiO
2
, 42.8 kg Ti
Find: Lim. Rct., Theor. Yld., % Yld.
CP: kg rct g rct mol rct mol Ti
pick smallest mol Ti TY kg Ti %Y Ti
Rel: 1 mol C=12.01g; 1 mol Ti =47.87g;
1 mol TiO
2
= 79.87g; 1000g = 1 kg;
1 mol TiO
2
: 1 mol Ti; 2 mol C : 1 mol Ti
Example:
Find the Limiting
Reactant, Theoretical
Yield, and Percent
Yield.
TiO
2
(s) + 2 C(s)
Ti(s) + 2 CO(g)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 22
Check the Solutions:

Limiting Reactant = TiO
2

Theoretical Yield = 52.9 kg
Percent Yield = 80.9%
Since Ti has lower molar mass than TiO
2
, the T.Y. makes sense
The Percent Yield makes sense as it is less than 100%.
Information
Given: 28.6 kg C, 88.2 kg TiO
2
, 42.8 kg Ti
Find: Lim. Rct., Theor. Yld., % Yld.
CP: kg rct g rct mol rct mol Ti
pick smallest mol Ti TY kg Ti %Y Ti
Rel: 1 mol C=12.01g; 1 mol Ti =47.87g;
1 mol TiO
2
= 79.87g; 1000g = 1 kg;
1 mol TiO
2
: 1 mol Ti; 2 mol C : 1 mol Ti
Example:
Find the Limiting
Reactant, Theoretical
Yield, and Percent
Yield.
TiO
2
(s) + 2 C(s)
Ti(s) + 2 CO(g)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 23
Practice How many grams of N
2
(g) can be made from
9.05 g of NH
3
reacting with 45.2 g of CuO?
2 NH
3
(g) + 3 CuO(s) N
2
(g) + 3 Cu(s) + 3 H
2
O(l)
Practice How many grams of N
2
(g) can be made from 9.05 g of
NH
3
reacting with 45.2 g of CuO?
2 NH
3
(g) + 3 CuO(s) N
2
(g) + 3 Cu(s) + 3 H
2
O(l)

1 mol NH
3
= 17.03g, 1 mol CuO = 79.55g, 1 mol N
2
= 28.02 g
2 mol NH
3
= 1 mol N
2
, 3 mol CuO = 1 mol N
2

9.05 g NH
3
, 45.2 g CuO
g N
2

Concept Plan:

Relationships:
Given:
Find:
g 17.03
mol 1
3
2
NH mol 2
N mol 1
g NH
3
mol N
2
mol NH
3

g 28.02
mol 1
g CuO mol N
2
mol CuO
CuO mol 3
N mol 1
2
g 79.55
mol 1
g N
2
smallest moles N
2

Practice How many grams of N
2
(g) can be made from 9.05 g of
NH
3
reacting with 45.2 g of CuO?
2 NH
3
(g) + 3 CuO(s) N
2
(g) + 3 Cu(s) + 3 H
2
O(l)
units are correct, and since there are fewer moles
of N
2
than CuO in the reaction and N
2
has a
smaller mass, the number makes sense
Check:
Solution:
2
3
2
3
3
3
N mol .266 0
NH mol 2
N mol 1
NH g 17.03
NH mol 1
NH g .05 9 =
2
2
N mol .189 0
CuO mol 3
N mol 1
CuO g 79.55
CuO mol 1
CuO g 5.2 4 =
2
2
2
2
N g .30 5
N mol 1
N g 28.02
N mol .189 0 =
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 26
Solutions
when table salt is mixed with water, it seems to disappear,
or become a liquid the mixture is homogeneous
the salt is still there, as you can tell from the taste, or simply
boiling away the water
homogeneous mixtures are called solutions
the component of the solution that changes state is called
the solute
the component that keeps its state is called the solvent
if both components start in the same state, the major component
is the solvent
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 27
Describing Solutions
since solutions are mixtures, the composition can
vary from one sample to another
pure substances have constant composition
salt water samples from different seas or lakes have
different amounts of salt
so to describe solutions accurately, we must
describe how much of each component is present
we saw that with pure substances, we can describe
them with a single name because all samples identical
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 28
Solution Concentration
qualitatively, solutions are often
described as dilute or
concentrated
dilute solutions have a small
amount of solute compared to
solvent
concentrated solutions have a
large amount of solute
compared to solvent
quantitatively, the relative
amount of solute in the solution
is called the concentration
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 29
Solution Concentration
Molarity
moles of solute per 1 liter of solution
used because it describes how many molecules
of solute in each liter of solution
L) (in solution of amount
moles) (in solute of amount
M molarity, =
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 30
Preparing 1 L of a 1.00 M NaCl Solution
Example 4.5 Find the molarity of a solution that
has 25.5 g KBr dissolved in 1.75 L of solution
since most solutions are between 0 and
18 M, the answer makes sense

1 mol KBr = 119.00 g,
M = moles/L
25.5 g KBr, 1.75 L solution
Molarity, M
Check: Check
Solution: Follow the
Concept Plan
to Solve the
problem
Concept Plan:

Relationships:
Strategize
Given:
Find:
Sort
Information
g 119.00
mol 1
M 0.122
L 1.75
KBr mol 29 4 21 . 0
solution L
KBr moles
M molarity,
KBr mol 29 4 0.21
KBr g 119.00
KBr mol 1
KBr g 5.5 2
= = =
=
g KBr mol KBr
L soln
M
L
mol
M=
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 32
Using Molarity in Calculations
molarity shows the relationship between the
moles of solute and liters of solution
If a sugar solution concentration is 2.0 M, then
1 liter of solution contains 2.0 moles of sugar
2 liters = 4.0 moles sugar
0.5 liters = 1.0 mole sugar
1 L solution : 2 moles sugar
solution L 1
sugar mol 2
sugar mol 2
solution L 1
Example 4.6 How many liters of 0.125 M NaOH
contains 0.255 mol NaOH?
since each L has only 0.125 mol NaOH,
it makes sense that 0.255 mol should
require a little more than 2 L

0.125 mol NaOH = 1 L solution
0.125 M NaOH, 0.255 mol NaOH
liters, L
Check: Check
Solution: Follow the
Concept Plan
to Solve the
problem
Concept Plan:

Relationships:
Strategize
Given:
Find:
Sort
Information
NaOH mol 0.125
solution L 1
solution L 2.04
NaOH mol 0.125
solution L 1
NaOH mol 55 2 . 0 =
mol NaOH L soln
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 34
Dilution
often, solutions are stored as concentrated stock
solutions
to make solutions of lower concentrations from these
stock solutions, more solvent is added
the amount of solute doesnt change, just the volume of
solution
moles solute in solution 1 = moles solute in solution 2
the concentrations and volumes of the stock and new
solutions are inversely proportional
M
1
V
1
= M
2
V
2

Example 4.7 To what volume should you dilute
0.200 L of 15.0 M NaOH to make 3.00 M NaOH?
since the solution is diluted by a factor
of 5, the volume should increase by a
factor of 5, and it does

M
1
V
1
= M
2
V
2

V
1
= 0.200L, M
1
= 15.0 M, M
2
= 3.00 M
V
2
, L
Check: Check
Solution: Follow the
Concept Plan
to Solve the
problem
Concept Plan:

Relationships:
Strategize
Given:
Find:
Sort
Information
2
2
1 1
V
M
V M
=
-
( )
L 1.00
L
mol
3.00
L 200 . 0
L
mol
15.0
=
|
.
|

\
|
-
|
.
|

\
|
V
1
, M
1
, M
2
V
2

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 36
Solution Stoichiometry
since molarity relates the moles of solute to the
liters of solution, it can be used to convert
between amount of reactants and/or products in
a chemical reaction
Example 4.8 What volume of 0.150 M KCl is required to
completely react with 0.150 L of 0.175 M Pb(NO
3
)
2
in the
reaction 2 KCl(aq) + Pb(NO
3
)
2
(aq) PbCl
2
(s) + 2 KNO
3
(aq)
since need 2x moles of KCl as Pb(NO
3
)
2,
and
the molarity of Pb(NO
3
)
2
> KCl, the volume of
KCl should be more than 2x volume Pb(NO
3
)
2

1 L Pb(NO
3
)
2
= 0.175 mol, 1 L KCl = 0.150 mol,
1 mol Pb(NO
3
)
2
= 2 mol KCl

0.150 M KCl, 0.150 L of 0.175 M Pb(NO
3
)
2

L KCl
Check: Check
Solution:
Follow the
Concept
Plan to
Solve the
problem
Concept Plan:

Relationships:
Strategize
Given:

Find:
Sort
Information
2 3
) Pb(NO L 1
mol 0.175
KCl L .350 0
mol .150 0
KCl L 1
) Pb(NO mol 1
KCl mol 2
) Pb(NO L 1
mol 0.175
) Pb(NO L .150 0
2 3 2 3
2 3
=

2 3
) Pb(NO mol 1
KCl mol 2
L Pb(NO
3
)
2

mol KCl L KCl mol Pb(NO
3
)
2
mol 0.150
KCl L 1
38
What Happens When a Solute Dissolves?
there are attractive forces between the solute particles
holding them together
there are also attractive forces between the solvent
molecules
when we mix the solute with the solvent, there are
attractive forces between the solute particles and the
solvent molecules
if the attractions between solute and solvent are strong
enough, the solute will dissolve
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 39
Table Salt Dissolving in Water
Each ion is attracted
to the surrounding
water molecules and
pulled off and away
from the crystal
When it enters the
solution, the ion is
surrounded by water
molecules, insulating
it from other ions
The result is a solution
with free moving
charged particles able
to conduct electricity
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 40
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
materials that dissolve
in water to form a
solution that will
conduct electricity are
called electrolytes
materials that dissolve
in water to form a
solution that will not
conduct electricity are
called nonelectrolytes
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 41
Molecular View of
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
in order to conduct electricity, a material must have
charged particles that are able to flow
electrolyte solutions all contain ions dissolved in the
water
ionic compounds are electrolytes because they all dissociate
into their ions when they dissolve
nonelectrolyte solutions contain whole molecules
dissolved in the water
generally, molecular compounds do not ionize when they
dissolve in water
the notable exception being molecular acids
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 42
Salt vs. Sugar Dissolved in Water
ionic compounds dissociate
into ions when they dissolve
molecular compounds do not
dissociate when they dissolve
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 43
Acids
acids are molecular compounds that ionize when they
dissolve in water
the molecules are pulled apart by their attraction for the water
when acids ionize, they form H
+
cations and anions
the percentage of molecules that ionize varies from one
acid to another
acids that ionize virtually 100% are called strong acids
HCl(aq) H
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq)
acids that only ionize a small percentage are called
weak acids
HF(aq) H
+
(aq) + F
-
(aq)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 44
Strong and Weak Electrolytes
strong electrolytes are materials that dissolve
completely as ions
ionic compounds and strong acids
their solutions conduct electricity well
weak electrolytes are materials that dissolve mostly as
molecules, but partially as ions
weak acids
their solutions conduct electricity, but not well
when compounds containing a polyatomic ion dissolve,
the polyatomic ion stays together
Na
2
SO
4
(aq) 2 Na
+
(aq) + SO
4
2-
(aq)
HC
2
H
3
O
2
(aq) H
+
(aq) + C
2
H
3
O
2
-
(aq)

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 45
Classes of Dissolved Materials
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 46
Solubility of Ionic Compounds
some ionic compounds, like NaCl, dissolve very well in
water at room temperature
other ionic compounds, like AgCl, dissolve hardly at all
in water at room temperature
compounds that dissolve in a solvent are said to be
soluble, while those that do not are said to be insoluble
NaCl is soluble in water, AgCl is insoluble in water
the degree of solubility depends on the temperature
even insoluble compounds dissolve, just not enough to be
meaningful
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 47
When Will a Salt Dissolve?
Predicting whether a compound will dissolve in
water is not easy
The best way to do it is to do some experiments
to test whether a compound will dissolve in
water, then develop some rules based on those
experimental results
we call this method the empirical method
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 48
Compounds Containing the
Following Ions are Generally
Soluble
Exceptions
(when combined with ions on the
left the compound is insoluble)
Li
+
, Na
+
, K
+
, NH
4
+
none
NO
3

, C
2
H
3
O
2

none
Cl

, Br

, I

Ag
+
, Hg
2
2+
, Pb
2+

SO
4
2
Ag
+
, Ca
2+
, Sr
2+
, Ba
2+
, Pb
2+
Solubility Rules
Compounds that Are Generally Soluble in Water
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 49
Compounds Containing the
Following Ions are Generally
Insoluble
Exceptions
(when combined with ions on the
left the compound is soluble or
slightly soluble)
OH

Li
+
, Na
+
, K
+
, NH
4
+
,
Ca
2+
, Sr
2+
, Ba
2+

S
2
Li
+
, Na
+
, K
+
, NH
4
+
,
Ca
2+
, Sr
2+
, Ba
2+

CO
3
2
, PO
4
3
Li
+
, Na
+
, K
+
, NH
4
+

Solubility Rules
Compounds that Are Generally Insoluble
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 50
Precipitation Reactions
reactions between aqueous solutions of ionic
compounds that produce an ionic compound
that is insoluble in water are called
precipitation reactions and the insoluble
product is called a precipitate
51
2 KI(aq) + Pb(NO
3
)
2
(aq) PbI
2
(s) + 2
KNO
3
(aq)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 52
No Precipitate Formation =
No Reaction
KI(aq) + NaCl(aq) KCl(aq) + NaI(aq)
all ions still present, no reaction
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 53
Process for Predicting the Products of
a Precipitation Reaction
1. Determine what ions each aqueous reactant has
2. Determine formulas of possible products
Exchange ions
(+) ion from one reactant with (-) ion from other
Balance charges of combined ions to get formula of each
product
3. Determine Solubility of Each Product in Water
Use the solubility rules
If product is insoluble or slightly soluble, it will precipitate
4. If neither product will precipitate, write no reaction
after the arrow
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 54
Process for Predicting the Products of
a Precipitation Reaction
5. If either product is insoluble, write the formulas
for the products after the arrow writing (s)
after the product that is insoluble and will
precipitate, and (aq) after products that are
soluble and will not precipitate
6. Balance the equation
Example 4.10 Write the equation for the
precipitation reaction between an aqueous solution
of potassium carbonate and an aqueous solution of
nickel(II) chloride
1. Write the formulas of the reactants
K
2
CO
3
(aq) + NiCl
2
(aq)
2. Determine the possible products
a) Determine the ions present
(K
+
+ CO
3
2-
) + (Ni
2+
+ Cl
-
)
b) Exchange the Ions
(K
+
+ CO
3
2-
) + (Ni
2+
+ Cl
-
) (K
+
+ Cl
-
) + (Ni
2+
+ CO
3
2-
)
c) Write the formulas of the products
cross charges and reduce
K
2
CO
3
(aq) + NiCl
2
(aq) KCl

+ NiCO
3
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 56
3. Determine the solubility of each product
KCl is soluble
NiCO
3
is insoluble
4. If both products soluble, write no reaction
does not apply since NiCO
3
is insoluble
Example 4.10 Write the equation for the
precipitation reaction between an aqueous solution
of potassium carbonate and an aqueous solution of
nickel(II) chloride
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 57
5. Write (aq) next to soluble products and (s) next
to insoluble products
K
2
CO
3
(aq) + NiCl
2
(aq) KCl(aq)

+ NiCO
3
(s)
6. Balance the Equation
K
2
CO
3
(aq) + NiCl
2
(aq) 2 KCl(aq)

+ NiCO
3
(s)

Example 4.10 Write the equation for the
precipitation reaction between an aqueous solution
of potassium carbonate and an aqueous solution of
nickel(II) chloride
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 58
Ionic Equations
equations which describe the chemicals put into the water
and the product molecules are called molecular equations
2 KOH(aq) + Mg(NO
3
)
2
(aq) 2 KNO
3
(aq) + Mg(OH)
2
(s)
equations which describe the actual dissolved species are
called complete ionic equations
aqueous strong electrolytes are written as ions
soluble salts, strong acids, strong bases
insoluble substances, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes
written in molecule form
solids, liquids, and gases are not dissolved, therefore molecule form
2K
+1
(aq)
+ 2OH
-1
(aq)
+ Mg
+2
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-1
(aq)
2K
+1
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-1
(aq)
+ Mg(OH)
2(s)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 59
Ionic Equations
ions that are both reactants and products are called
spectator ions

2K
+1
(aq)
+ 2OH
-1
(aq)
+ Mg
+2
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-1
(aq)
2K
+1
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-1
(aq)
+ Mg(OH)
2(s)

an ionic equation in which the spectator ions are
removed is called a net ionic equation
2OH
-1
(aq)
+ Mg
+2
(aq)
Mg(OH)
2(s)

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 60
Acid-Base Reactions
also called neutralization reactions because the
acid and base neutralize each others properties
2 HNO
3
(aq) + Ca(OH)
2
(aq) Ca(NO
3
)
2
(aq) + 2 H
2
O(l)
the net ionic equation for an acid-base reaction is
H
+
(aq) + OH

(aq) H
2
O(l)
as long as the salt that forms is soluble in water
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 61
Acids and Bases in Solution
acids ionize in water to form H
+
ions
more precisely, the H from the acid molecule is donated to a
water molecule to form hydronium ion, H
3
O
+

most chemists use H
+
and H
3
O
+
interchangeably
bases dissociate in water to form OH

ions
bases, like NH
3
, that do not contain OH

ions, produce OH

by
pulling H off water molecules
in the reaction of an acid with a base, the H
+
from the
acid combines with the OH

## from the base to make water

the cation from the base combines with the anion from
the acid to make the salt
acid + base salt + water
Common Acids
Chemical Name Formula Uses Strength
Perchloric Acid HClO
4
explosives, catalyst Strong
Nitric Acid HNO
3
explosives, fertilizer, dye, glue Strong
Sulfuric Acid H
2
SO
4

explosives, fertilizer, dye, glue,
batteries
Strong
Hydrochloric Acid HCl
metal cleaning, food prep, ore
refining, stomach acid
Strong
Phosphoric Acid H
3
PO
4

fertilizer, plastics & rubber,
food preservation
Moderate
Chloric Acid HClO
3
explosives Moderate
Acetic Acid HC
2
H
3
O
2

plastics & rubber, food
preservation, vinegar
Weak
Hydrofluoric Acid HF metal cleaning, glass etching Weak
Carbonic Acid H
2
CO
3
soda water Weak
Hypochlorous Acid HClO sanitizer Weak
Boric Acid H
3
BO
3
eye wash Weak

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 63
Common Bases
Chemical
Name
Formula
Common
Name
Uses Strength
sodium
hydroxide
NaOH
lye,
caustic soda
soap, plastic,
petrol refining
Strong
potassium
hydroxide
KOH caustic potash
soap, cotton,
electroplating
Strong
calcium
hydroxide
Ca(OH)
2
slaked lime cement Strong
sodium
bicarbonate
NaHCO
3
baking soda cooking, antacid Weak
magnesium
hydroxide
Mg(OH)
2

milk of
magnesia
antacid Weak
ammonium
hydroxide
NH
4
OH,
{NH
3
(aq)}
ammonia
water
detergent,
fertilizer,
explosives, fibers
Weak

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 64
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H
2
O(l)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 65
Example - Write the molecular, ionic, and net-
ionic equation for the reaction of aqueous nitric
acid with aqueous calcium hydroxide
1. Write the formulas of the reactants
HNO
3
(aq) + Ca(OH)
2
(aq)
2. Determine the possible products
a) Determine the ions present when each reactant dissociates
(H
+
+ NO
3
-
) + (Ca
+2
+ OH
-
)
b) Exchange the ions, H
+1
combines with OH
-1
to make H
2
O(l)
(H
+
+ NO
3
-
) + (Ca
+2
+ OH
-
) (Ca
+2
+ NO
3
-
) + H
2
O(l)
c) Write the formula of the salt
cross the charges
(H
+
+ NO
3
-
) + (Ca
+2
+ OH
-
) Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
O(l)

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 66
3. Determine the solubility of the salt
Ca(NO
3
)
2
is soluble
4. Write an (s) after the insoluble products and a
(aq) after the soluble products
HNO
3
(aq) + Ca(OH)
2
(aq) Ca(NO
3
)
2
(aq)

+ H
2
O(l)
5. Balance the equation
2 HNO
3
(aq) + Ca(OH)
2
(aq) Ca(NO
3
)
2
(aq)

+ 2 H
2
O(l)

Example - Write the molecular, ionic, and net-
ionic equation for the reaction of aqueous nitric
acid with aqueous calcium hydroxide
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 67
Example - Write the molecular, ionic, and net-
ionic equation for the reaction of aqueous nitric
acid with aqueous calcium hydroxide
6. Dissociate all aqueous strong electrolytes to
get complete ionic equation
not H
2
O
2 H
+
(aq) + 2 NO
3
-
(aq) + Ca
+2
(aq) + 2 OH
-
(aq)
Ca
+2
(aq) + 2 NO
3
-
(aq)

+ H
2
O(l)
7. Eliminate spectator ions to get net-ionic
equation
2 H
+1
(aq) + 2 OH
-1
(aq) 2 H
2
O(l)
H
+1
(aq) + OH
-1
(aq) H
2
O(l)

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 68
Titration
often in the lab, a solutions concentration is
determined by reacting it with another material
and using stoichiometry this process is called
titration
in the titration, the unknown solution is added
to a known amount of another reactant until
the reaction is just completed, at this point,
called the endpoint, the reactants are in their
stoichiometric ratio
the unknown solution is added slowly from an
instrument called a burette
a long glass tube with precise volume markings that
allows small additions of solution
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 69
Acid-Base Titrations
the difficulty is determining when there has been just
enough titrant added to complete the reaction
the titrant is the solution in the burette
in acid-base titrations, because both the reactant and
product solutions are colorless, a chemical is added that
changes color when the solution undergoes large
changes in acidity/alkalinity
the chemical is called an indicator
at the endpoint of an acid-base titration, the number of
moles of H
+
equals the number of moles of OH

aka the equivalence point
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 70
Titration
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 71
Titration
The base solution is the
titrant in the burette.
As the base is added to
the acid, the H
+
reacts with
the OH

to form water.
But there is still excess
acid present so the color
does not change.
At the titrations endpoint,
just enough base has been
added to neutralize all the
acid. At this point the
indicator changes color.
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 72
Example 4.14:
The titration of 10.00 mL of HCl
solution of unknown concentration
requires 12.54 mL of 0.100 M
NaOH solution to reach the end
point. What is the concentration of
the unknown HCl solution?
Write down the given quantity and its units.
Given: 10.00 mL HCl
12.54 mL of 0.100 M NaOH

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 73
Write down the quantity to find, and/or its units.
Find: concentration HCl, M

Information
Given: 10.00 mL HCl
12.54 mL of 0.100 M NaOH

Example 4.14:
The titration of 10.00 mL of HCl
solution of unknown concentration
requires 12.54 mL of 0.100 M
NaOH solution to reach the end
point. What is the concentration of
the unknown HCl solution?
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 74
Collect Needed Equations and Conversion Factors:
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H
2
O(l)
1 mole HCl = 1 mole NaOH
0.100 M NaOH 0.100 mol NaOH 1 L soln
Information
Given: 10.00 mL HCl
12.54 mL of 0.100 M NaOH
Find: M HCl

Example 4.14:
The titration of 10.00 mL of HCl
solution of unknown concentration
requires 12.54 mL of 0.100 M
NaOH solution to reach the end
point. What is the concentration of
the unknown HCl solution?
solution liters
solute moles
Molarity =
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 75
Write a Concept Plan:

mL
NaOH
L
NaOH
mol
NaOH
NaOH L 1
NaOH mol 100 0.
mL 1
L 001 0.
mol
HCl
NaOH mol 1
HCl mol 1
Information
Given: 10.00 mL HCl
12.54 mL of 0.100 M NaOH
Find: M HCl
CF: 1 mol HCl = 1 mol NaOH
0.100 mol NaOH = 1 L
M = mol/L

Example 4.14:
The titration of 10.00 mL of HCl
solution of unknown concentration
requires 12.54 mL of 0.100 M
NaOH solution to reach the end
point. What is the concentration of
the unknown HCl solution?
mL
HCl
L
HCl
mL 1
L 001 0.
HCl liters
HCl moles
Molarity =
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 76
NaOH mole 1
HCl mol 1
L 1
NaOH mol 100 0
mL 1
L 0.001
NaOH mL 2.54 1
.
Apply the Solution Map:

= 1.25 x 10
-3
mol HCl
Information
Given: 10.00 mL HCl
12.54 mL of 0.100 M NaOH
Find: M HCl
CF: 1 mol HCl = 1 mol NaOH
0.100 mol NaOH = 1 L
M = mol/L
CP: mL NaOH L NaOH
mol NaOH mol HCl;
mL HCl L HCl & mol M

Example:
The titration of 10.00 mL of HCl
solution of unknown concentration
requires 12.54 mL of 0.100 M
NaOH solution to reach the end
point. What is the concentration of
the unknown HCl solution?
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 77
HCl L 01000 0
mL 1
L 0.001
NaOH mL 0.00 1 . =
Apply the Concept Plan:

Information
Given: 10.00 mL HCl
12.54 mL NaOH
Find: M HCl
CF: 1 mol HCl = 1 mol NaOH
0.100 mol NaOH = 1 L
M = mol/L
CP: mL NaOH L NaOH
mol NaOH mol HCl;
mL HCl L HCl & mol M

Example:
The titration of 10.00 mL of HCl
solution of unknown concentration
requires 12.54 mL of 0.100 M
NaOH solution to reach the end
point. What is the concentration of
the unknown HCl solution?
M 125 0
HCl L 0.01000
HCl moles 10 x 1.25
Molarity
-3
. = =
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 78
Check the Solution:
HCl solution = 0.125 M
The units of the answer, M, are correct.
The magnitude of the answer makes sense since
the neutralization takes less HCl solution than
NaOH solution, so the HCl should be more concentrated.
Information
Given: 10.00 mL HCl
12.54 mL NaOH
Find: M HCl
CF: 1 mol HCl = 1 mol NaOH
0.100 mol NaOH = 1 L
M = mol/L
CP: mL NaOH L NaOH
mol NaOH mol HCl;
mL HCl L HCl & mol M

Example:
The titration of 10.00 mL of HCl
solution of unknown concentration
requires 12.54 mL of 0.100 M
NaOH solution to reach the end
point. What is the concentration of
the unknown HCl solution?
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 79
Gas Evolving Reactions
Some reactions form a gas directly from the ion
exchange
K
2
S(aq) + H
2
SO
4
(aq) K
2
SO
4
(aq) + H
2
S(g)
Other reactions form a gas by the decomposition of one
of the ion exchange products into a gas and water
K
2
SO
3
(aq) + H
2
SO
4
(aq) K
2
SO
4
(aq) + H
2
SO
3
(aq)
H
2
SO
3
H
2
O(l) + SO
2
(g)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 80
NaHCO
3
(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 81
Compounds that Undergo
Gas Evolving Reactions
Reactant
Type
Reacting
With
Ion
Exchange
Product
Decom-
pose?
Gas
Formed
Example
metal
n
S,
metal HS
acid H
2
S no H
2
S K
2
S(aq) + 2HCl(aq)
2KCl(aq) + H
2
S(g)
metal
n
CO
3
,
metal HCO
3
acid H
2
CO
3
yes CO
2
K
2
CO
3
(aq) + 2HCl(aq)
2KCl(aq) + CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)
metal
n
SO
3

metal

HSO
3
acid H
2
SO
3
yes SO
2
K
2
SO
3
(aq) + 2HCl(aq)
2KCl(aq) + SO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)
(NH
4
)
n
anion base NH
4
OH yes NH
3
KOH(aq) + NH
4
Cl(aq)
KCl(aq) + NH
3
(g) + H
2
O(l)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 82
Example 4.15 - When an aqueous solution of
sodium carbonate is added to an aqueous solution
of nitric acid, a gas evolves
1. Write the formulas of the reactants
Na
2
CO
3
(aq) + HNO
3
(aq)
2. Determine the possible products
a) Determine the ions present when each reactant dissociates
(Na
+1
+ CO
3
-2
) + (H
+1
+ NO
3
-1
)
b) Exchange the anions
(Na
+1
+ CO
3
-2
) + (H
+1
+ NO
3
-1
) (Na
+1
+ NO
3
-1
) + (H
+1
+ CO
3
-2
)
c) Write the formula of compounds
cross the charges
Na
2
CO
3
(aq) + HNO
3
(aq) NaNO
3
+ H
2
CO
3
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 83
3. Check to see either product H
2
S - No
4. Check to see if either product decomposes
Yes
H
2
CO
3
decomposes into CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)
Na
2
CO
3
(aq) + HNO
3
(aq) NaNO
3
+ CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)

Example 4.15 - When an aqueous solution of
sodium carbonate is added to an aqueous solution
of nitric acid, a gas evolves
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 84
5. Determine the solubility of other product
NaNO
3
is soluble
6. Write an (s) after the insoluble products and a
(aq) after the soluble products
Na
2
CO
3
(aq) + 2 HNO
3
(aq) 2 NaNO
3
(aq)

+ CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)
7. Balance the equation
Na
2
CO
3
(aq) + 2 HNO
3
(aq) 2 NaNO
3
+ CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)

Example 4.15 - When an aqueous solution of
sodium carbonate is added to an aqueous solution
of nitric acid, a gas evolves
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 85
Other Patterns in Reactions
the precipitation, acid-base, and gas evolving
reactions all involved exchanging the ions in
the solution
other kinds of reactions involve transferring
electrons from one atom to another these are
called oxidation-reduction reactions
also known as redox reactions
many involve the reaction of a substance with O
2
(g)
4 Fe(s) + 3 O
2
(g) 2 Fe
2
O
3
(s)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 86
Combustion as Redox
2 H
2
(g) + O
2
(g) 2 H
2
O(g)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 87
Redox without Combustion
2 Na(s) + Cl
2
(g) 2 NaCl(s)
2 Na 2 Na
+
+ 2 e

Cl
2
+ 2 e

2 Cl

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 88
Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals
consider the following reactions:
4 Na(s) + O
2
(g) 2 Na
2
O(s)
2 Na(s) + Cl
2
(g) 2 NaCl(s)
the reaction involves a metal reacting with a nonmetal
in addition, both reactions involve the conversion of
free elements into ions
4 Na(s) + O
2
(g) 2 Na
+
2
O

(s)
2 Na(s) + Cl
2
(g) 2 Na
+
Cl

(s)

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 89
Oxidation and Reduction
in order to convert a free element into an ion, the
atoms must gain or lose electrons
of course, if one atom loses electrons, another must
accept them
reactions where electrons are transferred from one
atom to another are redox reactions
atoms that lose electrons are being oxidized, atoms
that gain electrons are being reduced
2 Na(s) + Cl
2
(g) 2 Na
+
Cl

(s)
Na Na
+
+ 1 e

oxidation
Cl
2
+ 2 e

2 Cl

reduction

Leo
Ger
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 90
Electron Bookkeeping
for reactions that are not metal + nonmetal, or do
not involve O
2
, we need a method for determining
how the electrons are transferred
chemists assign a number to each element in a
reaction called an oxidation state that allows them
to determine the electron flow in the reaction
even though they look like them, oxidation states are
not ion charges!
oxidation states are imaginary charges assigned based on a
set of rules
ion charges are real, measurable charges
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 91
Rules for Assigning Oxidation States
rules are in order of priority
1. free elements have an oxidation state = 0
Na = 0 and Cl
2
= 0 in 2 Na(s) + Cl
2
(g)
2. monatomic ions have an oxidation state equal
to their charge
Na = +1 and Cl = -1 in NaCl
3. (a) the sum of the oxidation states of all the
atoms in a compound is 0
Na = +1 and Cl = -1 in NaCl, (+1) + (-1) = 0
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 92
Rules for Assigning Oxidation States
3. (b) the sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms in
a polyatomic ion equals the charge on the ion
N = +5 and O = -2 in NO
3

, (+5) + 3(-2) = -1
4. (a) Group I metals have an oxidation state of +1 in all
their compounds
Na = +1 in NaCl

4. (b) Group II metals have an oxidation state of +2 in
all their compounds
Mg = +2 in MgCl
2

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 93
Rules for Assigning Oxidation States
5. in their compounds, nonmetals have oxidation
states according to the table below
nonmetals higher on the table take priority

Nonmetal Oxidation State Example
F -1 CF
4

H +1 CH
4

O -2 CO
2

Group 7A -1 CCl
4

Group 6A -2 CS
2

Group 5A -3 NH
3

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 94
Practice Assign an Oxidation State to
Each Element in the following
Br
2

K
+

LiF
CO
2

SO
4
2-

Na
2
O
2

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 95
Practice Assign an Oxidation State to
Each Element in the following
Br
2
Br = 0, (Rule 1)
K
+
K = +1, (Rule 2)
LiF Li = +1, (Rule 4a) & F = -1, (Rule 5)
CO
2
O = -2, (Rule 5) & C = +4, (Rule 3a)
SO
4
2-
O = -2, (Rule 5) & S = +6, (Rule 3b)
Na
2
O
2
Na = +1, (Rule 4a) & O = -1, (Rule 3a)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 96
Oxidation and Reduction
Another Definition
oxidation occurs when an atoms oxidation state
increases during a reaction
reduction occurs when an atoms oxidation state
decreases during a reaction
CH
4
+ 2 O
2
CO
2
+ 2 H
2
O
-4 +1 0 +4 2 +1 -2
oxidation
reduction
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 97
OxidationReduction
oxidation and reduction must occur simultaneously
if an atom loses electrons another atom must take them
the reactant that reduces an element in another reactant
is called the reducing agent
the reducing agent contains the element that is oxidized
the reactant that oxidizes an element in another reactant
is called the oxidizing agent
the oxidizing agent contains the element that is reduced

2 Na(s) + Cl
2
(g) 2 Na
+
Cl

(s)
Na is oxidized, Cl is reduced
Na is the reducing agent, Cl
2
is the oxidizing agent

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 98
Identify the Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
in Each of the Following
3 H
2
S + 2 NO
3

+ 2 H
+
3 S + 2 NO + 4 H
2
O
MnO
2
+ 4 HBr MnBr
2
+ Br
2
+ 2 H
2
O
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 99
Identify the Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
in Each of the Following
3 H
2
S + 2 NO
3

+ 2 H
+
3 S + 2 NO + 4 H
2
O
MnO
2
+ 4 HBr MnBr
2
+ Br
2
+ 2 H
2
O
+1 -2 +5 -2 +1 0 +2 -2 +1 -2
ox ag red ag
+4 -2 +1 -1 +2 -1 0 +1 -2
oxidation
reduction
oxidation
reduction
red ag ox ag
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 100
Combustion Reactions
Reactions in which O
2
(g) is a
reactant are called
combustion reactions
Combustion reactions release
lots of energy
Combustion reactions are a
subclass of oxidation-
reduction reactions
2 C
8
H
18
(g) + 25 O
2
(g) 16 CO
2
(g) + 18 H
2
O(g)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 101
Combustion Products
to predict the products of a combustion
reaction, combine each element in the other
reactant with oxygen
Reactant Combustion Product
contains C CO
2
(g)
contains H H
2
O(g)
contains S SO
2
(g)
contains N NO(g) or NO
2
(g)
contains metal M
2
O
n
(s)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 102
Practice Complete the Reactions
combustion of C
3
H
7
OH(l)
combustion of CH
3
NH
2
(g)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 103
Practice Complete the Reactions
C
3
H
7
OH(l) + 5 O
2
(g) 3 CO
2
(g) + 4 H
2
O(g)
CH
3
NH
2
(g) + 3 O
2
(g) CO
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O(g) + NO
2
(g)