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Switchyard

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Presentation outline
Understanding basics of switchyard Switchyard equipments and schemes Components of switchyard: Breakers, Isolators, Earth switch, CT, CVT, Wave trap etc Brief Description of modes of transmission Conclusion

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What is a Switchyard ?
It is a switching station which has the following credits : (i) Main link between Generating plant and Transmission system, which has a large influence on the security of the supply.

(ii) Step-up and/or Step-down the voltage levels depending upon the Network Node.
(iii) Switching ON/OFF Reactive Power Control devices, which has effect on Quality of power.
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SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENTS
Equipments commonly found in switchyard : 1. Lightening arrestor 2. Current transformer 3. Voltage transformer 4. Power transformers / I.C.T. 5. Bus bar and clamp fittings 6. Support structure 7. Isolators 8. Circuit Breaker 9. Wave traps 10. Earthing switch
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Functions of various equipment : * Transformers : - Transforms the voltage levels from higher to lower level or vice versa, keeping the power constant. * Circuit breakers : - Makes or automatically breaks the electrical circuits under Loaded condition. * Isolators : - Opens or closes the electrical circuits under No-load conditions. * Instrument transformers : - For stepping-down the electrical parameter (Voltage or Current) to a lower and safe value for Metering and Protection logics. * Earth switch : - Used to connect the charged body to ground to discharge the trapped charge to have a safe maintenance zone.
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* Lightning arrestors : - Safe guards the equipment by discharging the high currents due to Lightning. * Overhead earth wire : - Protects the O/H transmission line from Lightning strokes. * Bus bar : - Conductors to which a number of circuits are connected. * Wave Traps/Line traps : - Used in PLCC circuits for Communication and telemetering. * Reactive Power control devices : - Controls the reactive power imbalance in the grid by switching ON/OFF the Shunt Reactors, Shunt Capacitors etc., * Current Limiting Reactors : - Limits the Short circuit currents in case of faulty conditions. 25 December 2013 PMI Revision 00 6

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Switchyard Single line Diagram

Transfer Bus 400 KV Main Bus II Main Bus I

Bus Isolator

CB CB CB Transfer Bus Bay

GT 20.5/400KV
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Gen Bay

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Feeder Bay

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Bus Switching Schemes


Bus Bar Schemes * Single Sectionalized bus * Main & Transfer bus * Sectionalized Main bus with Transfer bus * Sectionalized Double Main & Transfer bus Breaker Schemes * Ring bus * One and Half breaker * Double bus Double breaker

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Factors effecting the selection of

Switching Scheme
* System Security * Operational Flexibility * Simplicity of Protection arrangements * Ability to limit the Short Circuit levels * Maintenance * Ease of extension * Total land area * Cost

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Single Sectionalized

Bus-bar system
I/C Feeders

CB Bus-bar Isolators

O/G Feeders
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Main & Transfer Bus-bar system


I/C Feeders CB
Transfer Bus

Bus Coupler

Main Bus

Isolators
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Ring Bus system :


Bus

CB

O/G feeder
I/C Supply
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One and Half Breaker scheme :

Main 1 Main 2

Feeder 2
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Tie CB
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Feeder 1
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Air Blast CB :

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ABCB- Principle of arc quenching

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FEATURES OF ISOLATORS
OPERATES UNDER NO LOAD CONDITION INTERLOCKED WITH BREAKERS AND EARTHSWITCHES SHOULD WITHSTAND EXTREME WIND PRESSURES MOTOR DRIVEN AND HAND DRIVEN LOCAL AS WELL AS REMOTE OPERATION POSSIBLE ISOLATES SECTIONS FOR MAINTENANCE USED TO SELECT BUS BARS CT SWITCHING FOR BUS BAR PROTECTION

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FEATURES OF EARTH SWITCHES


USED TO GROUND SECTIONS REQUIRED FOR MAINTENANCE GROUND INDUCTION VOLTAGES INTERLOCKED WITH BREAKERS AND ISOLATORS CAN OPERATE FROM LOCAL ONLY MOTOR DRIVEN AS WELL AS HAND DRIVEN SAFETY DEVICE

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Current transformers
Purpose : - To step-down the high magnitude of current to a safe value to incorporate Measuring and Protection logics Current transformers are used for the instrumentation, protection or metering of power systems.

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Voltage transformers
Purpose : - To step-down the high magnitude of voltage to a safe value to incorporate Measuring and Protection logics. Voltage transformers serve a number of functions in a power system. They are required for the operation of many types of instrumentation and relay protective systems. They measure voltage and in conjunction with CT , they measure power. They feed synchronizing equipment. They can be used as coupling capacitors in power line carrier network.

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INDUCED ALTERNATING E.M.F

SECONDARY WINDING FLUX LINKING BOTH COILS

IRON CORE

PRIMARY WINDING
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CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER Primary voltage is applied to a series of capacitors group. The voltage across one of the capacitor is taken to aux PT. The secondary of the aux PT is taken for measurement and protection. SECONDARY VOLTAGES(110 VOLTS AC) FOR METERS AND ENERGY METERS VOLTAGES FOR PROTECTIVE RELAYS VOLTAGES FOR SYNCHRONIZING DISTURBANCE RECORDERS AND EVENT LOGS OVERFLUX RELAYS PLCC
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CVT internals :

Bus

Insulators which acts as Capacitors

Intermediate PT

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Lightning Arrestors

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Purpose :

- To discharge the high voltage surges in the power system due to lightning to the ground. Apparatus to be protected : * Overhead linesEarth/Ground wires (PA=30 deg) * HV equipmentLAs * Substation...Lightning Masts, Earth wires

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Types :
Rod gap LA :
* Gap length is such that the break-down occurs at 80% of the spark voltage * After the surge, the arc in the gap is maintained by the normal supply voltage. So, only used as a back-up. Insulator

Rod gap

Equipment body

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Earth Switches

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Isolator

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Source

Isolator

Isolator

Load

CB

Earth S/W

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Wave Trap

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Transmission Line
S/S-1 S/S-2

Wave Trap
To control room of S/S-1

Wave Trap

To control room of S/S-2

* Wave trap is used for Protection of the transmission line and communication between the Substations. * VHF signal is transmitted from one end to the another through the same power line. * Sends inter-trip signal to the other end CBs so that fault can be isolated at the earliest time.
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BASIC ARRANGEMENT OF WAVE TRAP AND COUPLING CAPACITOR POWER FREQ -50 KHZ LINE

WAVE TRAP 2FL

>500KHZ NOISE PICKUP <30KHZ-HARMONIC C=1/2FC LIGHTENING,CORONA

30KHZ TO 500KHZ

STATION BUS
LMU IMPEDENCE 75 OHMS

PLC C
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Modes of Transmission

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AC transmission
Advantages
- Power can be generated at high voltages. - Step-up/Step-down is possible.

Disadvantages
- Requires more copper. - Due to Skin effect, the effective resistance is increased - Continuous loss of power due to charging current even when the line is open. - Requirement of Transposition of conductors.

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DC transmission
Advantages
- Low cost due to less copper requirement - No Stability and synchronising problems. - Asynchronous lines (Interregional ties) - No increase in Fault level if interconnected. - Less Corona and RI. - Better Voltage regulation due to absence of Inductance. - Requires less insulation as the potential stress is less

Disadvantages
- Higher generation is not possible due to commutation - Step-up/Step-down is not possible. - Limitations in HVDC CBs, Switches etc.
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HVDC transmission Vs EHV AC transmission

Cost
Break Even distance

HVDC Preferred EHVAC Preferred


100 300 1100

Cost of Substation
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500
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700

900

km
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SLD of RSTPS 400 KV Switchyard :

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THANK YOU

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